2 planning

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2 planning

  1. 1. Planning and Deterministic scheduling
  2. 2. Motivation for Scheduling <ul><li>Reducing chances of delay </li></ul><ul><li>Recovering from Delay </li></ul><ul><li>Delays result from poor planning </li></ul><ul><li>Assigning responsibilities </li></ul>
  3. 3. Motivation for Scheduling <ul><li>Better utilization of resources </li></ul><ul><li>Identification of critical resources </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and Resolution of conflict ahead of time </li></ul>
  4. 4. Motivations for scheduling <ul><li>Formalization necessary but not sufficient for managing </li></ul>
  5. 5. Ubiquitous role of scheduling <ul><li>Importance of schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Design (preliminary schedule) </li></ul><ul><li>Establish finish, milestone times for choreographing activities </li></ul><ul><li>Procurement time, subcontractor presence, tenant occupancy </li></ul><ul><li>Importance for thinking through issues </li></ul><ul><li>Identify critical path </li></ul>
  6. 6. Ubiquitous role of scheduling <ul><li>Importance of schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Communication tool between parties </li></ul><ul><li>Framework for monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Role in control </li></ul><ul><li>- Assessing impacts of changes </li></ul><ul><li>- Allows demonstration of indirect costs </li></ul><ul><li>- Legal importance </li></ul>
  7. 7. Ubiquitous role of scheduling <ul><li>Importance of schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Link to resources </li></ul><ul><li>- Payments </li></ul><ul><li>- Resource usage </li></ul><ul><li>Identify exposure to external forces (crowding, weather conditions ) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Linkage to estimation <ul><li>Scheduling allows understanding of cash flow over time </li></ul><ul><li>Given time value of money, scheduling critical to understanding present value of estimate </li></ul>
  9. 9. THE GANTT CHART <ul><li>Attributed to Henry Gantt – most popular PM tool (80%) </li></ul><ul><li>Used to plan big shipbuilding projects (cargo ships WWI) </li></ul><ul><li>Graphical way of showing task durations, project schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Does not explicitly show relationships between tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Limited use for project tracking </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to understand </li></ul>
  10. 10. A Gantt Chart of a Sample Project
  11. 11. Completion Today Calendar
  12. 12. Gantt: Sequential vs. phased
  13. 13. Hierarchy of Gantt Charts
  14. 14. CPM NETWORKS
  15. 15. History <ul><li>Late 1950s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. Navy, Booz-Allen Hamilton, and Lockeheed Aircraft </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Probabilistic activity durations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical Path Method (CPM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dupont De Nemours Inc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deterministic activity durations </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Gantt vs. CPM
  17. 17. The Language of PERT/CPM <ul><li>Activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>task or set of tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have definable ending and beginning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>use resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Event </li></ul><ul><ul><li>state resulting from completion of one or more activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>consume no resources or time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>predecessor activities must be completed </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. The Language of PERT/CPM continued <ul><li>Milestones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>events that mark significant progress </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>diagram of nodes and arcs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>used to illustrate technological relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Path </li></ul><ul><ul><li>series of connected activities between two events </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. The Language of PERT/CPM continued <ul><li>Dummy activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An arrow representing merely a dependency of one activity upon another. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It carries a zero time estimate </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. The Language of PERT/CPM concluded <ul><li>Critical Path </li></ul><ul><ul><li>set of activities on a path that if delayed will delay completion of project </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Critical Time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>time required to complete all activities on the critical path </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Building the Network <ul><li>AOA Network </li></ul><ul><li>AON Network </li></ul>
  22. 22. Sample Set of Project Activities and Precedences
  23. 23. Stage 1 of a Sample AON Network
  24. 24. Stage 2 of a Sample AON Network
  25. 25. A Completed Sample AON Network
  26. 26. Stage 1 of a Sample AOA Network
  27. 27. Stage 2 of a Sample AOA Network
  28. 28. A Completed Sample AOA Network
  29. 29. A Completed Sample AOA Network Showing the Use of a Dummy Task
  30. 30. A Sample Problem for Finding the Critical Path and Critical Time
  31. 31. Stage 1 of a Sample Network
  32. 32. A Complete Network
  33. 33. Information Contents in an AON Node
  34. 34. The Critical Path and Time for Sample Project
  35. 35. Calculating Activity Slack <ul><li>Slack or Float </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LST - EST = LFT - EFT = Slack </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. An MSP Version of PERT/CPM Network
  37. 37. A Gantt Chart of Sample Project Showing Critical Path, Path Connections, Slack, EST, LST, EFT, and LFT
  38. 38. A Gantt Chart of a Day Care Project Showing Expected Durations, Critical Path, Milestone, and Resource Requirements
  39. 39. A Progress Report on a Day Care Project Showing Actual Progress Versus Baseline
  40. 40. Exercise 1 Draw a AOA and AON diagrams for the project:
  41. 41. Exercise 2 Draw a AOA and AON diagrams for the project:
  42. 42. Exercise 3 Draw a AOA and AON diagrams for the project:
  43. 43. Exercise 4 Draw a AOA and AON diagrams for the project:
  44. 44. Exercise 5 (Tricky!) Draw a AOA and AON diagrams for the project:
  45. 45. Exercise 6 Draw a AOA and AON diagrams for the project:

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