BSZQRPHSBQIZCRYPTOGRAPHY        Presented by Kinley
History of Cryptography In the beginning: before 2000 BCBefore 2,000 BC             http://www.livius.org/a/turkey/mycale/...
Around 1900 BC : In Egypt [Non-Standardhieroglyphics]     http://www.bible-history.com/maps/maps/israel_and_her_neighbors....
487 BC: The Greek used a device called the Scytale       http://flylib.com/books/2/827/1/html/2/images/1004.jpg Greeks an...
200–118 BC: Another Greek method wasdeveloped by Polybius (now called the "PolybiusSquare"). http://www.sciencephoto.com/i...
60-50 BC: Caesar Shift Cipher http://www.secretcodebreaker.com/ciphrdsk.gif Encrypt (“BAD”, 3) = “EDG”                    ...
The Breaking Caesar Shift     Ciphers  The algorithm was not particularly strong  Using Frequency AnalysisIn English (So...
15th Century: Leon Battista AlbertiLeon Battista Alberti (1404–1472) was anItalian author, artist, architect, poet, priest...
Encryption using single key in                  Alberti Cipher Disk Its  consisted of two metal  discs, one mobile, and o...
Encryption using Multiple keys in AlbertiCipher Diskhttp://www.geocaching.com/seek/cache_details.aspx?guid=1b622946-92f8-4...
1790: Thomas Jefferson invented Wheel cipher.♦ Americas minister to    France♦ The wheel cipher consisted    of a row of c...
19th Century: Blaise de Vigenère was a French       diplomat with Roman and cryptographer                                 ...
1917 Century;Gilbert Vernam was an engineer forThe American Telephone and TelegraphCompany.He was asked in 1917, during ...
Enigma          Machine Electro-mechanical cipher machine,  simple in design yet powerful in  capability Built in German...
1932-1944:♦The     Pole, Marian Rejewskiattacked and broke the earlyGerman Army Enigma system usingtheoretical mathematics...
Data Encryption  Standard (DES)♦ 1972: U.S. Government recognized  the need to have a standardized  cipher    for   secret...
Breaking of Data EncryptionStandard (DES) The key length of DES was too   short    • If a key is 56 bits long, that means...
Advanced Encryption With DES effectively broken, a new standard was Standard  needed U.S.      Government        made   ...
Current attacks against AES On AES with 128-bit keys, a brute force attack would  require 2128 work    Any technique tha...
♦ 1976: Whitfield Diffie & Martin Hellman published  New Directions in Cryptography.♦ Develop the fundamental ideas of dua...
 1978: Ronald L. Rivest, Adi Shamir & Leonard  M.  Adleman (RSA) published RSA Algorithm for  Public Key System.         ...
Cryptography in ModernLiving♦ Secure Communications  -Document / Data / Email  Encryption♦ Identification and           ht...
References♦   Boone, J.V. (2005). A Brief History of Cryptology. Naval Institute Press, USA♦   Damico,Tony M. (2009), A br...
Paremes Laosinchai, Ph.D
Example of Wheel Cipher EncryptionPlain Text: "The package is in the drop zone."Rotate the individual disks until we spell...
Example of Vigenère Cipher ♦ Plain Text:   ATTACKATDAWN ♦ Key: LEMON♦ Plain text:  ATTACKATDAWN♦ Key:  LEMONLEMONLE♦ Ciphe...
1930-1941:In WWII, German military used Lorenz SZ40 and SZ 42 cipher machines based onVernam cipher to encrypt tele-print...
What is Cryptography?CRYPTOLOGY                             Breaking of codes and cipher              Steganography       ...
Cryptographic Algorithm &Operation
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Cryptography its history application and beyond

3,459 views

Published on

History of Cryptography and Its Application

Published in: Technology, Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
3,459
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
75
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • The key can only be used once and must be kept entirely secret from all except the sender and receiver, creating a distribution problem. If these problems are not overcome, particularly the randomness of the key, the one-time pad is no longer unbreakable. Even if it is theoretically secure, it may be insecure in practice.
  • NBS : National Bureau of Standards NIST : National Institute of Standards and Technology IBM : International Business Machines Corporation In modern cryptography, symmetric key ciphers are generally divided into stream ciphers and block ciphers. Block ciphers operate on a fixed length string of bits A parity bit is a bit that is added to ensure that the number of bits with the value one in a set of bits is even or odd. Parity bits are used as the simplest form of error detecting code
  • Diffie and Martin Hellman's paper New Directions in Cryptography was published in 1976. It introduced a radically new method of distributing cryptographic keys, that went far toward solving one of the fundamental problems of cryptography, key distribution. It has become known as Diffie–Hellman key exchange The RSA algorithm was publicly described in 1977 but given the relatively expensive computers needed to implement it at the time, it was mostly considered a curiosity and, as far as is publicly known, was never deployed. His discovery, however, was not revealed until 1998 due to its top-secret classification, and Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman devised RSA independently of Cocks' work. The prime factors must be kept secret. Anyone can use the public key to encrypt a message, but with currently published methods, if the public key is large enough, only someone with knowledge of the prime factors can feasibly decode the message
  • Diffie and Martin Hellman's paper New Directions in Cryptography was published in 1976. It introduced a radically new method of distributing cryptographic keys, that went far toward solving one of the fundamental problems of cryptography, key distribution. It has become known as Diffie–Hellman key exchange The RSA algorithm was publicly described in 1977 but given the relatively expensive computers needed to implement it at the time, it was mostly considered a curiosity and, as far as is publicly known, was never deployed. His discovery, however, was not revealed until 1998 due to its top-secret classification, and Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman devised RSA independently of Cocks' work. The prime factors must be kept secret. Anyone can use the public key to encrypt a message, but with currently published methods, if the public key is large enough, only someone with knowledge of the prime factors can feasibly decode the message
  • Identification is the process of verifying someone's or something's identity Authentication is similar to identification, in that both allow an entity access to resources (such as an Internet account), but authentication is broader because it does not necessarily involve identifying a person or entity. Authentication merely determines whether that person or entity is authorized for whatever is in question
  • Cryptology: the study of cryptanalysis and cryptography Cryptanalysis : The "breaking" of codes and ciphers Steganography is about hiding messages i.e. hides even the existence of a message In Greek: Steganos = covered and Graphein = to write Historically, secret messages were often hidden (or memorized) Today, steganography is used primarily to protect digital rights “ watermarking” copyright notices “ fingerprinting” a serial ID   Cryptography does not hide the existence of messages i.e. hiding the meaning of messages In Cryptography, the meaning of the message is hidden, not its existence In Greek:Kryptos = “hidden” and gráphō (writing) Historically, and also today, encryption involves: Substitution: replacing each character with a different character Hebrew ATBASH Kama-Sutra suggests that women learn to encrypt their love messages by substituting pre-paired letters (4 th Century AD) Cipher – replace letters Code – replace words   transposition : Moves the letter around Sparta’s scytale is first cryptographic device (5 th Century BC):Message written on a leather strip, which is then unwound to scramble the message
  • Cryptography its history application and beyond

    1. 1. BSZQRPHSBQIZCRYPTOGRAPHY Presented by Kinley
    2. 2. History of Cryptography In the beginning: before 2000 BCBefore 2,000 BC http://www.livius.org/a/turkey/mycale/mycale_map.gif 2
    3. 3. Around 1900 BC : In Egypt [Non-Standardhieroglyphics] http://www.bible-history.com/maps/maps/israel_and_her_neighbors.jpg 3
    4. 4. 487 BC: The Greek used a device called the Scytale http://flylib.com/books/2/827/1/html/2/images/1004.jpg Greeks and Spartans used this cipher to communicate during military campaigns Called Transposition Cipher 4
    5. 5. 200–118 BC: Another Greek method wasdeveloped by Polybius (now called the "PolybiusSquare"). http://www.sciencephoto.com/image/363640/530wm/V4000161-Polybius_square-SPL.jpg I AM A T T A C K E D42 1123 23 44 44 11 31 52 51 41I A M ATTACKED = 42 1123 23 44 44113152 5141 5
    6. 6. 60-50 BC: Caesar Shift Cipher http://www.secretcodebreaker.com/ciphrdsk.gif Encrypt (“BAD”, 3) = “EDG” Decrypt (“EDG”, 3) = “BAD” Julius Caesar used it to communicate with his generals during his military campaigns. It is also used to secure secret communications from military leaders, diplomats, spies and religious groups Called Mono-alphabetic Substitution Ciphers 6
    7. 7. The Breaking Caesar Shift Ciphers  The algorithm was not particularly strong  Using Frequency AnalysisIn English (Source: Beker & VIDEO CLIPPiper) 7
    8. 8. 15th Century: Leon Battista AlbertiLeon Battista Alberti (1404–1472) was anItalian author, artist, architect, poet, priest,linguist, philosopher and generalRenaissance polymath. Being anaccomplished cryptographer, http://www.cs.trincoll.edu/~crypto/hiHe storical/alberti.jpgpublished the earliest book oncryptanalysis in western Europe,created the first polyalphabetic cipher(now known as the Alberti cipher)invented the first encryption machine(the Alberti Cipher Disk).His polyalphabetic cipher was the most http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedi a/commons/thumb/7/70/Alberti_ciphesignificant advance in cryptography since r_disk.JPG/250px- Alberti_cipher_disk.JPGJulius Caesars time. 8
    9. 9. Encryption using single key in Alberti Cipher Disk Its consisted of two metal discs, one mobile, and one immobile, attached by a common axle so that the inner disc may be rotated Frequency Analysis: The relative frequency of letters used in the English language. E is the most commonly used letter, followed by T, A, O and I respectively.
    10. 10. Encryption using Multiple keys in AlbertiCipher Diskhttp://www.geocaching.com/seek/cache_details.aspx?guid=1b622946-92f8-4fad-a009-ce83b88791f2  It was known as "unbreakable cipher” based on
    11. 11. 1790: Thomas Jefferson invented Wheel cipher.♦ Americas minister to France♦ The wheel cipher consisted of a row of cylindrical wooden pieces, each threaded onto an iron spindle.♦ The letters of the alphabet were inscribed on the edge of each wheel in a random order. Example:♦ Turning these wheels, http://www.cryptologicfoundation.org/content/A-Museum-Like-No-Other/images/m94_005.jpg 11
    12. 12. 19th Century: Blaise de Vigenère was a French diplomat with Roman and cryptographer • The Vigenère cipher is a method of encrypting alphabetic text by using a series of different Caesar ciphers based on the letters of a keyword • Vigenere’s polyalphabetic cipher A B C D E F G H I generalizes Caesar’s shift cipher and J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZABC A B C B C D C D E D E F E F G F G H G H I H I J I J K J K L K L M called L M N M N O Vigenere N O P O P Q P Q R Q R S polyalphabetic R S T S T U T U V U V W V W X W X Y X Y Z Y Z A Z A B CipherD D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B CE E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C DF F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D EG G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F • Known as “The UnbreakableH H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F GI I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G HJ J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H IK K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J Cipher” until Charles BabageL L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J KM M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K LN N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K L MO O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M NP P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N OQRS Q R S R S T S T U T U V U V W V W X W X Y X Y Z Y Z A Z A B A B C developed the Multiple frequency B C D C D E D E F E F G F G H G H I H I J I J K J K L K L M L M N M N O N O P O P Q P S R Analysis and Friedrich Kasiski,T T U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R SU U V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S TV V W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T UW W X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U VX X Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W the Prussian military officerY Y Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W XZ Z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y http://www.ms-voynich.com/carrevig.gif analyzes repetitions in the Example: ciphertext to determine the exact period and he is credited with 12
    13. 13. 1917 Century;Gilbert Vernam was an engineer forThe American Telephone and TelegraphCompany.He was asked in 1917, during WWI, todevelop a teletypewriter that encryptedtransatlantic telegraph messages sent bythe War Department to United Statestroop commanders in Europe.Vernam Cipher used a random key toencrypt the message sent by telegraphprinter known as Vernam Cipher whichwas the first example of online encryption.The system, which was modified by the http://people.rit.edu/japnce/pay ne/images/vernamcipherdevice1Army Signal Corps, was later proved to be .gifunbreakable by using a different key every VIDEO CLIPtime a message was sent. This was called 13
    14. 14. Enigma Machine Electro-mechanical cipher machine, simple in design yet powerful in capability Built in Germany in 1918 at the end of WWI and later adapted for Uses rotors settings (the Germanencrypt commercial use, and by key) to each letter1926 message with a different military in of a cipher key Military added the plugboard to commercial Enigma, greatly increasing cryptologic strength Strength of Enigma design gave Germans complete confidence in its security, even http://math.arizona.edu/~dsl/images/enigma11.gif
    15. 15. 1932-1944:♦The Pole, Marian Rejewskiattacked and broke the earlyGerman Army Enigma system usingtheoretical mathematics in 1932.♦British code breakers designedBombe to decrypt Enigma ciphermachine Using Frequency analysisdesigned by Alan Turing♦It was the greatest breakthrough incryptanalysis in a thousand yearsand more http://math.arizona.edu/~dsl/images/enigma11.gif 15
    16. 16. Data Encryption Standard (DES)♦ 1972: U.S. Government recognized the need to have a standardized cipher for secret documents http://cryptodox.com/images/thumb/d/d5/Feistel.jpg/180px-Feistel.jpg (encrypting classified and sensitive Horst Feistel was a German-born cryptographer who worked on the information) design of ciphers at IBM, initiating research that would culminate in the♦ NBS developed DES based on an development of the Data Encryption Standard in the 1970s earlier IBM algorithm, Horst Feistels Lucifer cipher.♦ DES is a 64-bit block cipher algorithm (64-bit block = 56-bit secret key + 8-bit parity) that uses a key of 56 bits and 16 rounds of transposition and substitution to Analysis of DES was the beginning of modern cryptographic research of 8 (64-bit) encrypt each group plaintext letters.
    17. 17. Breaking of Data EncryptionStandard (DES) The key length of DES was too short • If a key is 56 bits long, that means there are 256 possible keys • “DES Cracker” machines were designed to simply brute force all possible keys 1977: DES-cracking machine was used Diffie and Hellman to find a DES key in a single day 1993: Wiener used a key-search machine to find a key within 7 hours http://www.eff.org/Privacy/Crypto /Crypto_misc/DESCracker/ DES was further weakened by the discovery of differential cryptanalysis by Biham and Shamir in 1990 which requires 247 chosen plaintexts • Ideally a ciphertext should be completely random, there should be no connection to its matching plaintext • Differential analysis exploits the fact that this is never actually the case • Uses patterns between plaintext and ciphertext to discover the key There is evidence that IBM knew about differential
    18. 18. Advanced Encryption With DES effectively broken, a new standard was Standard needed U.S. Government made it an open application/review process this time, and received http://www.boiledbeans.net/wp- many submissions content/uploads/2008/06/7a813428ed 90cb02515fca28991a342c.jpg In 2001, after five years, Belgian cryptographers, Joan Daeman and Vincent Rijman’s Rijndael algorithm was selected by NIST become as the AES is a symmetricStandard (AES). Advanced Encryption block cipher that can…  Process data blocks of 128 bits.  Uses cipher keys with lengths of 128, 192, and 256 bits.  Variable number of rounds, each round 10, 12, or 14 rounds depending on the key size The U.S. government approved AES for protecting secret and top secret classified documents. This is the first time the United States has ever approved use of a commercial algorithm derived outside the government to encrypt classified data.
    19. 19. Current attacks against AES On AES with 128-bit keys, a brute force attack would require 2128 work  Any technique that can decrypt a ciphertext with less than 2 128 work is considered an attack Currently the best attacks on AES use variations of differential cryptanalysis  None of them could actually be completed before the sun burns out  None of them work on the full number of rounds Video Clips
    20. 20. ♦ 1976: Whitfield Diffie & Martin Hellman published New Directions in Cryptography.♦ Develop the fundamental ideas of dual-key, or public key, cryptography solving one of the fundamental problems of cryptography, key distribution♦ We use one key for encryption (the public key), and a different key for decryption (the private key) http://img.allvoices.com/thumbs/people /135/135/44737066-whitfield-diffie.jpg Video Clips
    21. 21.  1978: Ronald L. Rivest, Adi Shamir & Leonard M. Adleman (RSA) published RSA Algorithm for Public Key System. http://datanews.levif.be/ict/actualite/ The RSA algorithm was publicly described in apercu/2011/02/17/un-lifetime- achievement-award-pour-les- 1977 but was never deployed. It was not pionniers-de-rsa/article- 1194952831693.htm revealed until 1998 due to its top-secret classification RSA was based on product of two large prime Video Clip numbers Uses this product to create the public and Video Clip private keys Sends the product and the public key one, who can use them to encrypt messages Even if some one knows the product and the public key, he/she can’t figure out the private key unless he/ she can factor the product
    22. 22. Cryptography in ModernLiving♦ Secure Communications -Document / Data / Email Encryption♦ Identification and http://static.ddmcdn.com/gif/credit-card-3.jpg Authentication -Smart Cards♦ Electronic Commerce and Payments –ATMs / Credit Cards –Net Banking / Web Shopping
    23. 23. References♦ Boone, J.V. (2005). A Brief History of Cryptology. Naval Institute Press, USA♦ Damico,Tony M. (2009), A brief history of cryptography. Retrieved June 31, 2012, http://www.studentpulse.com/articles/41/a-brief-history-of-cryptography♦ Denning, Dorothy E. (1982). Cryptography and Data Security. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc. Canada♦ Macgregor, Mary. The Story of Greece [on-line]. Available: http://www.heritage- history.com/www/heritage-books.php? Dir=books&author=macgregor&book=greece&story=head♦ Mackenzie, Dana (2003). The Code War. An article was provided by the National Academy of Sciences. NW, Washington♦ Pell, Oliver ().Cryptology. Retrieved July 18 2012, http://www.ridex.co.uk/cryptology♦ Pfleeger, C.P & Pfleeger, S. L (2007). Security in Computing. Pearson education Inc. NJ, USA♦ Servos, William (2006). Cryptography. Retrieved July 18 2012, http://www.cs.trincoll.edu/~crypto/historical/alberti.html♦ Shannon, C. E. Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems. Retrieved 19 July 2012, http://netlab.cs.ucla.edu/wiki/files/shannon1949.pdf♦ Singh, Simon (1999). The Code Book. Doubleday, USA. pp. 279-92♦ Wardlaw, W.P. The RSA Public key cryptosystem. Mathematics department, U.S naval academy, Annapolis. Retrieved 19 July 2012, http://www.usna.edu/Users/math/wdj/papers/cryptoday/wardlaw_rsa.pdf
    24. 24. Paremes Laosinchai, Ph.D
    25. 25. Example of Wheel Cipher EncryptionPlain Text: "The package is in the drop zone."Rotate the individual disks until we spelled out that message asshown. Encrypted Message: “EVAOSWMNDTKERXSKNKSEYFEEWS”
    26. 26. Example of Vigenère Cipher ♦ Plain Text: ATTACKATDAWN ♦ Key: LEMON♦ Plain text: ATTACKATDAWN♦ Key: LEMONLEMONLE♦ Cipher text:♦ LXFOPVEFRNHR
    27. 27. 1930-1941:In WWII, German military used Lorenz SZ40 and SZ 42 cipher machines based onVernam cipher to encrypt tele-printermessages.To break the enormous amount ofencrypted message traffic the code breakerhad to build new, automated machines,which lead directly to the development of thefirst digital computers. http://blogs.guardian.co.uk/technology/Colossus_backThis was the first step in the evolution of _(800%20x%20600).jpg 1943-1944:cryptography towards the new computer age. British code breakers designed Colossus Mark 1 and Colossus Mark 2 to decrypt Lorenz cipher machine using frequency analysis Designed by Max Newman & Tommy Flowers 27
    28. 28. What is Cryptography?CRYPTOLOGY Breaking of codes and cipher Steganography Cryptanalysis (hidden) Code (replace words) Secret Substitution Writing Cryptography (scrambled) Cipher (replace letters) Transposition 28
    29. 29. Cryptographic Algorithm &Operation

    ×