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Introduction

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Introduction

  1. 1. INTRODUCTION
  2. 2. THE KEY POINTS <ul><li>THE CHANGING ENVIRONMENT - BUSINESS, SOCIAL & ORGANIZATIONAL. </li></ul><ul><li>HISTORICAL BACKGROUND. </li></ul><ul><li>RESEARCH METHODOLOGY. </li></ul><ul><li>KNITTING THE VARIOUS THEORETICAL FRAMEWORKS. </li></ul>
  3. 3. EARLY THINKING ABOUT MANAGEMENT <ul><li>MACHIAVELLI - “DISCOURSES” (1531) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AN ORGANIZATION IS MORE STABLE IF MEMBERS HAVE THE RIGHT TO EXPRESS THEIR DIFFERENCES AND SOLVE THEIR CONFLICTS WITHIN IT. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. CONTINUED... <ul><li>WHILE ONE PERSON CAN BEGIN AN ORGANIZATION, “it is lasting when it is left in the care of many and when many desire to maintain it”. </li></ul>
  5. 5. CONTINUED... <ul><li>A weak manager can follow a strong one, but not another weak one, and maintain authority. </li></ul><ul><li>A manager seeking to change an established organization “should retain at least a shadow of the ancient customs”. </li></ul>
  6. 6. ANOTHER CLASSIC WORK <ul><li>CHINESES PHILOSOPER - SUN TZU wrote a book more than 2000 years ago - THE ART OF WAR. </li></ul>
  7. 7. SUN TZU’S DICTUMS: <ul><li>When the enemy advances, we retreat! </li></ul><ul><li>When the enemy halts, we harass! </li></ul><ul><li>When the enemy seeks to avoid battle, we attack! </li></ul><ul><li>When the enemy retreats, we pursue! </li></ul>
  8. 8. WHY STUDY MANAGEMENT THEORY <ul><li>Because it provides a stable focus for understanding what we experience. </li></ul><ul><li>It enables to communicate efficiently. </li></ul><ul><li>Theories make it possible to keep learning about our world. </li></ul>
  9. 9. THE EVOLUTION OF MT <ul><li>Scientific Management School: Classical Organization Theory School. </li></ul><ul><li>The Behavioural School. </li></ul><ul><li>Management Science. </li></ul><ul><li>The Systems Approach. </li></ul><ul><li>The Contingency Approach. </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic Engagement Approach. </li></ul>
  10. 10. SCIENTIFIC MGMT. SCHOOL <ul><li>FREDERICK W. TAYLOR & OTHERS FORMULATED BETWEEN 1890-1930. </li></ul><ul><li>THE PURPOSE WAS TO DETERMINE SCIENTIFICALLY THE BEST METHODS FOR PERFORMING ANY TASKS, AND FOR SELECTING, TRAINING AND MOTIVATING WORKERS. </li></ul>
  11. 11. FREDERICK W. TAYLOR: DIFFERENTIAL RATE SYSTEM <ul><li>BASED HIS PHILOSOPHY ON 4 BASIC PRINCIPLES: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The development of a true science of management. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The scientific selection of workers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The scientific education and development of the worker. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intimate, friendly co-operation between management and labour. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. HENRY L. GANTT <ul><li>Taylor’s differential rate system seemed to have too little motivational impact. Therefore, he came up with the idea, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Every worker who finished a day’s assigned workload wins 50% bonus. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The supervisor would earn a bonus for each worker who reached the daily standard plus an extra bonus if all the workers reached it. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. THE GILBRETHS <ul><li>FRANK B. & LILLIAN M. GILBRETH collaborated to Fatigue and Motion Studies. </li></ul><ul><li>FOCUS: Ways of promoting the individual worker’s welfare. </li></ul><ul><li>According to them motion study would raise worker morale because of 2 reasons: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Obvious physical benefits and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrated management’s concern for workers </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. CLASSICAL ORGANIZATION THEORY SCH. <ul><li>HENRY FAYOL: To underlie the principles and skills that underlie effective management. MANAGERS ARE MADE NOT BORN . MANAGEMENT IS A SKILL. </li></ul><ul><li>TAYLOR’S CONCERN: Organizational Functions. </li></ul><ul><li>FAYOL’S CONCERN :Total Organization focussed on Management </li></ul>
  15. 15. MARY PARKER FOLLETT <ul><li>Believer in the POWER OF THE GROUP. </li></ul><ul><li>Management for her meant, “ the art of getting things done through people.” </li></ul><ul><li>Follett’s holistic model of control took into account not just individuals and groups but the effects of environmental factors, i.e. politics, economics, biology etc. </li></ul>
  16. 16. CHESTER I. BARNARD <ul><li>AN ENTERPRISE CAN OPERATE EFFICIENTLY AND SURVIVE ONLY WHEN THE ORGANIZATION GOALS ARE KEPT IN BALANCE WITH THE AIMS AND NEEDS OF THE INDIVIDUALS WORKING FOR IT. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ZONE OF INDIFFERENCE: What the employees would do without questioning the manager’s authority . </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. THE BEHAVIOURAL SCH. <ul><li>THE ORGANIZATION IS PEOPLE </li></ul><ul><li>A group of management scholars trained in sociology, psychology, and related fields who use their diverse knowledge to propose more effective ways to manage people in organizations. </li></ul>
  18. 18. THE HUMAN RELATIONS MOVEMENT <ul><li>HUMAN RELATIONS: How managers interact with other employees. </li></ul><ul><li>The Human Relations Movement arose from early attempts to systematically discover the social and psychological factors that would create effective human relations. </li></ul>
  19. 19. THE HAWTHORNE EXPERIMENTS <ul><li>Experiments done at Western Electric Company mostly at Hawthorne Plant near Chicago. </li></ul><ul><li>HAWTHORNE EFFECT - The possibility that workers who receive special attention will perform better simply because they received that attention - Elton Mayo and his colleagues . </li></ul>
  20. 20. FROM HUMAN RELATIONS TO BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE APPROACH <ul><li>More sophisticated view of human beings and their drives - Douglas McGregor (Theory X and Theory Y), Maslow (Self-Actualization). </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific investigation of people’s behaviour in organizations. </li></ul>
  21. 21. THE MANAGEMENT SCIENCE SCHOOL <ul><li>APPROACHING MANAGEMENT PROBLEMS THROUGH THE USE OF MATHEMATICAL TECHNIQUES FOR THEIR MODELING, ANALYSIS AND SOLUTION. </li></ul>
  22. 22. THE SYSTEMS APPROACH <ul><li>Views organization as a UNIFIED, DIRECTED SYSTEM OF INTER-RELATED PARTS. </li></ul><ul><li>Some Key Concepts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subsystem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synergy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open and closed system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. THE CONTINGENCY APPROACH <ul><li>According to it, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A manager’s task is to identify which technique in a particular situation, under particular circumstances, and at a particular time, best contribute to the attainment of management goals. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. AN ERA OF DYNAMIC MGMT. <ul><li>THE CHANGING TIME AND HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS ARE FORCING MANAGEMENT TO RETHINK TRADITIONAL APPROACHES IN THE FACE OF CONSTANT RAPID CHANGE. </li></ul>
  25. 25. A COMPANY OF BUSINESS PEOPLE <ul><li>Twentieth century organizations – 1. Owners and managers run the Company. 2. Workers would follow the directions. </li></ul><ul><li>Twenty-first century organizations – Company of Businesspeople </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Everyone is free to think like an owner and this attitude becomes a part of everyday life. CHANGED MIND SET. </li></ul></ul>

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