Ch07

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  • Ch07

    1. 1. The Nature and Sources of Competitive Advantage <ul><li>The emergence of competitive advantage </li></ul><ul><li>Sustaining competitive advantage </li></ul><ul><li>Competitive advantage in different market settings </li></ul><ul><li>Types of competitive advantage: cost and differentiation </li></ul>OUTLINE
    2. 2. The Emergence of Competitive Advantage How does competitive advantage emerge? <ul><li>External sources of </li></ul><ul><li>change e.g.: </li></ul><ul><li>Changing customer demand </li></ul><ul><li>Changing prices </li></ul><ul><li>Technological change </li></ul>Internal sources of change Resource heterogeneity among firms means differential impact Some firms faster and more effective in exploiting change Some firms have greater creative and innovative capability
    3. 3. Competitive Advantage from Internally-Generated Change: Strategic Innovation <ul><li>Characteristics of innovatory strategies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Associated with new entrants to an industry (e.g. Nucor in steel, IKEA in furniture, Home Depot in DIY , Dell in PCs, American Apparel in casual clothing ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reconcile conflicting performance goals (e.g. Toyota’s lean production system combines low cost, high quality, and flexibility. Retailers Primark and Target combine low cost with stylishness.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reconfiguring the value chain e.g.--- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nike’s system for manufacturing and distributing shoes totally different from traditional shoe manufacturer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Southwest Airlines simplification of the normal airline value chain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Zara’s system of design, manufacture, and distribution </li></ul></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Sustaining Competitive Advantage Against Imitation REQUIREMENT FOR IMITATION Identification - Obscure superior performance - Deterrence --signal aggressive Incentives for imitation intentions to imitators - Pre-emption --exploit all available investment opportunities - Rely upon multiple sources of Diagnosis competitive advantage to create “ causal ambiguity” - Base competitive advantage upon Resource acquisition resources and capabilities that are immobile and difficult to replicate ISOLATING MECHANISM
    5. 5. Competitive Advantage in Different Industry Settings: Trading Markets and Production Markets TRADING MARKETS <ul><li>None (efficient markets) </li></ul><ul><li>Imperfect information </li></ul><ul><li>Transactions costs </li></ul><ul><li>Systematic behavioral trends </li></ul><ul><li>Overshooting </li></ul>None Insider trading Cost minimization Superior diagnosis (e.g. chart analysis) Contrarianism PRODUCTION MARKETS <ul><li>Barriers to imitation </li></ul><ul><li>Barriers to innovation </li></ul>Identify potential barriers to imitation (e.g. deterrence, preemption, causal ambiguity, resource immobility, etc.) & base strategy upon them. Difficult to influence or exploit. MARKET TYPE SOURCE OF IMPERFECTION OF COMPETITION OPPORTUNITY FOR COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE
    6. 6. Sources of Competitive Advantage COST ADVANTAGE DIFFERENTIATION ADVANTAGE COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE Similar product at lower cost Price premium from unique product
    7. 7. Porter’s Generic Strategies SOURCE OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE Low cost Differentiation Industry-wide COST DIFFERENTIATION COMPETITIVE LEADERSHIP SCOPE Single Segment F O C U S
    8. 8. Features of Cost Leadership and Differentiation Strategies <ul><li>Generic strategy Key strategy elements Resource & organizational </li></ul><ul><li> requirements </li></ul><ul><li>COST Scale-efficient plants. Access to capital. Process </li></ul><ul><li>LEADERSHIP Design for manufacture. engineering skills. Frequent </li></ul><ul><li> Control of overheads & reports. Tight cost control. </li></ul><ul><li> R&D. Avoidance of Specialization of jobs and </li></ul><ul><li> marginal customer functions. Incentives for </li></ul><ul><li> accounts. quantitative targets. </li></ul><ul><li>DIFFERENTIATION Emphasis on branding Marketing. Product </li></ul><ul><li> and brand advertising, engineering. Creativity. </li></ul><ul><li> design, service, and Product R&D </li></ul><ul><li> quality. Qualitative measurement and incentives. Strong cross-functional coordination. </li></ul>

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