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Communicative Language Teaching (CLT/CLL)


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Communicative Language Teaching (CLT/CLL)

  1. 1. Presented by Joel Acosta Communicative Language Teaching and Communicative Language Learning
  2. 2. • CLT origins, can be found in changes in the British Language teaching tradition in the 1960s. • Back then, the Situational Language teaching approach was the norm. • SLT consisted in internalizing the structures of a language. • Mostly, learning grammar rules without vocabulary development. Background
  3. 3. • The SLT did not fill the need to develop language competence in Language teaching. • A group of experts saw the need to focus in communicative proficiency rather than mastery of structures. (Richards, J.C. & Rodgers, T.S. p.64) • Sandra J. Savignon, Christopher Candlin, D.A. Wilkins and Henry Widdowson along with others promoted the CLT approach. • Along with the changes in Europe it helped to reform the language teaching. Background
  4. 4. • Background • Representatives • Contribution • Concepts • Perspectives: – Linguistic – Pedagogy – Psychology – Sociology Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) • CLT approach Principals • CLT objectives • Learner´s role • Teacher´s role
  5. 5. SCHOLARS BRITISH APPLIED LINGUISTS who advocated CLT Representatives Cristopher Candlin (2001) and Henry Widdowson (1990). They began to see that a focus on structure was also not helping language students. They saw a need for students to develop communicative skill and functional competence in addition to mastering language structures
  6. 6. John Firth (1937), M.A.K Halliday (1978) Language is viewed as ‘‘meaning potential,’’ and the ‘‘context of situation’’ is viewed as central to understanding language systems and how they work. . Representatives
  7. 7. Language philosophers: John Austin (1962) &John Searle (1965) They based on the assumption that “(…) the minimal units of human communication are not linguistic expressions, but rather the performance of certain kinds of acts, such as • making statements, • asking questions, • giving directions, • apologizing, • thanking, and so on” Representatives
  8. 8. Contradicted Chomsky’s theory on what Competence referred to. He coined the term Communicative Competence. He developed the Communicative Approach in the 1970s. This Approach replaced Situational Language Teaching. Representatives American sociolinguists: Dell Hymes (1971), John Gumperz (1972), William Labov (1970) .
  9. 9. CLT emphasizes interaction and problem solving as both the means and the ultimate goal of learning English - or any language. As such, it tends to emphasize activities such as role play, pair work and group work. (Teflpedia) CLT is the product of educators and linguists who had grown dissatisfied with the audiolingual and grammar-translation methods of foreign language instruction. (Center for Applied linguistics) CLT aims at developing procedures for the teaching of the four skills that acknowledge the interdependence of language and communication. It aims at having students become communicatively competent.(Yemen Times) Concepts
  10. 10. Linguistics Grammatical Competence Sociolinguistic Competence Discourse Competence Strategic Competence Pedagogy Creation of an atmosphere The teacher is facilitator Use of concepts Use of strategies Perspectives
  11. 11. Sociology Psychology Sociocultural use of language Behaviorism Interactional function Cognitivism Personal function Constructivism Interpersonal relationship Functionalism Cooperativism rather than individualism Perspectives
  12. 12. • The objective of language learning is: to learn to express communication functions and categories of meaning. • Purpose of CLT: Let students communicate fluently in a target language (L2). • Develop “communicative competence”(Hymes, 1972). • Contrary to the traditional Grammar translation methods. • Lists, rules, translations CLT Approach Principals
  13. 13. • Use Language as: - means of communication - object of learning - means of expressing values • Focus on communication rather than structure • Language learning within the school curriculum • Focus on meaningful tasks • Collaboration CLT objectives
  14. 14. • The learner role as a negotiator, between himself, the learning process, interaction with the group’s activities and classroom procedures. • In other words, the learner should contribute as much as he gains in the classroom, learning in an interdependent way. (Richards J., C., Rodgers T. S.(p.77). Learner Role
  15. 15. • Two main roles: • First, to facilitate the communication process between all participants in the classroom, and a guide between students activities and texts. • Second, to act as an independent participant within the learning-teaching group. (Richards J.C., Rodgers T. S.(p.77). Teacher Role
  16. 16. • Materials are seen as a way of influencing the quality of classroom interaction and language use. • They have promote communicative language use. • Some Instructional Materials are: – Visual cues – Taped cues – Pictures (Flash cards) The Role of Instructional Materials
  17. 17. • Realia (from real life, authentic) • Wh- questions (Why, What, When, Where, Who) • Games • Role Plays • Simulations Other Instructional Materials
  18. 18. • This approach can help future teachers develop their students’ oral communication skills. • Students will lose the fear of communicating in a second language, in this case English as a Second Language. (ESL) • It can help promote confidence and security in the classroom environment, in everyday use, and when travelling abroad. • CLT is a new way of encouraging students to speak more and to get involve in their classroom activities Conclusion
  19. 19. Richards, J ; Rodgers, T. “Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching” 5th ed.1989. Melbourne. Cambridge University Press Celce-Murcia, M. (1991). Language Teaching Approaches. In M. Celce-Murcia (Ed.), Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language. (pp.3-10). Boston, Massachusetts: Heinle & Heinle. Bibliography