INTRODUCTION TO  COMPUTER NETWORKS Avnika Nautiyal (N-17) Manish Singhal (N-39) FACULTY OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES UNIVERSITY...
Content <ul><li>IP Protocols - TCP/IP  </li></ul><ul><li>IP addressing - class A, B, C , D, E  </li></ul><ul><li>Routing a...
Networking Protocol: TCP/IP
IP Addressing Reserved for future 0 NetID 10 110 NetID 1110 Multicast Address HostID NetID HostID HostID Class A B C D 8 b...
Routing A B Internet <ul><li>How do packets get from A to B in the Internet? </li></ul>
Routing Protocol <ul><li>A routing protocol is the implementation of a routing algorithm in software or hardware.  </li></...
Interior Routing Protocol <ul><li>Interior Gateway Protocols (IGPs) handle routing within an Autonomous System. These prot...
Exterior Routing Protocol <ul><li>To get from place to place outside your network's, i.e. on the Internet, you must use an...
Various Routing Protocols
DNS <ul><li>Domain Name Server provides a mapping from names to resources of several types. It is a lookup mechanism for t...
DNS - Names <ul><li>The namespace needs to be made hierarchical to be able to scale. </li></ul><ul><li>The idea is to name...
DNS – Domains <ul><li>Domains are “namespaces” </li></ul><ul><li>Everything below .com is in the com domain. </li></ul><ul...
IPv4 - Addressing  <ul><li>32-bit number in “dotted-quad” notation </li></ul><ul><li>www.fms.edu --- 130.207.7.36 </li></u...
IPv6 – Address Space Scarcity <ul><li>128-bit addresses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Top 48-bits: Public Routing Topology (PRT) <...
Comparison – IPv4 Vs IPv6 <ul><li>Simplified header format. IPv6 has a fixed length header, which does not include most of...
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Networking presentation 9 march 2009

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Networking presentation 9 march 2009

  1. 1. INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER NETWORKS Avnika Nautiyal (N-17) Manish Singhal (N-39) FACULTY OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES UNIVERSITY OF DELHI DELHI - 110007
  2. 2. Content <ul><li>IP Protocols - TCP/IP </li></ul><ul><li>IP addressing - class A, B, C , D, E </li></ul><ul><li>Routing and Routing protocols </li></ul><ul><li>DNS </li></ul><ul><li>IPv4 vs V6 </li></ul>
  3. 3. Networking Protocol: TCP/IP
  4. 4. IP Addressing Reserved for future 0 NetID 10 110 NetID 1110 Multicast Address HostID NetID HostID HostID Class A B C D 8 bits 8 bits 8 bits 8 bits E 11110
  5. 5. Routing A B Internet <ul><li>How do packets get from A to B in the Internet? </li></ul>
  6. 6. Routing Protocol <ul><li>A routing protocol is the implementation of a routing algorithm in software or hardware. </li></ul><ul><li>A routing protocol uses metrics to determine which path to utilize to transmit a packet across an internetwork. </li></ul><ul><li>The metrics used by routing protocols include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of network layer devices along the path (hop count) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bandwidth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Load </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MTU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Routing protocols store the results of these metrics in a routing table. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Interior Routing Protocol <ul><li>Interior Gateway Protocols (IGPs) handle routing within an Autonomous System. These protocols keep track of how to get from one destination to the other inside a network or set of networks that you administrate (all of the networks you manage combined are usually just one Autonomous System). IGP fall into two categories:    </li></ul><ul><li>Distance Vector Protocols </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Routing Information Protocol (RIP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP)    </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Link State Protocols </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)     </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS-IS) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Exterior Routing Protocol <ul><li>To get from place to place outside your network's, i.e. on the Internet, you must use an Exterior Gateway Protocol. Exterior Gateway Protocols handle routing outside an Autonomous System and get you from your network, through your Internet provider's network and onto any other network. BGP is used by companies with more than one Internet provider. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of an EGP:    </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exterior Gateway Protocol (Replaced by BGP) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Various Routing Protocols
  10. 10. DNS <ul><li>Domain Name Server provides a mapping from names to resources of several types. It is a lookup mechanism for translating objects into other objects. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a globally distributed, loosely coherent, scalable, reliable, dynamic database. </li></ul><ul><li>It is comprised of three components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A “name space” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Servers making that name space available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resolvers (clients) which query the servers about the name space </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No single computer has all DNS data </li></ul><ul><li>DNS lookups can be performed by any device </li></ul><ul><li>Remote DNS data is locally cacheable to improve performance. </li></ul>
  11. 11. DNS - Names <ul><li>The namespace needs to be made hierarchical to be able to scale. </li></ul><ul><li>The idea is to name objects based on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>location (within country, set of organizations, set of companies, etc) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>unit within that location (company within set of company, etc) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>object within unit (name of person in company) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) </li></ul><ul><li>WWW.RIPE.NET. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>labels separated by dots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DNS provides a mapping from FQDNs to resources of several types </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Names are used as a key when fetching data in the DNS </li></ul></ul>Note the trailing dot
  12. 12. DNS – Domains <ul><li>Domains are “namespaces” </li></ul><ul><li>Everything below .com is in the com domain. </li></ul><ul><li>Everything below ripe.net is in the ripe.net domain and in the net domain. </li></ul>net domain com domain ripe.net domain net com ripe www www edu isi tislabs • disi ws1 ws2 • • • • • • ftp sun moon google
  13. 13. IPv4 - Addressing <ul><li>32-bit number in “dotted-quad” notation </li></ul><ul><li>www.fms.edu --- 130.207.7.36 </li></ul>Topological Addressing <ul><li>Problem: 2 32 addresses is a lot of table entries </li></ul><ul><li>Solution: Routing based on network and host </li></ul><ul><ul><li>130.207.0.0/16 is a 16-bit prefix with 2 16 IP addresses </li></ul></ul>Network (16 bits) Host (16 bits) 130 207 7 36 10000010 11001111 00000111 00100100
  14. 14. IPv6 – Address Space Scarcity <ul><li>128-bit addresses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Top 48-bits: Public Routing Topology (PRT) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3 bits for aggregation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>13 bits for TLA (like “tier-1 ISPs”) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8 reserved bits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>24 bits for NLA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>16-bit Site Identifier: aggregation within an AS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>64-bit Interface ID: 48-bit Ethernet + 16 more bits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pure provider-based addressing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Changing ISPs requires renumbering </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Comparison – IPv4 Vs IPv6 <ul><li>Simplified header format. IPv6 has a fixed length header, which does not include most of the options an IPv4 header can include. Even though the IPv6 header contains two 128 bit addresses (source and destination IP address) the whole header has a fixed length of 40 bytes only. This allows for faster processing. Options are dealt with in extension headers, which are only inserted after the IPv6 header if needed. So for instance if a packet needs to be fragmented, the fragmentation header is inserted after the IPv6 header. The basic set of extension headers is defined in RFC 2460. </li></ul><ul><li>Address extended to 128 bits. This allows for hierarchical structure of the address space and provides enough addresses for almost every 'grain of sand' on the earth. Important for security and new services/devices that will need multiple IP addresses and/or permanent connectivity. </li></ul><ul><li>A lot of the new IPv6 functionality is built into ICMPv6 such as Neighbor Discovery, Autoconfiguration, Multicast Listener Discovery, Path MTU Discovery. </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced Security and QoS Features. </li></ul>

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