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  1. 1. CERAMICS Carasco, Allan Gabriel Doliente, Lorenzo Miguel Jacinto, Stephanie Villanueva, Von Kirby
  2. 2. Ceramics <ul><li>One of the largest groups of materials with the properties of nonmetals and all are made by firing or burning, often including silicates and metal oxides. </li></ul><ul><li>Greek term Keramos , meaning &quot;a potter&quot; or &quot;pottery”. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Ceramic materials are attractive for several reasons : <ul><li>Cheap in terms of its starting materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Compared to metals, lightweight and retain their strength up to 1000 ˚C where metals tends to fail. </li></ul><ul><li>They have electrical, optical, and magnetic properties of value in the computer and electronic industries. </li></ul>
  4. 4. History <ul><li>The art of making pottery by forming and burning clay has been practiced from the earliest civilizations. </li></ul><ul><li>Burnt clayware has been found dating from about 15,000 B.C. and as well developed as an industrial product in Egypt by about 5000 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Formed glass dates from the period 7000-5000 B.C. and was a stable industry in Egypt by about 1500 B.C. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Ceramics Industry <ul><li>An important characteristic of the ceramics industry is that it is basic to the successful operation of many other industries. </li></ul><ul><li>In the Philippines, smuggled ceramics has cause severe effect on the ceramic industry locally. But exporting of ceramic materials is significantly increasing. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Uses of Ceramics <ul><li>The ceramics industry is divided in the manufacture of the ff. products: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structural Clay Products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whitewares </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refractories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glasses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abrasives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advance Ceramics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Structural </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Electrical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Coating </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Classifications of the Ceramics <ul><li>Traditional Ceramics </li></ul><ul><li>New Ceramics </li></ul>
  8. 8. Ceramic Tile Processes Raw Material Weighing Ball Milling Vibrating Screen and HomoTank Spray Dryer Powder Storage (SILO) Dry Pressing Horizontal Dryer Glazing Silk Screen Printing Roller Heart Kiln
  9. 9. Raw Materials <ul><li>The traditional ceramics industry is largely based on various combinations of clay minerals, feldspar and silica. </li></ul><ul><li>The mineral raw materials used in the ceramic industry are mainly inorganic, nonmetallic, crystalline solids formed by complex geologic processes. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Raw Materials <ul><li>Oxygen, silicon, and aluminum together account for 90% of the elements in the earth’s crust , These, together with other minerals compounds of oxygen, constitute the greatest bulk of naturally occurring ceramic raw materials. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Raw Materials <ul><li>Clay Minerals </li></ul><ul><li>Talc and Related Minerals </li></ul><ul><li>Silica and Silicate Minerals </li></ul><ul><li>Feldspars and related minerals. </li></ul><ul><li>Refractory Raw Materials </li></ul>Talc Silica Clay
  12. 12. Common Types of Clay <ul><li>Kaolin or China Clay </li></ul><ul><li>Ball Clays </li></ul><ul><li>Fire Clays </li></ul><ul><li>Flint Clays </li></ul><ul><li>Pottery Clay </li></ul><ul><li>Shale </li></ul><ul><li>Vitrifying Clays </li></ul><ul><li>Brick Clays </li></ul><ul><li>Slip Clays </li></ul>
  13. 13. Important Characteristics of Clays in Ceramic Bodies <ul><li>Clays have the ability to form clay-water composition and to maintain their shape and strength during drying and firing </li></ul><ul><li>They fuse over a temperature range depending on their composition in such a way as to become dense and strong without losing their shape </li></ul>
  14. 14. Talc and Related Minerals <ul><li>Talc is a hydrous magnesium silicate which has a layer structure similar to that of the clay minerals. </li></ul><ul><li>It is an important ceramic raw material for the manufacture of electrical and electronic components </li></ul>
  15. 15. Talc and Related Minerals <ul><li>Pyrophyllite </li></ul><ul><li>Block talc </li></ul><ul><li>Asbestos </li></ul>
  16. 16. Silica and Silicate Minerals <ul><li>Silica is a major ingredient in glass, glazes, enamels, refractories, abrasives, and whiteware compositions. </li></ul><ul><li>It is widely used because it is inexpensive, hard, chemically stable </li></ul>
  17. 17. Silica and Silicate Minerals <ul><li>The major source of silica for the ceramic industry is sandstone, consisting of lightly bonded quartz grains. </li></ul><ul><li>The sand is frequently mined by loosening the quarts grains with a stream of high-pressure water. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Feldspars and Related Minerals <ul><li>Feldspar are anhydrous aluminosilicates containing K+, Na+, and Ca2.; they are present in virtually all igneous rocks. </li></ul><ul><li>Most production comes from pegmatites which are coarsely crystalline rock formed in the later stages of crystallization of a magma </li></ul>
  19. 19. Feldspars and Related Minerals <ul><li>Nepheline syenite </li></ul><ul><li>Wollastonite </li></ul><ul><li>Sillimanite </li></ul>Sillimanite Wollastonite Nepheline syenite
  20. 20. Refractory Raw Materials <ul><li>Alumina </li></ul><ul><li>Magnesia </li></ul><ul><li>Dolomite </li></ul><ul><li>Chrome Ore </li></ul>Alumina Dolomite Chrome Ore Magnesia
  21. 21. Other Raw Materials <ul><li>Soda ash </li></ul><ul><li>Borate minerals </li></ul><ul><li>Fluorspar </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphate minerals </li></ul><ul><li>Abrasive raw materials </li></ul>Soda Ash Borate Minerals Flourspar
  22. 22. Ball Milling <ul><li>Spheres mixed with the stock to be comminuted are rotated inside a large cylindrical container. </li></ul><ul><li>These operations are often carried out with water </li></ul>
  23. 23. Ball Milling Stock Balls Drive rolls Container
  24. 24. Spray Dryer <ul><li>Characterized by atominization of a solution or suspension into droplets, followed by drying. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Spray Dryer Schematic Diagram of Spray Dryer Particle Trajectory
  26. 26. Dry Pressing <ul><li>Forming of the “greenware” tile body. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-clumping granulates are compressed in steel dies designed appropriately for the part to be manufactured. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Glazing <ul><li>The application of glassy coatings on ceramic wares to give them decorative finishes and to make them impervious to moisture </li></ul>
  28. 28. Roller Hearth Kiln <ul><li>A roller tunnel kiln for firing a drying refractory material advanced along the refractory rotatable rollers includes an upper section comprising a prefiring zone, a firing zone, a first forced cooling zone, a natural cooling zone and a second forced cooling zone. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Roller Hearth Kiln Firing zone Gear system Entrance
  30. 30. Traditional Ceramic Processes <ul><li>Preparation of Raw Materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crushing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Types of Equipments Used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jaw Crushers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gyratory Crushers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Roll Crushers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hammer Mills </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Crushing Jaw Crusher Gyratory Crusher Roll Crusher Hammer Mill
  32. 32. Traditional Ceramic Processes <ul><ul><li>Grinding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Types of Equipments Used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ball mill </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Roller mill </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Impact grinding </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Grinding Ball Mill Roller Mill Impact Grinding
  34. 34. Traditional Ceramic Processes <ul><li>B. Shaping Processes </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slip Casting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drain Casting </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solid Casting </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plastic Forming </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Manual Forming </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hand modeling </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hand molding </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hand throwing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Drain Casting
  36. 36. Traditional Ceramic Processes <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanized </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jiggering </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plastic pressing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extrusion </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Semi-dry Pressing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dry Pressing </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Semidry Pressing
  38. 38. Traditional Ceramic Processes <ul><li>Drying </li></ul><ul><li>Firing </li></ul><ul><li>Glazing </li></ul>
  39. 39. New Ceramic Processes <ul><li>Preparation of Raw Materials </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Freeze Drying </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Precipitation from solution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Shaping </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hot pressing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Isostatic pressing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Doctor-blade process </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Injection molding </li></ul></ul></ul>
  40. 40. New Ceramic Processes <ul><li>Sintering </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To bond individual grains into a solid mass </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To increase density </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To reduce or eliminate porosity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Finishing </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To increase dimensional accuracy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To improve surface finish </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To make minor changes in part geometry </li></ul></ul></ul>
  41. 41. New Ceramic Processes Doctor blade Process
  42. 42. Factors Affecting Ceramic Process <ul><li>Oxidation </li></ul><ul><li>Decomposition Reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Phase Transformations </li></ul><ul><li>Trapped Gases </li></ul><ul><li>Non uniform Mixing </li></ul><ul><li>Over firing </li></ul><ul><li>Hot Pressing </li></ul>
  43. 43. Common Errors in Ceramic Process <ul><li>Firing Shrinkage </li></ul><ul><li>Warping </li></ul>