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Foundations of group behavior


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Foundations of Group Behavior

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Foundations of group behavior

  1. 1. Kirilka Angelova
  2. 2. A collection of individuals, the members accept a common task, become interdependent in their performance, and interact with one another to promote its accomplishment. Harold H. Kelley and J.W.Thibautz
  3. 3. Three views: Normative views describes how a group is to be organized and how its activities are to be carried out. Group dynamics consists of a set of techniques. Regarding internal nature of groups.
  4. 4.  Theory of Propinquity – People associate with one another due to geographical proximity.  Balance Theory – People who have similar attitudes toward certain objects and goals tend to form a group.  Exchange Theory – The reward-cost outcomes of interactions serve as the basis for group formation
  5. 5. Formalgroups Command groups Task groups Informalgroups Friendship groups Interest groups Groups Small groups Large groups Primary groups Secondary groups Coalitions Membership groups Reference groups
  6. 6. These groups are formed by the organization to carry out specific tasks. It includes two types – command group and task group.
  7. 7. Command Group Represented in the organization chart. Permanent in nature. Members report to common supervisors. Functional reporting relationship exists. Task groups: Formed to carry out specific tasks. Temporary in nature
  8. 8. Informal groups are formed by the employees themselves.Hence they are not formally structured. They are two types:  Friendship groups;  Interest groups.
  9. 9. Small groups:  Only a few members.  Face-to-face interaction and better communication is possible. Large groups:  Members is very high.  Personal interaction is not possible.
  10. 10. Primary group: It is made up of members who have similar and loyalties and has a feeling of friendship towards each other. Secondary groups: They share same values and beliefs, but because of the size of the group, they do not interact often with each other Coalitions: They are created by members for a specific purposed and do not have a formal structure.
  11. 11. Membership groups:  They are the groups to which individual actually belongs. Reference groups:  It is actually the groups to which an individual would like to belong.
  12. 12. The five-Stage Model: Adjourning/Mourning Completion, ending or evolution Performing Achieving the purpose Norming Agreeing purpose and conduct Storming Resolving differences Forming Initial meeting together
  13. 13. Punctuated- Equilibrium Model Temporary groups go through transitions between inertia and activity. Sequence of actions: 1. Setting group direction 2. First phase of inertia 3. Half-way point transition 4. Major changes 5. Second phase of inertia 6. Accelerated activity
  14. 14.  It helps shape the behavior of its members, predict the behavior and guide the performance of the group as a whole.
  15. 15. Set of behavior pattern which an individual occupying a certain position in society is expected to display. Dimensions of role are:  Role Identity Role perception Role Expectations Role Conflict
  16. 16. Acceptable standards of behaviour within a group that are shared by the group’s members.  Norms pertaining to performance related process  Appearance norms  Norms pertaining to informal social arrangements  Norms that regulate the allocation of resources
  17. 17. Groups of 5-7 members exercise the best elements of both small and large groups. Social Loafing The tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when working individually.
  18. 18. Most group activities require a variety of skills and knowledge. Research studies show that heterogeneous groups are likely to perform more effectively.
  19. 19. The processes that go on within a work group e.g. communication patterns, group decision processes, leader behaviour, power dynamics, conflict interactions etc.  Synergy.  Social facilitation effect.
  20. 20. Prevent organizational changes  Role conflict  Increased scope for rumor  Pressure to conform to group norms