Green solvents ppt


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Green solvents ppt

  3. 3. SOLVENT USAGE :- • Solvents are substances that are liquid during application and will dissolve other substances, which can be recovered unchanged on removal of the solvent. • Research in green chemistry is making dramatic achievements in the design of chemicals, chemical syntheses, and chemical processes that are environmentally benign and economically feasible. • The goal of green chemistry is to reduce the hazards associated with products and processes
  4. 4. • Widely used throughout the chemical industry – Synthetic Chemistry • Reaction medium on laboratory and industrial scale • Extensively used in work-up and purification (usually more than for reaction medium) – Analytical Chemistry • Sample extraction and preparation (Spectroscopy) • Chromatography mobile phase (HPLC, TLC etc.) – Crystallisation • Recrystallisation to purify compounds and prepare crystals suitable for analysis
  5. 5. • Used much more widely than just synthetic chemistry • Coatings: – Paints, adhesives • Solvent usually removed by evaporation after application leaving coating behind • Coating removal • Cleaning – E.g. Dry cleaning – extensive use of perchloroethylene, a known cancer suspect agent, which also contaminates groundwater supplies • Extraction – E.g. Coffee decaffeination (benzene, CH2Cl2)
  6. 6. • Is the substance really needed? • Could alternate, less toxic substitutes be used? • What are the risks versus benefits for continued use of the agent? • What is the environmental impact of the substance? • Does the procurement of the agent deplete an environmental resource? • Does existing technology permit the “final” disposal of the substance? • If used, do we have the technology to ensure the “safe” use of the substance?
  7. 7. • Solvents as a Green Chemistry Tool :- Through a combination of knowledge of the nature of a chemical’s hazardous properties with the ability to manipulate the chemical’s structure, chemists possess the ability and skill to mitigate the hazard. • Selection of Solvents and Reaction Conditions:- Selection of a solvent should be based not only on any hazards that the chemical may possess, but also on existing environmental problems that its use may exacerbate.
  8. 8. SOLVENT EFFECTS & GREEN CHEMISTRY In order to study the solvent effect we need an help of conceptual basis such as:- • Theories of molecular structures. • Concept of polarity. • Bulk properties a) Dielectric constant b) Density
  9. 9. Green solvents & its definition • GOALS OF GREEN CHEMISTRY:- i. To reduce hazards associated with product & process, this is to maintain not only quality of life but also technical achievements. ii. Reduction of risk: RISK= HAZARD × EXPOSURE.
  10. 10. Solvents define a major part of the environmental performance of processes in chemical industry and also impact on cost, safety and health issues. The idea of “green” solvents expresses the goal to minimize the environmental impact resulting from the use of solvents in chemical production.
  11. 11. CONTI....... • An ideal green solvent must possess following criteria: i. Must have human safety. ii. Reduced hazard. iii. Easily degradable. iv. Provide high product yield. • Criteria for solvent selection: i. Must have less human & environmental absorption. ii. Its environmental toxicity should be understood. iii. Environmental fate should be understood.
  12. 12. Green Solvents in Green Chemistry:- • Water • Methanol • Nitromethane • Acetone • Ethanol • DMF • DMSO • HMPA • Acetonitrile • Pyridine • Ammonia
  13. 13. Water as a reaction medium • One of the most obvious alternatives to VOCs. • Cheap, readily available, and plentiful (in the UK!) • Useful for certain types of reaction but limited because of: – Low solubility of organic substrates – Compatibility with reagents • Clean up of aqueous waste difficult • Useful in biphasic processes in conjunction with other solvents
  14. 14. Carbon Dioxide • Similar advantages to water – Natural, cheap, plentiful (too much of it!) – Available in >99.9% pure form, £70/$110 per 25kg. – By-product of brewing, ammonia synthesis, combustion • Already being adopted in a variety of commercial processes (see later) • Non-toxic and properties well understood – asphyxiant at high concentrations • Easily removed and recycled, and can be disposed of with no net increase in global CO2 – Simple product isolation by evaporation, to 100% dryness. • No solvent effluent • Potential for product processing (extraction, particle formation, chromatography etc.)
  15. 15. Ionic liquids (IL’s) • Typically consist of organic cation (often ammonium or phosphonium salt) and inorganic anion • Usually only consider IL’s which are liquid at room temperature • Great variety of structures possible • Very low vapour pressure – attractive alternative to VOCs. N N 1. Ethylmethylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [emim][BF4] •BF4 - 2.Choline chloride/Zinc chloride ionic liquid N+ Me Me Me OH + •Zn2Cl5 -
  16. 16. Ionic Liquids as Reaction Media • Diels-Alder reactions • Alkylation reactions • Hydroformylation reactions • Friedel Crafts reactions • Pd-mediated C-C bond formation • Alkene polymerisation • Biotransformations T. Welton, Chem. Rev., 1999, 99, 2071.
  17. 17. Ethyl lactate – a renewable solvent • Derived from processing corn • Variety of lactate esters possible • Renewable source (non-petrochemical) • Attractive solvent properties – Biodegradable, – Easy to recycle, – Non-corrosive, – Non-carcinogenic – Non-ozone depleting – Good solvent for variety of processes • Commonly used in the paint and coatings industry – Potentially has many other applications. OEt H3C O OH
  18. 18. ENVIROMENTAL TOXICOLOGY • TOXICOLOGY: Its an study of harmful effects of drugs, chemicals & chemical mixture on the living organism. It includes various branches such as:- a. Clinical toxicology. b. Forensic toxicology c. Environmental toxicology.
  19. 19. CONTI..... • ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY is multidisciplinary science involving many diverse areas:- a. CHEMISTRY:- deals with characterisation of toxins. b. PHARMACOLOGY:- deals with study of entry & distribution of toxins in the body. c. BIOCHEMISTRY:- deals with interaction & metabolism of toxins. d. BIOLOGY:- deals with effect of toxins on environment.
  20. 20. DETERMINATION OF TOXICITY • CAN BE DONE THROUGH FOLLOWING BRANCHES:- i. Descriptive toxicology. ii. Mechanistic toxicology. iii. Regulatory toxicology. iv. Determination through:- • In- vivo testing • In-vitro testing
  21. 21. SPECIFIC HEALTH & ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENT • THIS INCLUDES:- a. Toxic chemicals. b. Carcinogens & reproductive toxins. c. Flammability. d. Ozone depletion. e. Toxicity to aquatic life.
  22. 22. CONTI..... • TOXIC CHEMICALS:- A solvent is considered to be toxic if- oral LD50 < 50mg/kg. Dermal LD50< 200mg/kg. • CARCINOGENS & REPRODUCTIVE TOXINS:- Carcinogens are defined as those chemicals listed in current edition of “annual report on carcinogens”. Reproductive are defined as those chemicals listed under ‘safe drinking water & toxic enforcement act’ of 1986.
  23. 23. CONTI..... • FLAMMIBILITY: The solvent in should not be flammable. The flash point of chemical should be above 100ºF. • OZONE DEPLETION: The solvent in use should not contain any- CLASS-I/ CLASS-II ozone depleting substances listed in title VI of clean air act. • TOXICITY TO AQUATIC LIFE: chemicals in use should not have any effect on aquatic animals.
  24. 24. GREEN SOLVENTS FOR ACADEMIC CHEMISTRY • Teaching both environmental issue and basic chemistry to non-science students requires:- Mainly environmental topics with chemical facts & Basic chemistry with environmental points. • Education for green chemistry must show chemical processes that carry environmental negatives can be replace with less polluting alternatives. • Academics must provides goals for green research. • Must provides green technologies that can replace target technology
  25. 25. CONTI..... • School & colleges must creates awareness about various hazardous chemicals. • Academics also must provides information to their employees through ‘material safety data sheet’(MSDS).
  26. 26. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOLVENT’S:- • The physical properties of solvents greatly influence the choice of solvent for a particular application. • The solvent should be liquid under the temperature and pressure conditions at which it is employed. • thermodynamic properties:- density & vapor pressure, temperature & pressure coefficients, as well as the heat capacity surface tension. • transport properties:- such as viscosity, diffusion coefficient, & thermal conductivity, also need to be considered
  27. 27. • Electrical, optical, and magnetic properties, such as the dipole moment, dielectric constant, refractive index, magnetic susceptibility, and electrical conductance are relevant, too. • Molecular characteristics, such as the size, surface area, and volume, as well as orientational relaxational times, have appreciable bearing on the applicability of a solvent or on the interpretation of solvent effects.
  28. 28. CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SOLVENT’S:- • The chemical properties of solvents have obviously a strong bearing on their applicability for various purposes. • Structuredness of Solvents:-The volatility, viscosity, diffusion coefficient and relaxation rates of solvents are described quantitatively by their structuredness. • Stiffness:-expressed by the cohesive energy density • Openness:-the difference between its molar and intrinsic volumes • Ordering:- This is the deficit of entropy of the liquid solvent relative to the solvent vapor or the dipole orientation correlation.
  29. 29. • Polarity in Molecules:-Dispersion Forces- Molecules that have no permanent dipole still have their electrons in movement. • Polarization and Polarizability:-If the molecules have a dipole but there is no applied electric field, the dipoles are randomly orientated. • Dipole–dipole interactions between rotating dipolar molecules are small. Only for molecules with large dipoles, and where hydrogen bonding is absent, such as DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide) and acetonitrile, do dipole–dipole attractions contribute significantly to molecular association.
  30. 30. • Dipole moments of some solvents:- • Benzene 0 • DMSO 3.9 • Acetone 2.69 • Hydrogen fluoride 1.83 • Water 1.83 • THF 1.75
  31. 31. APPLICATION OF GREEN SOLVENTS:- • New syntheses of Ibuprofen and Zoloft. • Integrated circuit production. • Removing Arsenic and Chromate from pressure treated wood. • Many new pesticides. • New oxidants for bleaching paper and disinfecting water. • Getting the lead out of automobile paints. • Recyclable carpeting. • Replacing VOCs and chlorinated solvents. • Biodegradable polymers from renewable resources