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  1. 1. REPORT WRITING <ul><li>An impartial ,objective, planned presentation of facts to one or more persons for a significant business purpose </li></ul>
  2. 2. Types of Reports <ul><li>Function: to inform or to analyze, These could be interim , quarterly or annual report </li></ul><ul><li>Subject matter: relate to different departments or functions like marketing, advertising, technical </li></ul><ul><li>Formality: Most reports have an introduction , main text & terminal part . A formal reports also contains, prefatory and supplementary parts </li></ul><ul><li>Origin: authorized ,voluntary or private </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency: periodic or special. </li></ul><ul><li>Format: memo ,letter, long report </li></ul>
  3. 3. Preparation before writing: <ul><li>Define the problem, purpose, scope and ask: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is wanted? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How much? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This will determine the purpose that can be written in one clear statement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. causes of high turnover, choice between two operating styles, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Preparation before writing: <ul><li>Consider who will receive the report. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overseas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Preparation before writing <ul><li>Determine ideas that need to be included: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem, objectives , scope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>review of literature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>theoretical frame </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Methodology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data &Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Findings & Conclusions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organize text </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare final report </li></ul>
  6. 6. Types of data <ul><li>Secondary – all published work </li></ul><ul><li>Primary data - office records, original letters, questionnaires, observations, experiments </li></ul>
  7. 7. Main parts of a written report- Introduction <ul><li>Authorization </li></ul><ul><li>Plan of presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Define problem , objective, & scope </li></ul><ul><li>Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Data source </li></ul><ul><li>Background (optional) </li></ul><ul><li>Definition of terms ( optional) </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations: restrictions of time, money, research, assistance. </li></ul><ul><li>Brief statement of results/recommendations </li></ul>
  8. 8. Main parts of a written report- main text <ul><li>This is the longest part of a report and contains details like: </li></ul><ul><li>elaboration the problem </li></ul><ul><li>methodology </li></ul><ul><li>data & analysis </li></ul><ul><li>result , findings </li></ul>
  9. 9. Main parts of a written report- terminal section <ul><li>Terminal section: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Summary of findings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conclusions (no personal opinions) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recommendations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan of action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proposition – series of assertions </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Plans of organizing report body: <ul><li>Deductive: results first- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Terminal section </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction (motivates a busy executive) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Text </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inductive: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Text (requires persuasion topic, reduces bias) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Ways of organizing text <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Topic or Criteria wise </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Order of Occurrence – Chronological </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Space/Location </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Functional - departments </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Procedure & Process </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Order of Importance- primary & secondary </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Order of Difficulty </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sources </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Problem & solution </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compare & contrast </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Case study </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Prefatory Section <ul><li>Cover design and wording of title : The two are different. </li></ul><ul><li>For good titles : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use five W’s – who, why, where, when, what </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use title length of 8-10 words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>avoid articles like ‘a’, ‘the’ or report, survey, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>avoid vague broad titles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>avoid evaluations in terms of titles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Title fly : blank sheet of paper between title page and cover. </li></ul><ul><li>Title page : consists of title, recipient name, sender’s name, and date (in that order). </li></ul>
  13. 13. Prefatory Section <ul><li>5. Letter of memorandum of authorization : a letter authorizing and commissioning the formal report writer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To: Mr. X </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From: XYZ Co. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject: _______ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Date: _______ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Request: _______ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Details: _______ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Courtesy: _______ </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Prefatory Section <ul><li>5 . Letter of memorandum of transmittal : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From writer to reader in another organization. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In books there is a preface / foreword </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally in letter format with letterhead and inside address omitted). </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Table of contents : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepared after text is typed, use leaders. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sub – divisions in contents are permitted. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Table of tables: separate for graphs, visuals, tables, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract, synopsis, executive summary: includes purpose, results, methods – placed between contents and report body. VERY BRIEF. </li></ul>Prefatory Section
  16. 16. Main Section <ul><li>This is the longest part of a report and contains details like: </li></ul><ul><li>elaboration the problem </li></ul><ul><li>methodology </li></ul><ul><li>data & analysis </li></ul><ul><li>result , findings </li></ul>
  17. 17. End section <ul><li>Summary condenses the text </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions evaluate and infer from the text </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendations suggest specific course of action based on text </li></ul>
  18. 18. Footnotes & Endnotes <ul><li>These are of two types : those that explain content and those that identify the sources of content , or citations. </li></ul><ul><li>Use of footnotes improves the credulity o the writer </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><ul><li>Any quotation, factual statement, etc., must be based on sources, else it is plagiarizing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross – reference footnotes directs the reader to another place within the report. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explanatory footnotes discuss, explain, give additional information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Superscripts refer the reader to footnotes or the reference section ( use small Arabic nos. placed slightly above the line at the end of the sentence and beginning of foot note) </li></ul></ul>Citations
  20. 20. Citations <ul><li>Popular method: standard Latin abbreviations </li></ul><ul><li>ibid. (in the same place) – refers to the immediately preceding footnote, but a different page </li></ul><ul><li>Op. cit: “in the work cited” – refers to a previously cited footnote that is followed by at least one intervening footnote about another source </li></ul><ul><li>Loc. Cit: “in the place cited” – refers to the same page in a previously cited footnote </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Placement of footnotes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bottom of page: where citation has been made, separated from the text by a typed solid line 1.5” to 2” long. Double space below the last line of text, beginning at left margin. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each footnote is typed single space usually indented 3-5 spaces on it’s first line and even with margin successively. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Double space between other footnotes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reference or bibliography should appear at the end of the text. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parenthetical documentation: (popular) – source citation is included within a sentence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>* author – date </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>* number – method </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>* full citation method </li></ul></ul></ul>Citations
  22. 22. Bibliographic citations <ul><li>Determine which format is used in the company </li></ul><ul><li>Know these facts of the source regardless of format: </li></ul><ul><li>Author/s </li></ul><ul><li>Authors capacity- editor , translator ,compiler </li></ul><ul><li>Date of publication </li></ul><ul><li>Title of article or book </li></ul><ul><li>Edition </li></ul><ul><li>Page s </li></ul><ul><li>Volume </li></ul><ul><li>Publisher </li></ul>
  23. 23. Language <ul><li>Present facts as they are </li></ul><ul><li>Paragraph length about 7 type written lines </li></ul><ul><li>All paragraphs should have topic sentence as the opening line even if there is a heading </li></ul><ul><li>Apply the seven Cs </li></ul><ul><li>Do not use more than two or three levels of headings in short reports </li></ul><ul><li>Sentences averaging 16-20 words </li></ul><ul><li>Concrete nouns </li></ul><ul><li>Few adverbs & adjectives </li></ul><ul><li>Generally written in past tense </li></ul>
  24. 24. Formatting <ul><li>Use caps, italics, underscore, boldface, more space , indentation and fonts variety to emphasize </li></ul><ul><li>Use tables , figures, graphs , pictures where ever they will help to clarify </li></ul><ul><li>In the introduction section do not give the title introduction , just write the paragraphs about the introduction </li></ul>
  25. 25. Pagination <ul><li>Every page in the report except the cover and title fly are numbered </li></ul><ul><li>All page number are not typed on the page but are counted </li></ul><ul><li>For prefatory sheets use Roman numbers </li></ul><ul><li>For main text use Arabic </li></ul><ul><li>Prefatory parts page numbers are centered at the bottom of the page </li></ul><ul><li>Cover page and title fly– do not count </li></ul><ul><li>Title page – count but do not insert </li></ul><ul><li>Transmittal -count but do not insert </li></ul><ul><li>Table of contents – count & insert </li></ul><ul><li>Exec summary – count & insert </li></ul><ul><li>In the main text all pages are counted and inserted ( you may not insert the page number on the page of a new chapter or section) </li></ul>
  26. 26. Appendix section <ul><li>Use appendix at the end of the main report to include pamphlets, questionnaires, pictures, maps , exhibits etc </li></ul><ul><li>Use a title cover to differentiate </li></ul><ul><li>If appendix is long make a content page in the beginning of the report </li></ul>
  27. 27. PROPOSALS <ul><li>Persuasion lies at the heart of proposal writing </li></ul>
  28. 28. Parts of proposal - Prefatory <ul><li>Title page </li></ul><ul><li>Letter of transmittal </li></ul><ul><li>Table of contents </li></ul><ul><li>List of table & figures </li></ul><ul><li>Executive summary or abstract </li></ul>
  29. 29. Parts of proposal – main body( introduction) <ul><li>Introduction : </li></ul><ul><li>Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Background, </li></ul><ul><li>Need </li></ul><ul><li>Objective </li></ul><ul><li>Procedures </li></ul>
  30. 30. Parts of proposal – main body (procedures) <ul><li>Methods and sources </li></ul><ul><li>Plan of action, </li></ul><ul><li>Sequence of events </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Personnel justification </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation of benefits of project </li></ul><ul><li>Budget cost and justification </li></ul>
  31. 31. Supplementary parts of proposal <ul><li>Details of budget </li></ul><ul><li>Sources </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul><ul><li>etc </li></ul>