Published on

Published in: Business, Economy & Finance
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • 33
  • 34
  • 35
  • 36
  • 38 .
  • 39
  • 40
  • 41
  • 42
  • 3
  • Ch13

    1. 1. Vertical Integration and The Scope of the Firm <ul><li>Transactions Costs and the Scope of the Firm </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>--Why does the firm exist? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>--The evolution of firms and markets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The Costs and Benefits of Vertical Integration </li></ul><ul><li>Designing Vertical Relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Recent Trends </li></ul>OUTLINE
    2. 2. From Business Strategy to Corporate Strategy: The Scope of the Firm <ul><li>Business Strategy is concerned with how a firm computes within a particular market </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate Strategy is concerned with where a firm competes , i.e. the scope of its activities </li></ul><ul><li>The dimensions of scope are </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>geographical scope </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>vertical scope </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>product scope </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Transactions Costs and the Scope of the Firm P 1 P 2 P 3 C 1 C 2 C 3 Vertica l Product Geographical Scope Scope Scope V 1 V 2 V 3 P 3 P 2 P 1 C 3 C 2 C 1 V 1 V 2 V 3 [A] Single Integrated Firm [B] Several Specialized Firms linked by Markets In situation [A] the business units are integrated within a single firm. In situation [B] the business units are independent firms linked by markets. Are the administrative costs of the integrated firm less than the transaction costs of markets?
    4. 4. Transactions Costs and The Existence of the Firm <ul><li>Transaction cost theory explains not just the boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>of firms , also the existence of firms . </li></ul><ul><li>In 18th century English woo l len industry, no firms – </li></ul><ul><li>independent spinners and weavers linked by merchants. </li></ul><ul><li>Residential remodeling industry -- mainly independent self- </li></ul><ul><li>employed builders, plumbers, electricians, painters. </li></ul><ul><li>Key issue -- transaction costs of the market vs. </li></ul><ul><li>administrative costs of firms. </li></ul><ul><li>Where transaction costs high—firm is more efficient means </li></ul><ul><li>of organization </li></ul><ul><li>Note : transaction costs comprise costs of search and contract negotiationg and enforcement </li></ul>
    5. 5. Aggregate Concentration in US Manufacturing, 1947-97
    6. 6. Determinants of Changes i n Corporate Scope <ul><li>1800 – 1980 Expan ding scale and scope of industrial corporations due to </li></ul><ul><li>declining a dministrative costs of firms : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advances in transportation, information and communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advances in management — accounting systems, decision sciences, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>financial techniques, organizational innovations, scientific management </li></ul></ul>1980 – 1995 Shrinking size and scope of biggest industrial corporations. Increas ingly Increased no. of managerial Admin. costs of turbulent decisions. Need for fast firms rise relative external responses to external to transaction environment change costs of markets 19 95 – 2007 Rapid increase in global concentration (steel, aluminium, oil, beer, banking, cement). Key drivers: quest for market power and scale economies. Also, large corporations better at reconciling size with agility
    7. 7. The Costs and Benefits of Vertical Integration: BENEFITS <ul><li>Technical economies from integrating processes e.g. iron and steel production </li></ul><ul><li>— but doesn’t necessarily require common ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Superior coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Avoids transactions costs of market contracts in situations where there are: </li></ul><ul><li>-- small numbers of firms </li></ul><ul><li>-- transaction-specific investments </li></ul><ul><li>-- opportunism and strategic misrepresentation </li></ul><ul><li>-- taxes and regulations on market transactions </li></ul>
    8. 8. The Costs and Benefits of Vertical Integration: COSTS <ul><li>Differences in optimal scale of operation between different stages prevents balanced VI </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic differences between different vertical stages creates management difficulties </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibits development of and exploitation of core competencies </li></ul><ul><li>Limits flexibility -- in responding to demand cycles </li></ul><ul><ul><li> -- in responding to changes in technology, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> customer preferences, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(But , VI may be conducive to system-wide flexibility) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Compounding of risk </li></ul>
    9. 9. When is Vertical Integration More Attractiv e than Outsourcing? <ul><li>How many firms are available The fewer the companies </li></ul><ul><li>to undertake the activities? the more attractive is VI </li></ul><ul><li>Is transaction-specific investment If yes, VI more attractive </li></ul><ul><li>needed? </li></ul><ul><li>Does limited information permit VI can limit opportunism </li></ul><ul><li>cheating? </li></ul><ul><li>Are taxes or regulation imposed VI can avoid them </li></ul><ul><li>on transactions? </li></ul><ul><li>Do the different stages have similar Greater the similarity, the </li></ul><ul><li>optimal scale s of operation? more attractive is VI </li></ul><ul><li>Are the two stages strategically Greater the strategic </li></ul><ul><li>similar? similarity ---the more attractive is VI </li></ul><ul><li>How great the need for entrepreneurship Greater the need, the greater </li></ul><ul><li>& continual upgrading of capabilities the disadvantages of VI </li></ul><ul><li>How uncertain is market demand? Greater the unpredictability </li></ul><ul><li>----the more costly is VI </li></ul><ul><li>Are risks compounded by VI increases risk. </li></ul><ul><li>linkages between vertical stages </li></ul>
    10. 10. Iron ore mining Steel production Steel strip production Can making The value chain for steel cans MARKET CONTRACTS VERTICAL INTEGRATION MARKET CONTRACTS Canning of food, drink, oil, etc . VERTICAL INTEGRATION, AND MARKET CONTRACTS What factors explain why some stages are vertically integrated, while others are linked by market transactions?
    11. 11. Designing Vertical Relationships: Long-Term Contracts and Quasi-Vertical Integration <ul><li>Intermediate between spot transactions and vertical integration are several types of vertical relationships </li></ul><ul><li>---such relationships may combine benefits of both market transactions and internalization </li></ul><ul><li>Key issues in designing vertical relationships </li></ul><ul><li>-- How is risk allocated between the parties? </li></ul><ul><li>-- Are the incentives appropriate? </li></ul>
    12. 12. Recent Trends in Vertical Relationships <ul><li>From competitive contracting to supplier partnerships, e.g. in autos </li></ul><ul><li>From vertical integration to outsourcing (not just components, also IT, distribution, and administrative services). </li></ul><ul><li>Diffusion of franchising </li></ul><ul><li>Technology partnerships (e.g. IBM- Apple; Canon- HP) </li></ul><ul><li>Inter-firm networks </li></ul><ul><li>General conclusion :- boundaries between firms and markets becoming increasingly blurred. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Different Types of Vertical Relationship Spot sales/ purchases Long-term contracts Agency agreements Franchises Vertical integration Joint ventures Informal supplier/ customer relationships Supplier/ customer partnerships Low Degree of Commitment High Low Low Formalization High