Assessment of GHG Emissions in India<br />KiranRadhakrishnan<br />Vineet Sharma<br />
Outline of Presentation<br />
Introduction<br /><ul><li>A lot of regional variation exists in emissions – estimation of magnitudes on a regional/site sp...
The paper aims to measure GHG emissions and sector wise contributions byestimating these values for the466 districts in India
For each source category, andfor CO2, CH4 & N2O emissions,a district “rank list” was made
Largest 25 emitter districts ineach source category termed“hot-spot” districts</li></li></ul><li>Methodology<br />Sources ...
Oil Products and Natural Gas Combustion
Oil and Natural Gas Extraction/Refining/Processing
Coal Mining
Transport (Road and Rail)
Electric Power Generation
Steel
Biomass Burning </li></li></ul><li>Methodology<br />Industrial sector emission sources: manufacturing of cement, brick and...
Methodology<br /><br />Emission Coefficients are based on carbon content  of fuels – specified within IPCC Guidelines<br ...
Methodology<br /><br /><ul><li>Average default IPCC (1996) emission factors have been applied to calculate the amount of ...
MSW methane emissions - only urban is accounted for
Methane emissions from paddy fields – Asia’s largest – is of special concern. Emission factors are based on actual measure...
Coal mines categorised into three types based on the degrees of gasiness</li></li></ul><li>Methodology<br /><br /><ul><li...
IPCC default emission factors have been used except for emissions from nitric acid production. The emission factor for nit...
Coal – 73% of total emissions
UP, MP, AP, Maharashtra, TN – most coal consuming states – shows similar trend for CO2 emissions too
Electric power generation - almost half of India's CO2 emissions and majority of it comes from coal and lignite consumptio...
Inventory Assessment CO2 emissions<br /><br /><ul><li>12 districts emitted more than 10 Tg CO2 each in 1990 and their num...
Ten percent of total Indian districts contributed 67% of India's total CO2 emissions in 1995 indicating a high concentrati...
Delhi reduced emissions - decreased coal use
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Assessment of GHG Emissions in India

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Assessment of GHG Emissions in India

  1. 1. Assessment of GHG Emissions in India<br />KiranRadhakrishnan<br />Vineet Sharma<br />
  2. 2. Outline of Presentation<br />
  3. 3. Introduction<br /><ul><li>A lot of regional variation exists in emissions – estimation of magnitudes on a regional/site specific basis helps in framing more effective mitigation measures and a more accurate national estimate
  4. 4. The paper aims to measure GHG emissions and sector wise contributions byestimating these values for the466 districts in India
  5. 5. For each source category, andfor CO2, CH4 & N2O emissions,a district “rank list” was made
  6. 6. Largest 25 emitter districts ineach source category termed“hot-spot” districts</li></li></ul><li>Methodology<br />Sources considered for emission estimates:<br /><ul><li>Combustion of Coal
  7. 7. Oil Products and Natural Gas Combustion
  8. 8. Oil and Natural Gas Extraction/Refining/Processing
  9. 9. Coal Mining
  10. 10. Transport (Road and Rail)
  11. 11. Electric Power Generation
  12. 12. Steel
  13. 13. Biomass Burning </li></li></ul><li>Methodology<br />Industrial sector emission sources: manufacturing of cement, brick and nitric acid;<br />Agriculture sector sources: rice cultivation, livestock related emissions, use of nitrogen fertilizers and burning of crop residue;<br />Waste sector: emissions from the land-fills and wastewater disposal<br />The sector identification of emission source categories is important since emission coefficients for non-CO2 gases are highly sector specific.<br />
  14. 14. Methodology<br /><br />Emission Coefficients are based on carbon content of fuels – specified within IPCC Guidelines<br />IPCC Tier I (for emissions from animal manure mgmt.) and Tier II (for emissions from enteric fermentation) methodologies are taken into account for estimation of methane emissions from livestock. <br />
  15. 15. Methodology<br /><br /><ul><li>Average default IPCC (1996) emission factors have been applied to calculate the amount of non-CO2 greenhouse gases emitted from crop residues burnt in India. Wheat and rice straw residue – most non-CO2 emissions
  16. 16. MSW methane emissions - only urban is accounted for
  17. 17. Methane emissions from paddy fields – Asia’s largest – is of special concern. Emission factors are based on actual measurement in different paddy cultivation systems</li></li></ul><li>Methodology<br /><br /><ul><li>For CH4 emission from coal mining and handling activities, coal production is multiplied with CH4 emission factor to arrive at the total CH4 emission
  18. 18. Coal mines categorised into three types based on the degrees of gasiness</li></li></ul><li>Methodology<br /><br /><ul><li>N2O emissions come mainly from burning of fossil fuel, crop residue burnt, use of nitrogen fertilizers, livestock, biological N2 fixation, indirect emission from atmospheric depositing of NH3 and NOx
  19. 19. IPCC default emission factors have been used except for emissions from nitric acid production. The emission factor for nitric acid depends on technology and operating conditions.</li></li></ul><li>Inventory Assessment CO2 emissions<br /><br /><ul><li>The total CO2 emissions from the country due to anthropogenic activities have increased from 592 Tg in 1990 to 778 Tg in 1995
  20. 20. Coal – 73% of total emissions
  21. 21. UP, MP, AP, Maharashtra, TN – most coal consuming states – shows similar trend for CO2 emissions too
  22. 22. Electric power generation - almost half of India's CO2 emissions and majority of it comes from coal and lignite consumption. CO2 emission due to coal consumption in the electric power generation sector increased by 60% and in the industrial sector by 19% between 1990 and 1995.</li></li></ul><li>Inventory Assessment CO2 emissions<br /><br />
  23. 23. Inventory Assessment CO2 emissions<br /><br /><ul><li>12 districts emitted more than 10 Tg CO2 each in 1990 and their number almost doubled in next 5 years.
  24. 24. Ten percent of total Indian districts contributed 67% of India's total CO2 emissions in 1995 indicating a high concentration of emissions</li></li></ul><li>Inventory Assessment CO2 emissions<br /><br /><ul><li>South Arcot – increase in emissions due to setting up of Neyveli Power Plant
  25. 25. Delhi reduced emissions - decreased coal use
  26. 26. All India per capita CO2 emission were 0.7 tons in 1990 and increased to 0.84 tons in 1995</li></li></ul><li>Inventory Assessment CH4 emissions<br /><br /><ul><li>Total methane emitted from the country increased from 17 Tg in 1990 to 18 Tg in 1995.
  27. 27. The national methane emission profile is agriculture dominant and is evenly spread across the country with the Gangetic plains and delta areas, coastal Maharashtra, TN and AP contributing most.
  28. 28. The average methane emissions per district were 0.04 Tg as compared to 1.67 Tg for CO2 in 1995. Even after weighing the methane emissions by a factor of 21 (methane's CO2 equivalent global warming potential), the average CH4 emissions are half of average CO2 emissions for Indian districts.</li></li></ul><li>Inventory Assessment CH4 emissions<br /><br />
  29. 29. Inventory Assessment CH4 emissions<br /><br /><ul><li>The slower growth rates of CH4 emissions are due to predominance of agriculture- and livestock-related emissions in methane</li></li></ul><li>Inventory Assessment N2O emissions<br /><br /><ul><li>Total N2O emissions from India were 230Gg in 1990 and 260Gg in 1995, respectively, indicating a marginal growth.
  30. 30. The driving factor here is the use of synthetic fertilizer – agriculture – 90% emissions.</li></li></ul><li>Inventory Assessment N2O emissions<br /><br /><ul><li>Emissions from agriculture sector are very dispersed - mitigation efforts required will be quite substantial as compared to those for CO2 and CH4.
  31. 31. The N2O emissions have a more even spread than those for CO2 and CH4 due to agriculture dominance which is very well spread over India</li></li></ul><li>Inventory Assessment Aggregateemission analysis<br /><br /><ul><li>In 1990 the contribution of CO2 to the total GHG emission was highest (58%), followed by CH4 (36%) and N2O (6%) – CO2 emissions increased to 61% in 1995
  32. 32. India’s emissions – only 2.7% of total emissions
  33. 33. 25 Hotspot districts account for more than 37% of CO2 emissions
  34. 34. The total emissions data are important for global greenhouse effect; and per area (ton/km) emissions data provide a better picture for regional mitigation and impact assessments.</li></li></ul><li>Inventory Assessment Aggregateemission analysis<br /><br />
  35. 35. Mitigation Flexibility<br /><ul><li>60 large point sources (40 coal-based power plants, 5 large steel plants, and 15 cement industries) – very good opportunity for focusing mitigation efforts
  36. 36. Transport sector – 9.5% CO2e emissions widely dispersed – mitigation may not be cost effective – steps to improve fuel quality – improve local emission levels
  37. 37. Agriculture - ~29% contribution – widely dispersed – difficult to mitigate – better farming practices should continue</li></li></ul><li>Mitigation Flexibility<br /><ul><li>Operational improvements
  38. 38. Heat rate reduction
  39. 39. Better excess air control
  40. 40. Better maintenance
  41. 41. Reducing transmission/distribution losses
  42. 42. Efficiency improvement measures in other energy-intensive industries
  43. 43. Capacity additions – cleaner tech. and not at existing locations</li></li></ul><li>Conclusion<br /><ul><li>Composition of sectoral emissions didn’t change much over ‘90-’95
  44. 44. Electricity power generation, steel and cement sectors – largest emitters – high growth rates too.
  45. 45. Transport – does not contribute as much but still affects local pollution
  46. 46. Urban emission – industry and transport
  47. 47. Rural emission – agricultural sources
  48. 48. Indicates easier control of urban sources – more organised and focussed</li></li></ul><li>Conclusion<br /><ul><li>District wise emission data bridges uncertainties in emissions
  49. 49. Identifying demographic, economic and ecosystem variables and calculating source magnitudes at district level provides quantitative data necessary to develop sectoral and regional impact assessment – helps frame mitigation strategies - control of local pollution, energy and infrastructure plans, urban development and industrial location policies too.</li></li></ul><li>Conclusion<br /><ul><li>To gain attention of policy makers, greenhouse gas mitigation strategies have to be integrated with national development plans rather than compete with them for resources</li>

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