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NATURAL VENTILATION
SUBMMITTED BY :-
KIRAN MAI DAS
B.ARCH IX SEMESTER
DCA , ANJORA, DURG
AIM-
• TO STUDY THE APPLICATION OF NATURAL VENTILATION AND
TECHNIQUES USED TO MINIMIZE EXTERNAL ENERGY AND
ENHANCE THE QUA...
NATURAL VENTILATION TYPES
WIND
BUOYANCY
WIND BLOWS THROUGH INLET ON WINDWARD
SIDE
AND COMES OUT FROM LEEWARD SIDE FROM
OPENINGS AND ROOF.
AN EXPRESSION FOR THE VO...
BUOYANCY:-
• BUOYANCY OCCURS WHEN DIFFERENCE IN
TEMPERATURE OF OUTDOOR AND INDOOR AIR
• IT CAN BE TEMPERATURE INDUCED :- E...
TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN WARM AIR
INSIDE AND COOL AIR OUTSIDE CAN CAUSE THE AIR IN
THE ROOM TO RISE AND EXIT AT THE...
HUMIDITY INDUCED:-
• THE COOL AIR IS HEAVY DUE TO ITS HUMDITY
CONTENT AND DROPS DOWN TO THE INDOOR
AREA .
• IT CAN BE ACHI...
• NATURAL VENTILATION IS THE PROCESS OF
SUPPLYING AND REMOVING AIR THROUGH A SPACE
BY NATURAL MEANS IT CAN BE ACHIEVED WIT...
• NATURAL VENTILATION AND AIR MOVEMENT CAN BE
SIMPLY ACHEVIED BY ‘STRUCTURAL CONTROLS’ AS IT
DOES NOT DEPENDS ON ANY FORM ...
WHY NATURAL VENTILATION ?
• NATURAL VENTLILATION STARTED FROM HISTORY
ACCORDING TO THE DIFFERENT CLIMATES
TYPICAL SECTION ...
VARIOUS TECHNQUES USED IN OLD
TIMES :-
DOUBLE APERTURES
USED FOR ENSURING
VENTILATION
IN SHAHJAHANABAD
HOUSES
WINDOW FOR V...
WHY NATURAL VENTILATION
• THEN PEOPLE STARTED
USING EXTERNAL
ENERGY FOR THERMAL
COMFORT.
• TIME PASSES AND IT
GROWNED UP I...
WHY NATURAL VENTILATION
AND AGAIN DUE
TO ENERGY CRISES
AND COMLEXITY
OF INSTALLATION
AND FOR THE
NEW LINE OF
EVOLUTION
PEO...
DIFFERENT TECHNIQUES TO ACHIEVE
NATURAL VENTILATION:-
• STACK EFFECT
• WIND TOWER
• COURTYARD EFFECT
• SOLAR CHIMNEY
STACK EFFECT :-
STACK EFFECT DEPENDS ON THERMAL FORCES AND
DIFFERENCE IN TEMPERATURE .
REASON OF STACK EFFECT :-
• PRESSUR...
• STACK EFFECT WORK WELL – WINTER
• HIGHER THE SHAFT AND CROSS SECTION AREA
GREATER THE STACK EFFECT
• ‘MOTIVE FORCE’ – ST...
STACK VENTILATION SECTIONS :-
TALL ROOMS TALL ROOMS AT EDGE
STAIRS AS STACKTALL ROOMS WITHIN
WIND TOWER
• AIR ENTERS IN WIND TOWER THROUGH OPENINGS-
COOLED DOWN- BECOMES HEAVIER AND SINKS DOWN (
PRESENCE OF AIR MOVE...
WIND TOWER
A TYPICAL WIND TOWER SECTION
EVAPORATIVE COOLING
DIFFERENT TYPES OF WIND TOWERS :-
WATER SUPPLY
MULTI DIRECTIONAL WIND CATCHER
EVAPORATIVE COOLING
EVAPORATIVE COOLING METHOD
WIND TOWER AND EVAPORATIVE
TECHNIQUE USED IN INDIA :-
A VIEW OF THE WIND TOWER
USED IN A HOSTEL BUILDING
(JODHPUR)
VENTS C...
WIND TOWER AND EVAPORATIVE
TECHNIQUE USED IN INDIA :-
EVAPORATIVE COOLING
SYSTEM IN TORRENT RESEARCH
CENTRE, (AHMEDABAD)
S...
COURTYARD EFFECT:-
DUE TO INCIDENT SOLAR RADIATION IN A COURTYARD,
AIR GETS WARMER AND RISES , COOL AIR FROM
GROUND LEVEL ...
HOW COURTYARD COURTYARD EFFECT
WORK:-
IN SUCH PLACES NIGHT VENTILATION IS NOT VERY EFFECTIVE FOR
COOLING AND NIGHT SKY RAD...
COURTYARD IN MODERN BUILDING :-
AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF INDIAN STUDIES (GURGAON):-
VIEW
SUNKEN COURTYARD INSIDE
THE BUILDING...
NATURAL VENTILATION EXTERNAL
FEATURES:-
• ORIENTATION OF BUILDINGS
• POSITION OF OPENINGS
• CROSS VENTILATION
• SIZE OF OP...
MASSING AND ORIENTATION OF
BUILDING:-
• AS A GENERAL RULE, THIN TALL BUILDINGS WILL
ENCOURAGE NATURAL VENTILATION AND UTIL...
OREINTATION :-
ORIENTING THE BUILDING SO
THAT THE SHORTER AXIS ALIGN
WITH THE PREVAILING WIND
WHILE ORIENTING IT
PERPENDIC...
OPENING SIZE:-
Pairing a large outlet with a small inlet
increases incoming wind speed.
SMALL
INLETLARGE
OUTLET
OPENING TYPE:-
OPENING CAN BE ANY TYPE ACCORDING TO THE
BUILDING TYPE AND CLIMATIC CONDITION
CROSS VENTILATION:-
WINDOWS OR VENTS PLACED ON OPPOSITE SIDES OF
THE BUILDING GIVE NATURAL BREEZES A PATHWAY
THROUGH THE S...
SCOPE –
• TO MINIMIZE THE EXTERNAL ENERGY OR MECHANICAL SYSTEM.
• IMPLEMENTATION OF NATURAL VENTILATION SYSTEM- NATURAL
DA...
LIMITATION -
CALCULATION OF WIND THROUGH DIFFERENT
TOOLS
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NATURAL VENTILATION LITERATURE AND CASE STUDY IN INDIA (DISSERTATION OF THESIS ARCHITECTURE)

A CASE STUDY OF NATURAL VENTILATION BUILDING IN INDIA (DISSERTATION OF THESIS ARCHITECTURE) DIGNITY COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE

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NATURAL VENTILATION LITERATURE AND CASE STUDY IN INDIA (DISSERTATION OF THESIS ARCHITECTURE)

  1. 1. NATURAL VENTILATION SUBMMITTED BY :- KIRAN MAI DAS B.ARCH IX SEMESTER DCA , ANJORA, DURG
  2. 2. AIM- • TO STUDY THE APPLICATION OF NATURAL VENTILATION AND TECHNIQUES USED TO MINIMIZE EXTERNAL ENERGY AND ENHANCE THE QUALITY OF BUILDING. OBJECTIVE– • TO STUDY HOW TO OPTIMIZE NATURAL VENTILATION IN BUILDINGS AND TO MINIMIZE MECHANICAL SYSTEMS FOR VENTILATION • TO STUDY THE SPECIFIC APPROACH AND DESIGN OF NATURAL VENTILATION SYSTEMS WHICH VARIES AND BASED ON BUILDING TYPE AND LOCAL CLIMATE . • TO STUDY THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF FUNCTIONS AND TECHNIQUES USED FOR NATURAL VENTILATION .
  3. 3. NATURAL VENTILATION TYPES WIND BUOYANCY
  4. 4. WIND BLOWS THROUGH INLET ON WINDWARD SIDE AND COMES OUT FROM LEEWARD SIDE FROM OPENINGS AND ROOF. AN EXPRESSION FOR THE VOLUME OF AIRFLOW INDUCED BY WIND IS:- QWIND = K X A X V, WHERE QWIND = VOLUME OF AIRFLOW (M³/H) A = AREA OF SMALLER OPENING (M²) V = OUTDOOR WIND SPEED (M/H) K = COEFFICIENT OF EFFECTIVENESS WIND
  5. 5. BUOYANCY:- • BUOYANCY OCCURS WHEN DIFFERENCE IN TEMPERATURE OF OUTDOOR AND INDOOR AIR • IT CAN BE TEMPERATURE INDUCED :- EG. STACK VENTILATION • OR IT CAN BE HUMIDITY INDUCED :- EG. COOL TOWER
  6. 6. TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN WARM AIR INSIDE AND COOL AIR OUTSIDE CAN CAUSE THE AIR IN THE ROOM TO RISE AND EXIT AT THE CEILING OR RIDGE, AND ENTER VIA LOWER OPENINGS IN THE WALL. TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE :-
  7. 7. HUMIDITY INDUCED:- • THE COOL AIR IS HEAVY DUE TO ITS HUMDITY CONTENT AND DROPS DOWN TO THE INDOOR AREA . • IT CAN BE ACHIEVED PROPERLY WITH A COOL TOWER OR WIND CATCHER OR MALQAF AND BADGIR • COOL TOWER VENTILATION IS ONLY EFFECTIVE WHERE OUTDOOR HUMIDITY IS VERY LOW
  8. 8. • NATURAL VENTILATION IS THE PROCESS OF SUPPLYING AND REMOVING AIR THROUGH A SPACE BY NATURAL MEANS IT CAN BE ACHIEVED WITH OPENABLE WINDOWS OR TRICKLE VENTS. WHAT IS NATURAL VENTILATION ?
  9. 9. • NATURAL VENTILATION AND AIR MOVEMENT CAN BE SIMPLY ACHEVIED BY ‘STRUCTURAL CONTROLS’ AS IT DOES NOT DEPENDS ON ANY FORM OF EXTERNAL ENERGY SUPPLY OR MECHANICAL INSTALLATION. SECTION SHOWING AIR FLOW
  10. 10. WHY NATURAL VENTILATION ? • NATURAL VENTLILATION STARTED FROM HISTORY ACCORDING TO THE DIFFERENT CLIMATES TYPICAL SECTION THROUGH SHAHAJAHANABAD HOUSE. TO FACILITATE THE MOMENT OF COOL AIR INTO THE HOUSE, PARAPETS ARE NOT BUIL TOWARDS THE COURTYARD
  11. 11. VARIOUS TECHNQUES USED IN OLD TIMES :- DOUBLE APERTURES USED FOR ENSURING VENTILATION IN SHAHJAHANABAD HOUSES WINDOW FOR VIEW AN JALI VENTILATION USED AT AMBER FORT COLUMN COURTYARD COOLING SYSTEM-DIWAN E-KHAS, RED FORT, DELHI • MULTI-DIRECTIONAL WINDCATCHER
  12. 12. WHY NATURAL VENTILATION • THEN PEOPLE STARTED USING EXTERNAL ENERGY FOR THERMAL COMFORT. • TIME PASSES AND IT GROWNED UP IN MORE SOPHISTICATED WAY.
  13. 13. WHY NATURAL VENTILATION AND AGAIN DUE TO ENERGY CRISES AND COMLEXITY OF INSTALLATION AND FOR THE NEW LINE OF EVOLUTION PEOPLE STARTED USING NATURAL VENTILATION FLOW OF AIR IN KANCHANJANGA APARTMENT MUMBAI
  14. 14. DIFFERENT TECHNIQUES TO ACHIEVE NATURAL VENTILATION:- • STACK EFFECT • WIND TOWER • COURTYARD EFFECT • SOLAR CHIMNEY
  15. 15. STACK EFFECT :- STACK EFFECT DEPENDS ON THERMAL FORCES AND DIFFERENCE IN TEMPERATURE . REASON OF STACK EFFECT :- • PRESSURE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE OUTSIDE AIR AND THE AIR INSIDE THE BUILDING CAUSED BY DIFFERENCE IN TEMPERATURE Outdoor air Outdoor air Section
  16. 16. • STACK EFFECT WORK WELL – WINTER • HIGHER THE SHAFT AND CROSS SECTION AREA GREATER THE STACK EFFECT • ‘MOTIVE FORCE’ – STACK PRESSURE • STACK PRESSURE CAN BE CALCULATED FROM:- • PS = 0.0042 × ℎ × ∆T STACK PRESSURE IN N/M2 HEIGHT OF THE STACK IN M TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE IN DEG C
  17. 17. STACK VENTILATION SECTIONS :- TALL ROOMS TALL ROOMS AT EDGE STAIRS AS STACKTALL ROOMS WITHIN
  18. 18. WIND TOWER • AIR ENTERS IN WIND TOWER THROUGH OPENINGS- COOLED DOWN- BECOMES HEAVIER AND SINKS DOWN ( PRESENCE OF AIR MOVEMENT) • AFTER WHOLE DAY AIR EXCHANGE – TOWER BECOMES WARM IN THE EVENING . • TOWER WALLS ABSORBS HEAT DURING DAYTIME AND RELASES AT NIGHT WARMING COOL NIGHT AIR AT NIGHT.
  19. 19. WIND TOWER A TYPICAL WIND TOWER SECTION
  20. 20. EVAPORATIVE COOLING DIFFERENT TYPES OF WIND TOWERS :- WATER SUPPLY MULTI DIRECTIONAL WIND CATCHER
  21. 21. EVAPORATIVE COOLING EVAPORATIVE COOLING METHOD
  22. 22. WIND TOWER AND EVAPORATIVE TECHNIQUE USED IN INDIA :- A VIEW OF THE WIND TOWER USED IN A HOSTEL BUILDING (JODHPUR) VENTS CONNECTING WIND TOWER
  23. 23. WIND TOWER AND EVAPORATIVE TECHNIQUE USED IN INDIA :- EVAPORATIVE COOLING SYSTEM IN TORRENT RESEARCH CENTRE, (AHMEDABAD) SECTION OF THE BUILDING PLAN OF THE BUILDING
  24. 24. COURTYARD EFFECT:- DUE TO INCIDENT SOLAR RADIATION IN A COURTYARD, AIR GETS WARMER AND RISES , COOL AIR FROM GROUND LEVEL FLOWS THROUGH THE LOWER OPENINGS RADIATION TO SKY LANDSCAPE OR WATER BODY SECTION SHOWING COURTYARD EFFECT
  25. 25. HOW COURTYARD COURTYARD EFFECT WORK:- IN SUCH PLACES NIGHT VENTILATION IS NOT VERY EFFECTIVE FOR COOLING AND NIGHT SKY RADIATION IS THE ONLY ANSWER. TO FACILITATE THE MOMENT OF COOL AIR INTO THE HOUSE,PARAPETS ARE NOT BUILT TOWARDS LIVING AREA PARAPET TOWARDS ROAD SIDE TO AVOID OUTSIDE HEAT SECTION OF SAHAJANABAD DELHI
  26. 26. COURTYARD IN MODERN BUILDING :- AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF INDIAN STUDIES (GURGAON):- VIEW SUNKEN COURTYARD INSIDE THE BUILDING WITH WATER BODY AND LANDSCAPE PLAN
  27. 27. NATURAL VENTILATION EXTERNAL FEATURES:- • ORIENTATION OF BUILDINGS • POSITION OF OPENINGS • CROSS VENTILATION • SIZE OF OPENINGS • OPENING TYPES
  28. 28. MASSING AND ORIENTATION OF BUILDING:- • AS A GENERAL RULE, THIN TALL BUILDINGS WILL ENCOURAGE NATURAL VENTILATION AND UTILIZE PREVAILING WINDS, CROSS VENTILATION, AND STACK EFFECT. • TALL BUILDINGS ALSO INCREASE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF NATURAL VENTILATION, BECAUSE WIND SPEEDS ARE FASTER AT GREATER HEIGHTS Tall buildings improve natural ventilation, and in lower latitudes reduce sun exposure.
  29. 29. OREINTATION :- ORIENTING THE BUILDING SO THAT THE SHORTER AXIS ALIGN WITH THE PREVAILING WIND WHILE ORIENTING IT PERPENDICULAR TO PREVAILING WINDS WILL PROVIDE THE LEAST PASSIVE VENTILATION.
  30. 30. OPENING SIZE:- Pairing a large outlet with a small inlet increases incoming wind speed. SMALL INLETLARGE OUTLET
  31. 31. OPENING TYPE:- OPENING CAN BE ANY TYPE ACCORDING TO THE BUILDING TYPE AND CLIMATIC CONDITION
  32. 32. CROSS VENTILATION:- WINDOWS OR VENTS PLACED ON OPPOSITE SIDES OF THE BUILDING GIVE NATURAL BREEZES A PATHWAY THROUGH THE STRUCTURE.
  33. 33. SCOPE – • TO MINIMIZE THE EXTERNAL ENERGY OR MECHANICAL SYSTEM. • IMPLEMENTATION OF NATURAL VENTILATION SYSTEM- NATURAL DAYLIGHTING CAN BE PROVIDED. • THERMAL COMFORT CAN BE ACQUIRED WITH LESS ECONOMICAL BUDGET
  34. 34. LIMITATION - CALCULATION OF WIND THROUGH DIFFERENT TOOLS

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