Sociolinguisticslanguage, society and Culture Social Context Languages in contact Pidginization Languages variation language & Gender Created by Joel Acosta June, 2012
is influenced A form of social Social identity factors Which indicates Membership ofSocial different Speechgroups communities
It’s a group of people who share a set of norms, rules and expectations regarding to the use of languageThe study of The science which language in studies andsocial context investigates language
Strong connectionAnthropology Sociology Investigation of Crucial roles language and that language culture plays
Varieties of language used by groups Defined according toSocial class Gender Education Age
Upper class Lower class and more are important factors to and less educated determine educated social variety or dialectTend to use Tend to more simplify thecomplicated Differ in form way of forms and speaking pronunciation
Are also factors that can determine language variety or Age dialect Elders may Gender speak a bitdifferent from Male youngers Tend to use Female speakers simpler ways of speakers speaking Discuss their personal feelings. Prefer no- personal Tend to use more topics such as sports sophisticated Mention and news. language personal Respond giving experiences advice or solution
Different ethnic backgrounds Can provoke The frequent Differences in speech absence of the form of the verb to be: AFRICAN-AMERICANS They mine You crazy Have a dialect called Black English Vernacular Is stigmatized as The use of “BAD SPEECH” It is a double negative. widespread “He don’t know social dialect nothing” The speech of recent immigrants, and often of their children, will contain identifying features
Spoken Writtenlanguage language Related to Formal The situation of use Business letters Informal Letters to friends
The term was Become common: in originated by: the 1960s introducedThomas Bertram Reid in 1956 by a group of linguists who wanted to distinguish between variations in language according to the user and variations focus on the way according to use language is used in particular situations
Joos (1961) describes five styles in spoken English:Frozen Printed unchanging language such as bible quotations; often containsarchaisms.Formal One-way participation, no interruption. Technical vocabulary; "Fussysemantics" or exact definitions are important. Includes introductions betweenstrangers.Consultative Two-way participation. Background information is provided —prior knowledge is not assumed. "Backchannel behavior" such as "uh huh", "Isee", etc. is common. Interruptions allowed. Casual In-group friends and acquaintances. No background information provided. Ellipsis and slang common. Interruptions common. Intimate Non-public. Intonation more important than wording or grammar. Private vocabulary.
Halliday (1964) identifies three variables that determine register:Field (the subject matter of the discourse) Tenor (the participants and their relationships) Mode (the channel of communication, e.g. spoken or written)
Technical vocabulary associated with a specifically activity or group Engineering jargonMedical jargon Legal jargon Baseball jargon Computer jargon
Context is a notion used in the language sciences (linguistics, sociolinguistics, systemic functional linguistics, discourse analysis, pragmatics, semiotics, etc.) Verbal Context Social contextRefers to surrounding Is defined in terms text or talk of an of objective social expression (word, variables, such assentence, conversational those of class, turn, speech act, etc.). gender or race.
occurs when two or more languages or varieties interact occurs in a variety of phenomena Creation of new Borrowing oflanguages: Creolization vocabulary and mixed languages Strata Language influence shift
Borrowing of A word from one language that has vocabulary been adapted for use in another The result of the contact of two languages can be the replacement of one by the Language shift other. This is most common when one language has a higher social position. Language that influences, or is influenced by another through contact. Substratum is a language which has lower power or than another.Strata influence Superstratum is the language that has higher power. Adstratum refers to a language that is in contact with another language in a neighbor population without having identifiably higher or lower prestige. Language contact can also lead to the development of new languages when people without a common language interact closely, Creation of new developing a pidgin, which may eventually languages become a full-fledged Creole language through the process of Creolization.
Is a simplified language that develops as a means of communication between two or more groups that do not have a language in common May be built from Allow people towords, sounds, or body communicate with eachlanguage from multiple other without having other languages and any similarities in cultures language and does not have any rules Has low prestige with respect to other languages
Use of reduplication Uncomplicated to represent plurals, A lack of clausal structure superlatives, and morphophonemic (e.g., no embedded other parts of speech variation clauses, etc.) that represent the concept being increased Use of separate Reduction or words to indicate elimination of tense, usually syllable codaspreceding the verb Reduction of No tones, such as consonant those found in West clusters or African and Asian breaking them languages with epenthesis Basic vowels, such as [a, e, i, o, u]
Prolonged, regular An absence of a widespread,contact between the accessible interlanguage different language communities A need to communicate between them
Regional, social, or contextual differences in the ways that a particular language is used Some important terminologies InternalIdiolect Variation Dialect Language Variety
Refers to the property of languages of havingdifferent ways of expressing the same meaning E.g.: lorry- truck underground-subway flat-apartment.
A regional or social variety of a language distinguished by pronunciation, grammar, or vocabulary, especially a variety of speech differing from the standard literary language or speech pattern of the culture in which it exists: Cockney is a dialect of English. Every person speaks a A variety of language that withdialect of his or her native other varieties constitutes a language.(Dialectology) single language of which no single variety is standard: the dialects of Ancient Greek.
The language peculiar to the members of agroup, especially in an occupation; jargon: the dialect of science. A language considered as part of a larger family of languages or a linguistic branch. Not in scientific use: Spanish and French are Romance dialects.
Personal dialect of each individual speaker of a language. Nobody speak a It differs in some details perfect language,everybody speak an idiolect. Factors: Voice quality Physical state Social factors These contribute to the identifying features in an individual`s speech
is recognized as a relationship between languages in which speakers of different but related languages canreadily understand each other without intentional study or extraordinary effort. E.g. In china E.g. A person from Mandarin vs. New York speaking Cantonese (they are with a person from considered different Texas. dialects of the same language).
Means a large geographical area, where the spoken language differs only slightly from village to village, but over a longer distancethe differences become that huge, that mutual intelligibility is not possible. E.g.: Dutch vs. German Goedemorgen Guten Morgen
Standard Varieties Non-standard Varieties Are selected and Non-standard promoted by either varieties arequasi-legal authorities learned as first or other social language at home, institutions, such as through intensive schools or media, everyday contacts. they are more prestigious than Linguistically speaking, no one dialect or others. language is better , more correct, or more logical than any other
an extensive Standard American English, formal literature Standard British English, that employs that Standard Indian English, dialect in prose, Standard Australian English, poetry, non- and Standard Philippine fiction, etc. English may all be said to be published standard dialects of the English grammars, languagedictionaries, and textbooks that set forth a A dialect that"correct" spoken is supportedand written form by institutions Presentation as being the "correct" Such institutional support form of a language may include government in schools recognition or designation
Has a complete vocabulary, Associated with the grammar, and language of the lowersocioeconomic classes. syntax, but is not the beneficiary of institutional support Bad=improper An example of a nonstandard English dialect is Southern English
E.g.: Hillbilly Englishfrom the Appalachians Is not a in the USA and distinct Geordie from language Newcastle upon Tyne in the UK Some regional dialects A variety of a have been given language spoken traditional names which in a particular mark them out as being area of a country significantly different from standard varieties spoken in the same place
Singlish spoken in Singapore is a variety Sometimes members of a very different from standard English, and particular minority ethnic there are many other varieties of English group have their own used in India variety which they use as a marker of identity, usually alongside a standard varietyThe differences fromthe standard variety may be linked toEnglish proficiency, or may be part of a E.g.: African American range of varieties Vernacular English in the used to express USA, London Jamaican in identity Britain, and Aboriginal English in Australia Indigenized variety are spoken mainly as second languages in ex-colonies with multilingual populations
It is the variety of E.g.: standard Italian is a language characteristic dialect in that it isof a social background or status particular to Tuscany; it is also a sociolect in that it carries a certain prestige from being the lingua franca throughout A dialect which evolves the country – both in from regional speech broadcasting, in the may also have press, and by people of sociolectical high social status implications
Overt Prestige Covert Prestige how people should how people should speak speak in order to in order to be considered gain status in the member of a particular wider community community (standard dialects). (nonstandard dialects)
Many Isoglosses indicate that the speech of that Language varietiesparticular group is different are defined in terms in a number of ways from of geographical other around it. boundaries are called Regional Dialects. The boundaries of a particular linguistic The study of the area are called regional dialects is Isoglosses. called dialectology.
LANGUAGE GENDER Is a range of characteristics used to Is a tool of distinguish between males and females,communication particularly in the cases of men and women and the masculine and feminine attributes assigned to them. Is an area of study within sociolinguistics, applied linguistics, and related fields that investigates varieties of speech associated with a particular gender, or social norms for such gendered language use LANGUAGE AND GENDER
POLITENESS MINIMAL RESPONSEVERBAL AGRESSION QUESTION SELF-DISCLOSURE TURN-TAKING CHANGGING THE TOPIC OF CONVERSATION
Is one of the ways in which theMINIMAL RESPONSE communicative behavior of men and women differ. has response frequently when they have a conversation for example : paralinguistic features such as ‘mhmm’ and ‘yeah’, which is behavior associated with has response less collaborative their language than women when use. they have a conversation for example: generally use ‘mhmm’ and ‘yeah’less frequently
QUESTION Men and women differ in their use of questions in conversations.Mens language is heardas clearly their toughness,as lack of affect, competitiveness, Use questions more frequently. Theyas independence, usually use questions tag to avoid makingas competence, strong statements,as hierarchy, to reflect their conservatism,as control. to prestige consciousness, to upward mobility, to insecurity, to deference, to nurturance, to emotional expressivity, to connectedness, to sensitivity to others, to solidarity.
TURN-TAKINGGives rises to complex forms of interaction in relation to the more regimented form of turn-taking.Female linguistic behavior characteristically encompasses a desire to take turns in conversation with others, which isopposed to men’s tendency towards centering on their own point or remaining silent when presented with such implicit offers of conversational turn-taking as are provided by hedges such as and "isn’t it".
CHANGING THE TOPIC OF CONVERSATION This difference may well be at the root of the conception that women chatter and talk too much, and may still sparker the same thinking in some males. In this way lowered estimation of women may arise. Women’s topic : Men’s Topic: Gossip Firm Men Sport Shopping Women Child-rearing PoliticPersonal relationship Cars
SELF-DISCLOSURE Is the process defined as telling others about the self.Sharing their Male tendencies toproblems and non-self-disclosureexperiences with and professing adviceothers, often to offer or offering a solutionsympathy. when confronted with another’s problems.They usually asked Because man usuallytheir friend about their solve their problemsproblems. by themselves.
VERBAL AGRESSION Engage in kros, or "angry talk", which is typically characterized by vituperative and brazen displays of insults and shouting.Focused on the down play of conflict in order tomaintain - or at least give - the illusion of harmony.
POLITENESS Is best expressed as the practical application of good manners or etiquetteAccording to Lakoff (1975), he identified three forms of politeness: Camaraderie Is Goodwill and Formal Politeness lighthearted rapport Generally accepted between friends; Deference Politeness formal standards comradeship. Is the condition of usually denote submitting to the professionalism, espoused, legitimate whereas the influence of ones absence or lack of superior or superiors. standards would be seen as casual.
There are many differences between men’slanguage and women’s language. We can seethat by minimal response side, Question side,Turn taking side, Changing the topic ofconversation side, Self-disclosure side, Verbalaggression side, Politeness side.