The primary factor affecting language acquisition appears to be the input that the learner receives. Stephen Krashen took a very strong position on the importance of input, asserting that comprehensible input is all that is necessary for second-language acquisition. Conversational interaction in a second language forms the basis for the development of language rather than being only a forum for practice of specific language features. (Gass, 2003)
L i ngui sti c semi nar Created by Facilitator: Joel Acosta Mirna Quintero June, 2012
Input and SLAPrimary Factor affects Language Acquisistion is Input Learner
Stephen Krashen (1941) He is an emeritus professor at the University of Southern California, who moved from the linguistics department to the faculty of theSchool of Education in 1994. He is alinguist, educational researcher, and activist.
Strong position INPUT ComprehensibleUGM necessary SLA Mechanism according Language By which Learn People
The Input Hypothesis (Krashen, 1985) SLA explains Takes placeLearner improves / Natural along SL Input progresses order acquisition Input Hypothesis concerned not learning
Learning takes place learner’s access to comprehensible input Humans acquire languageUnderstanding Receiving messages comprehensible input.
Input comprehensible1. Pre-modify input before it is offered to the learner (premodified input) 2. Negotiate the input through interaction (interactionally modified input).
Michael Long (1982) Input can be made comprehensibleBy modifying By modifying speech the interactional structure of the conversation. By providing linguistic and extralinguistic By orienting the context communication to the “here and now;”.
Long asserts that all four ways may aidcommunication, but he especially emphasizes thatthe fourth is most likely to aid language acquisition.He reports that the input that has not beencomprehended may become comprehensiblethrough the process of interaction or negotiation.
Interaction and SLAA common theme underlying different methods oflanguage teaching is that second language learning is ahighly interactive process (Richards & Lockhart,2000:138).Interaction has two different but related meanings: 1. Interpersonal 2. Intrapersonal
Peoplecommunicate in face-to-faceactivity throughoral medium orwritten medium. Occur within one body, inner speech, or when different modules of the mind interact to construct meaning as a response to a phenomenon (Vygotsky 1978, cited in Ellis, 1999).
The role of “interaction” in SLA has longbeen a controversial issue.On one hand, there are theories such as UG whichminimizes the role of interaction and maximizes thelearner internal mechanisms in acquisition. Thefollowers of this theory consider the “interaction” as akind of input to activate the parameter setting (Cook,1996).On the other hand, some interactionists believe thatinteraction is the means through which learners obtaindata for learning (Ellis, 1999).
Interaction Hypothesis (1996) Development The Theory states of language proficiency Interaction by face-to-face promoted Communication Interaction itself contributes Strong Form to language development.InteractionHypothesis Interaction is the way that learners find learning Weak Form opportunities, whether or not they make productive use of them.
Interaction is thought to improve intake and integration bycreating the need to negotiate meaning at points ofcommunicative breakdown, and through various types offeedback (recasts, reformulations) which may be integratedinto learner production (uptake).This hypothesis suggests that feedback obtained duringconversational interaction promotes interlanguage (IL)development because it: Connects input, internal learner capacities, particularly selective attention, and output in productive ways. (Long, 1996)
In this view, classroom interaction is important not just toprovide practice opportunities, but because interactionactually activates acquisitional processes:Conversational interaction in a second language forms the basis for the development of language rather than being only a forum for practice of specific language features. (Gass, 2003)
Foreigner Talk and SLA Reduced version is Foreigner Talk Simplified version address NativeSpeakers Language SpeakersLanguage is Speakers who donot a native especially not know the one language at all
Foreigner Talk exhibits a number of peculiarities in its lexicon,syntax, and morphology, most of them consisting in attrition(friction) and simplification.“In the lexicon, we find most noticeably an attrition in terms of theomission of function words such as a, the, to, and. There is alsoa tendency to use onomatopoetic expressions such as(airplanes--) zoom-zoom-zoom, colloquial expressions such asbig bucks, and words that sound vaguely international such askapeesh”.
"In the morphology we find a tendency to simplify byomitting inflections. As a consequence, where ordinaryEnglish distinguishes I vs. me, Foreigner Talk tends touse only me." Is important I say bye-bye, I no want. Why no talk? He here. I think I not good teacher I write all student in office
Teacher Talk and SLA Teacher Talk Language Classroom Instruction Teacher ForeignLanguage Classroom exposed Target LanguageLearners
For this term, Longman Dictionary of LanguageTeaching and Applied Linguistics defines it as “thatvariety of language sometimes used by teachers whenthey are in the process of teaching. In trying tocommunicate with learners, teachers often simplify theirspeech, giving it many of the characteristics of foreignertalk and other simplified styles of speech addressed tolanguage learners” (Richards, 1992: 471).
Rod Ellis (1985) has formulated his own view about teacher talk: “Teacher talk is the special language that teachers use when addressing L2 learners in the classroom”.“Teacher talk can be divided into those thatinvestigate the type of language that teachers usein language classrooms and those that investigatein the type of language they use in subject lessons.” “The language that teachers address to L2 learner is treated as a register, with its own specific formal and linguistics properties” (Ellis, 1985: 145).
Special communicative activity GoalTo communicate To develop Students’ foreign Students language proficiency
Teacher talk is used in class when teachers are conducting instructions, cultivating their intellectual ability and managing classroom activities (Feng Qican, 1999: 23).Teachers adopt the target language to promote theircommunication with learners. Learners practice the language by responding to what their teacher says.Teachers use the language to encourage thecommunication between learners and themselves. Teacher talk is a kind of communication-based or interaction-based talk.
Error Analysis branch Error Analysis Applied Linguistics es d t abCompilation nc er ne lis h ed co 1960 Stephen P. Study Corder Analysis Contrastive Errors Analysis Alternative made L2 Learners Formal distinctions L1 and L2 Learners predict Errors
Error Analysis Contrastive Analysis Error AnalysisPedagogical orientation Scientific orientation Focus on input, practice Focus on linguistic and and inductive learning cognitive processes Error of transfer Different types of errors
Corder introduced the distinction between systematic andnon-systematic errors.Unsystematic errors occur in one’s native language;Corder calls these "mistakes" and states that they are notsignificant to the process of language learning.He keeps the term "errors" for the systematic ones, whichoccur in a second language.
In second language acquisition, error analysis studies the types andcauses of language errors. Errors are classified according to: modality (i.e., level of proficiency in speaking, writing, reading,listening) linguistic levels (i.e., pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, style) form (e.g., omission, insertion, substitution) type (systematic errors, errors in competence vs. occasional errorsand errors in performance) cause (e.g., interference, interlanguage) norm vs. system
Errors are significant in three ways:-To the teacher: they show a student’s progress.-To the researcher: they show how a language is acquired,what strategies the learner uses.-To the learner: he can learn from these errors.
When a learner has made an error, the most efficientway to teach him the correct form is not by simply givingit to him, but by letting him discover it and test differenthypotheses.(This is derived from Carrolls proposal (Carroll 1955,cited in Corder), who suggested that the learner shouldfind the correct linguistic form by searching for it.