Session 3 learning


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Session 3 learning

  1. 1. Learning Sessions 3
  2. 2. Exercise - New Directions <ul><li>Old Directions </li></ul><ul><li>UP </li></ul><ul><li>DOWN </li></ul><ul><li>LEFT </li></ul><ul><li>RIGHT </li></ul><ul><li>FRONT </li></ul><ul><li>REAR </li></ul><ul><li>New Directions </li></ul><ul><li>RIGHT </li></ul><ul><li>REAR </li></ul><ul><li>DOWN </li></ul><ul><li>FRONT </li></ul><ul><li>UP </li></ul><ul><li>LEFT </li></ul>
  3. 3. Shaping Behavior <ul><li>Have you been able to shape anyone’s behavior? </li></ul><ul><li>Who are easier to teach – the good performers or the average performers? </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching Smart People How to Learn </li></ul>
  4. 4. Learning <ul><li>Any </li></ul><ul><ul><li>relatively permanent change in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>behavior that occurs as </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a result of experience. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Theories of learning <ul><li>Classical Conditioning (Pavlov) </li></ul><ul><li>Unconditioned stimulus - meat </li></ul><ul><li>Unconditioned response - salivation </li></ul><ul><li>Conditioned stimulus - bell </li></ul><ul><li>Conditioned response – salivation on bell </li></ul><ul><li>Used by organizations? </li></ul>
  6. 6. Theories of learning (Contd.) <ul><li>Operant Conditioning (Skinner) </li></ul><ul><li>Reflexive (unlearned) behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Conditioned (learned) behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement </li></ul>
  7. 7. Schedules of Reinforcement Fixed-ratio
  8. 8. Theories of learning (contd.) <ul><li>Social-Learning Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People can learn through observation as well as direct experience. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People learn from </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Activities that draw their attention </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Retain in their minds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are able to copy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are reinforced positively </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Social Learning Model of Self-Management Person (Psychological Self) <ul><li>Symbolic coding </li></ul><ul><li>Rehearsal </li></ul><ul><li>Self-talk </li></ul>Behavior <ul><li>Behavior changes needed for self-improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Reminders and attention </li></ul><ul><li>focusers </li></ul><ul><li>Self-observation data </li></ul><ul><li>Avoidance of negative </li></ul><ul><li>cues </li></ul><ul><li>Seeking of positive cues </li></ul><ul><li>Personal goal setting </li></ul><ul><li>Self-contracts </li></ul><ul><li>Self-reinforcement/self- </li></ul><ul><li>punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Building activities into </li></ul><ul><li>the task that are naturally </li></ul><ul><li>rewarding (e.g. activities </li></ul><ul><li>that increase one’s sense </li></ul><ul><li>of competence, self- </li></ul><ul><li>control and purpose) </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement from </li></ul><ul><li>relevant others </li></ul>Situational cues Consequences
  10. 10. Shaping Behavior <ul><li>Shaping Behavior or OB Mod </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves an individual closer to the desired response. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforcement is required to change behavior. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some rewards are more effective than others. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The timing of reinforcement affects learning speed and permanence. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Reinforcement <ul><li>Exercise </li></ul>
  12. 12. Behavior Shaping <ul><li>Positive reinforcement (giving reward) </li></ul><ul><li>Negative Reinforcement – a negative condition is stopped or avoided as a consequence of the behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment , weakens a behavior because a negative condition is introduced or experienced as a consequence of the behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Extinction : When a behavior is not reinforced it stops showing. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Our Learning Styles <ul><li>LSI </li></ul>
  14. 14. Do you believe….. <ul><li>Tell me and I'll forget; </li></ul><ul><li>show me and I may remember; </li></ul><ul><li>involve me and I'll understand. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Learning Style <ul><li>Inclination each of us has to perceive, interpret and respond to information in a certain way. </li></ul><ul><li>Based on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The manner in which you gather information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The way in which you evaluate and act on information </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. How You Take in Experiences/ Gather Information Learning from specific experiences Logically analyzing ideas Concrete Experience Abstract Conceptualization
  17. 17. How You Deal With Experiences Learning by doing Carefully observing before making judgements Active Experimentation Reflective Observation
  18. 18. Kolb’s Model of Learning Styles
  19. 19. Your Learning Style <ul><li>May impact choice of decision situation and problem types (e.g. structured vs. unstructured) </li></ul><ul><li>May impact how you define a problem (action vs. analysis) </li></ul><ul><li>May impact your decision making process </li></ul>
  20. 20. Your Learning Style <ul><li>Helps you understand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How you solve problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How you work in teams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How you manage conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How you negotiate personal and professional relationships </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Kolb’s Cycle of Learning
  22. 22. Scoring Plot for the LSI
  23. 23. Learning Style Types Concrete Experience Abstract Conceptualization Active Experimentation Reflective Observation How you learn How you deal
  24. 24. Diverging Style <ul><li>Imaginative, like to look at problems from different perspectives, inductive thinkers </li></ul><ul><li>Tend to be emotional and like to work in groups </li></ul><ul><li>Prefer jobs where personal interactions dominate </li></ul>
  25. 25. Assimilating Style <ul><li>Best at processing a wide range of information and putting it into a concise, cohesive and logical form </li></ul><ul><li>Prefer ideas and concepts to people, like creating models </li></ul><ul><li>Prefer jobs requiring information gathering and assimilation (e.g. research and analysis) </li></ul><ul><li>Defining problems </li></ul><ul><li>Developing theories </li></ul>
  26. 26. Converging Style <ul><li>Best at finding practical uses for ideas and theories </li></ul><ul><li>Problem solvers and decision makers, prefer to deal with technical tasks rather than people issues. </li></ul><ul><li>Excel at single answer problems and practical application of ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Reasoning deductively </li></ul><ul><li>Engineers and technicians </li></ul>
  27. 27. Accommodating Style <ul><li>Best at hands on experience/ Getting things done </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoy carrying out plans and involving themselves in new and challenging experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Risk taking – tend to act on gut feeling rather than logical analysis, tend to excel at entrepreneurial activities </li></ul><ul><li>Prefer problem solving by interacting with people rather than systematic analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Prefer careers in marketing, sales and managerial roles </li></ul>
  28. 28. Strategies for Developing Learning Style Skills <ul><li>Develop learning and work relationships with individuals who are strong in learning styles where you are not. </li></ul><ul><li>Better fit your learning style strengths to the learning experiences you encounter. </li></ul><ul><li>Apply and strengthen learning style skills that are the opposite of your strongest style skills. </li></ul>
  29. 29. How to Strengthen? Style How to Strengthen Assimilation Practice organizing details and analyzing numerical data Converging Practice setting goals and making decisions Accommodating Practice identifying new opportunities and becoming personally involved with people Diverging Practice collecting data and listening with an open mind
  30. 30. Teaching Smart People How to Learn <ul><li>Realization that most human behavior patterns block learning in an organization </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion of why well-educated professionals are prone to these patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of how all companies can improve the ability of their managers and employees to learn </li></ul>
  31. 31. Typical Misunderstanding of Learning <ul><li>Two mistakes made in the effort of becoming a learning organization: </li></ul><ul><li>People define learning too narrowly as mere “Problem Solving” </li></ul><ul><li>The common assumption that getting people to learn is largely a matter of motivation </li></ul>
  32. 32. Types of Learning Single Loop Learning Double Loop Learning A thermostat that automatically turns on the heat whenever the temperature in a room drop below 68° A thermostat that could ask: “Why am I set at 68°?” and then explores whether or not some other temperature might more economically achieve the goal of heating the room.
  33. 33. How Professionals Avoid Learning Good at Single Loop Learning not Double Loop Learning “ Put simply, because many professionals are almost always successful at what they do, they rarely experience failure. So whenever their single-loop strategies go wrong, they become defensive, screen out criticism, and put the “blame” on everyone but themselves. In short, their ability to learn shuts down precisely at the moment they need it most themselves.” p. 83
  34. 34. Behavior Theory <ul><li>Espoused Theory : How people think they behave </li></ul><ul><li>Theory-in-use : How people actually behave </li></ul>
  35. 35. Theory-in-use <ul><li>Governing Values of theory-in-use: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To remain in control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To maximize winning and minimize losing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To be as rational as possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The purpose of all these values is to avoid embarrassment or threat, feeling vulnerable or incompetent </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Defensive Reasoning and the Doom Loop <ul><li>Encourages individuals to keep private the assumptions, inferences, and conclusions that shape their behavior and to avoid testing them in a truly independent, objective fashion. </li></ul><ul><li>Performance evaluations are tailor-made to push professionals into the doom loop </li></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>How to promote double loop learning? </li></ul>