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Environmental Benefits
Of Thermochemical
Conversion
10 February 2015 1
content
 Definition
 Types
(1) Biochemical
(2) Physiochemical
(3) Thermochemical
 Environmental and Other Benefits
 Ca...
What are conversion
technologies?
Technologies used to convert solid
waste into useful products, chemicals
and fuels are r...
Conversion technology
These technologies can be defined by three types
of conversion processes:
1) Biochemical
2) Physioch...
Biochemical conversion
It include …
 Anaerobic digestion (occurs in controlled reactors or
digesters and also in a less c...
Physiochemical conversion
It include …
 Transesterification (biodiesel production)
 Physical and chemical synthesis of p...
Thermochemical conversion
It include…
 Incineration
 Gasification
 Pyrolysis
10 February 2015 7
Gasification
Partial oxidation process using air, pure
oxygen, oxygen enriched air, hydrogen, or
steam.
 Produces electri...
Pyrolysis
Thermal degradation of carbonaceous materials.
 Lower temperature than gasification (400 – 700oC)
 Absence or ...
Waste Incineration
Energy recovery through complete oxidation
• Volume and weight reduced (approx. 90% vol. and 75%
wt red...
Thermochemical conversion
 It is characterized by higher temperatures and
faster conversion rates.
 Best suited for lowe...
Environmental and Other Benefits
 Products and benefits from conversion
technologies will differ based on the
technology ...
Environmental and Other
Benefits
 Thermochemical conversion processes such as
gasification, pyrolysis and incineration ca...
Carbon and Energy Considerations
 Tonne of waste creates 3.5 MW of energy
during incineration (eq. to 300 kg of fuel oil)...
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Environmental benefits of thermochemical conversion

  1. 1. Environmental Benefits Of Thermochemical Conversion 10 February 2015 1
  2. 2. content  Definition  Types (1) Biochemical (2) Physiochemical (3) Thermochemical  Environmental and Other Benefits  Carbon and Energy Considerations 10 February 2015 2
  3. 3. What are conversion technologies? Technologies used to convert solid waste into useful products, chemicals and fuels are referred as conversion technology. 10 February 2015 3
  4. 4. Conversion technology These technologies can be defined by three types of conversion processes: 1) Biochemical 2) Physiochemical 3) Thermochemical 10 February 2015 4
  5. 5. Biochemical conversion It include …  Anaerobic digestion (occurs in controlled reactors or digesters and also in a less controlled environment in landfills)  Anaerobic fermentation (for example, the conversion of sugars from cellulose to ethanol) Biochemical conversion proceeds at lower temperatures and lower reaction rates than other conversion processes. 10 February 2015 5
  6. 6. Physiochemical conversion It include …  Transesterification (biodiesel production)  Physical and chemical synthesis of products from feedstock It is primarily associated with the transformation of fresh or used vegetable oils, animal fats, greases, tallow and other suitable feedstocks into liquid fuels or biodiesel. 10 February 2015 6
  7. 7. Thermochemical conversion It include…  Incineration  Gasification  Pyrolysis 10 February 2015 7
  8. 8. Gasification Partial oxidation process using air, pure oxygen, oxygen enriched air, hydrogen, or steam.  Produces electricity, fuels (methane, hydrogen, ethanol, synthetic diesel), and chemical products  Temperature > 700oC  More flexible than incineration, more technologically complex than incineration or pyrolysis, more public acceptance 10 February 2015 8
  9. 9. Pyrolysis Thermal degradation of carbonaceous materials.  Lower temperature than gasification (400 – 700oC)  Absence or limited oxygen  Products are pyrolitic oils and gas, solid char  Distribution of products depends on temperature  Pyrolysis oil used for (after appropriate post-treatment) liquid fuels, chemicals, adhesives, and other products  A number of processes directly combust pyrolysis gases, oils, and char 10 February 2015 9
  10. 10. Waste Incineration Energy recovery through complete oxidation • Volume and weight reduced (approx. 90% vol. and 75% wt reduction) • Waste reduction is immediate, no long term residency required • Destruction in seconds where LF requires 100s of years • Incineration can be done at generation site • Air discharges can be controlled • Ash residue is usually non-putrescible, sterile, inert • Small disposal area required • Cost can be offset by heat recovery/ sale of energy 10 February 2015 10
  11. 11. Thermochemical conversion  It is characterized by higher temperatures and faster conversion rates.  Best suited for lower moisture feedstock.  Thermochemical routes can convert the entire organic (carbon) portion of suitable feedstocks.  Inorganic fraction (ash) of a feedstock does not contribute to the energy products but may increased nutrient loading in wastewater treatment and disposal facilities. 10 February 2015 11
  12. 12. Environmental and Other Benefits  Products and benefits from conversion technologies will differ based on the technology used and the feedstock converted.  The following discusses products and benefits derived by type of conversion process. 10 February 2015 12
  13. 13. Environmental and Other Benefits  Thermochemical conversion processes such as gasification, pyrolysis and incineration can remove materials from the solid waste stream and can also create: 1) liquid fuels such as biodiesel, ethanol and oil 2) electricity, heat and steam from combustible gases such as methane 3) chemicals and consumer products from oils and syngas 4) activated carbon for the food processing industry 10 February 2015 13
  14. 14. Carbon and Energy Considerations  Tonne of waste creates 3.5 MW of energy during incineration (eq. to 300 kg of fuel oil) powers 70 homes.  Biogenic portion of waste is considered CO2 neutral (tree uses more CO2 during its lifecycle than released during combustion).  Unlike biochemical conversion processes, nonbiogenic CO2 is generated Should not displace recycling. 10 February 2015 14
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review of different conversion technology...benefits of thermochemical conversion

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