History India has a long history of urban architecture starting from the ancient cities of Indus valley through the Vedic and Mughal period. A new architectural style arrived with the advent of the colonialists which eventually became a part and parcel of the traditional forms. Calcuttas rapid growth showed how the colonialists converted the three small villages of Sutanuttee. Gobindapur and Kalikata into a city with its own coherency of style.
History Notable influences of this period was the expansion and consolidation of the baroque Neo classical style, The urban space was created by other elements also, namely, street type, the avenue type, the circus type, the esplanade type, the garden type and the square type. It established the element of the façade especially one with a pedimented porch. The most important element was the functionally divided vertical arrangement of space combining it with the traditional horizontal spatial spread. Victoria Memorial, 1921
Site 40 Panditya Road,Kolkata-700029The soil is firm and is of indo – Gangetic alluvial type.The site is oriented in east direction.The house is currently surrounded by neighbouring plots of multi-storeyed apartments on the west and north side and roads on theeast and south side.Initially the aforementioned plots served as the lawn which had sufficeplantation
Site40 Panditya Road,Kolkata-700029The house has an L-shaped layout which has been transformed intoan open courtyard layout with a surrounding buffer spaces withseparate storage and servants quarter disjointed from the mainbuilt.The plinth of the house is raised by half a meter from the road level toavoid water logging .The influence of the colonial era and indo-sarsanic architecture canbe seen clearly in the architecture of the dwelling.
Sectional Plan Level 1(-500mm)Utilization of space by keeping in mind the need of storage spaceby providing space for storage under the stairs.
Sectional Plan Level 11(2000)Space usage by providing an intermediate floor to accommodate thefamily kitchen which is centrally located.
Sectional Plan Level 111(4000mm)Presence of doors and windows connecting buffer spaces and roomswith each other to provide a family environment connecting people.
Zoning Lv 1The transition of spaces from the Public spaces: through the mainentrance into the buffer spaces, to the semi-Private spaces like theliving hall to upstairs into the kitchen and dining area to the Privateareas.
Zoning Lv 111On a more vertical approach, the ground floor is a cluster of public,social and semi private spaces, whereas the first floor is totally dedicatedto private spaces
BUILDING MATERIALS Locally available bricks of clay are used for the walls. Lime plaster is used as binding material. Athangudi tiles are used for the flooring. Iron beams are used to support the flat roof. Wooden window frames and shutters are used which open inside the house. Wooden louvers are used to obstruct the direct entry of sunlight. Iron beams are used to secure the openings of the windows. Railings are made out of brass.
Climatic Data SUMMER - 30 C TO 35 C DURING DAY AND 25 C TO 30 C IN THE NIGHT WINTER - 25 C TO30 C DURING DAY AND 20 C - 25 C IN THE NIGHT Kolkata India Average Yearly Precipitation Kolkata India Average Annual Temperatures 1400 mm PER YEAR. MAJORITY RAINFALL - MID JUNE TO MID OCTOBER, WHICH IS OBTAINED FROM SOUTHWEST MONSOON WINDS. Relative humidity: humidity is generally Kolkata India Average Monthly Sunshine Hours very high, about 70 – 90 % throughout the year.
Climatic Response The balconies on the east side and the presence (initially) of tall trees and abundant plantation reduced heat gain. Permanent ventilation with the help of ventilators on east and west side at the height of 3700mm from the floor level provides the supply of fresh air even when the doors and windows have to be kept closed. Ventilation is done by placing two windows and two doors in front of each other at the room level. Stack Ventilation
Climatic Response Since the house is L shaped oriented along east direction it provides minimal heat radiation gain The orientation of the building is such that it provides shading to the internal faces of the house resulting in reduction of heat gain. The number of fenestrations including the permanent fenestrations(jalis) induce cooling through evaporation E W
Climatic Response Balconies running both around the ground and the first floor actsas buffer-spaces, which moderates the outside extremities ofclimate.Each balcony has a mild slope towards a corner with theplacement of an opening leading to an extended pipe whichhelps rainwater to flow out .Also the balconies can be washedeasily since water flows out.
Climatic Response The pale colouration of the walls increases surface- reflectivity and reduces input thermal coefficient. 13000 mm high Jackfruit tree with its foliage provides shade throughout the day.
Construction DetailsPaneled doors Paneled timber and glass Windows with timber louvers on the outside Louvers restrict the entry of precipitation but allows the entry of daylight and fresh air supply
Construction Details Ventilation through jali fenestrations. Traditional threshold of 50 mmPresence ofcolored sunwindows in themain hall toprovide filteredsunlightthroughout theday