Effective Communications in Business Module-1 -by Kinjal Pandya
Concept and definition of CommunicationThe word communication is derived fromlatin word ‘communicare’ that means toshare, to participate, convey and transmit.Communication is a process of passinginformation and understanding from oneperson to another.It is an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions oremotions by two or more persons
Objectives/ Purpose of communicationConveying the right message.Co-ordination of efforts.Good industrial relationDevelopment of managerial skillsEffectiveness of policiesTo receive suggestionTo persuade peopleTo motivate people
Characteristics of communication Communication is unintentional as well as intentional Communication is a dynamic process Communication is systemic. Communication is both interaction and transaction. A short lived process Needs proper understanding Dispels misunderstanding. Leads to the achievement of org growth
Elements of communication Source Audience/Receiver Goal/purpose Context/environment Message Medium feedback
Importance of communication inmanagement Smooth working of a business firm. Basis of managerial function:1. Planning2. Organizing3. Directing4. Co-ordinating5. Controlling Maximum production at minimum cost Prompt decision and its implementation
Importance of communication inmanagement Building human relationship Avoid illusion Internal communication. Contacts with external parties.
The seven C’s When We talk about “ Effective Communication” one thing that comes in mind, what are the basic principles of “effective communication” . These principles tells us how your message can becomes effective for your target group, These principles also tell about style and importance of the message. These principles commonly known as 7 C’s of effective communication.
1) CompletenessMessage Receiver- either listener or reader, desirecomplete information to their question. e.g.suppose you are working with multinational company whois engaging with engineering goods , like A.C. Now letsay one of your major customer wants some technicalinformation regarding “thermostat” (because he wants toconvey the same to the end users ). In this case you have toprovide him complete information in a short span of time.If possible, provide him some extra information which hedoes not know,.In this way you can maintain a good business relation withhim, otherwise he may switch to an other company.
Five W’sOne way to make your message complete is to answer thefive W’s.WHO?WHAT?WHEN?WHERE?WHY?The five question method is useful when you writerequests, announcements, or other informative messages.For instance, to order (request) merchandise, make clearWHAT you want, WHEN u need it, WHERE it is to be sent.
Conclusion of completenessAt the end we can say that, you must provide him:-1. All necessary information as requested by him.2. Answers to his all questions carefully3. Provide some more information, which he is not requiring , just to maintain good relations.
2) Conciseness Conciseness means “convey the message by using fewest words”. “Conciseness is the prerequisite to effective business communication.” As you know that all businessmen have very short time . Hence a concise message save the time and expenses for both the parties.
How To achieve the conciseness ? For achieving the conciseness you have to consider the following. 1.Avoid wordy expression 2.Include only relevant material 3.Avoid unnecessary repetition.
Avoid Wordy Expression E.g. Wordy:- at this time.Instead of “at this time” you can just use only a concise word:- NOW ,Always try to use “ To the point Approach” in business scenario perspective.
Include only relevant informationAlways try to provide only relevant information to thereceiver of the message.Lets say one of your customer requested for clients of the company in reply you should provide simply list of clients at the panel of your company. No need to provide detailed business information about client at all.Observe the following suggestions to “ Include only relevantinformation.” – Stick to the purpose of message – Delete irrelevant words – Avoid long introduction, unnecessary explanation etc. – Get to the important point concisely.
Avoid un-necessary Repetition Some times repetition is necessary for focusing some special issue. But when the same thing is said with out two or three reasons, the message become wordy and boring. That’s why try to avoid Un-necessary repetition.
Some ways to eliminate unnecessary words Use shorter name after you have mentioned the long once. e.g. Spectrum communications Private limited use spectrum. Use pronouns or initials E.g. Instead of world trade organization use WTO or You can use IT for Information Technology. ( keeping in views that receiver knows about these terms)
3) ConsiderationConsideration means – To consider thereceiver’s Interest/Intention.It is very important in effectivecommunication while writing a messageyou should always keep in mind your targetgroupconsideration is very important “C” amongall the seven C’s.
Three specific ways to indicate considerationi-Focus on “you” instead of “I” or “We”ii-Show audience benefit or interest of the receiveriii-Emphasize positive, pleasant facts.Using “you” help you, but over use lead a negative reaction.
Always write a message in such a way how audience should be benefited from it. e.g.We attitudeI am delighted to announce that we will extend to make shopping more.
You attitude“You will be able to shop in the evening with the extended hours.”Readers may react positively when benefit are shown to them.Always try to address his/her need and want.
4) ConcretenessIt means that message should be specificinstead of general. Misunderstanding ofwords creates problems for both parties(sender and receiver).when you talk to your client always usefacts and figures instead of generic orirrelevant information.
The following guidelines should help you to achieve the Concreteness.i- use specific facts and figuresii-choose image building wordse.gGeneralHe is very intelligent student of class and stood first in the class.
ConcreteAli’s SPI in B.Sc Electrical Engineering was 3.95/4.0, he stood first in his class.Always write on a very solid ground. It should definitely create good image as well.
Accurately is purpose of clarityIn effective business communication the message should be very much clear. So that reader can understand it easily.You should always Choose precise words.Always choose familiar and easy words.Construct effective sentences and paragraphs.
In business communication always use precise words rather longer statements.If you have a choice between long words and shorter one, always use shorter one.You should try your level best to use familiar/easy to understand words so that your reader will quickly under stand it
Familiar Next familiar words1-after subsequent2-home domicile3-for example e.g.4-pay remuneration5-invoice statement for payments
Courtesy Knowing your audience allows you to use statements of courtesy; be aware of your message receiver. True courtesy involves being aware not only of the perspective of others, but also their feelings. courtesy stems from a sincere you-attitude. it is not merely politeness with mechanical insertions of “please” and “Thank you” . Although Appling socially accepted manners is a form of courtesy . rather, it is politeness that grow out respect and concern for others.Courteous communication generate a special tone in their writing and speaking.
How to generate a Courteous Tone ?The following are suggestions for generating a courteous tone: Be sincerely tactful, thoughtful and appreciative. Use expressions that show respect for the others Choose nondiscriminatory expressionsBe sincerely Tactful, Thoughtful and Appreciative Though few people are intentionally abrupt or blunt, these negative traits are common cause of discourtesy. avoid expression like those in the left hand column below; rephrase them as shown in the right-hand column
Tactless, Blunt More TactfulStupid letter; I can’t I should understand it, asunderstand there is no confusing word in this letter, could you please explain it once again ..?Its your fault, you did not Sometimes my wording is notproperly read my latest FAX precise; let me try againThoughtfulness and Appreciation Writers who send cordial, courteous messages of deservedcongratulations and appreciation (to a person inside & outside) help tobuild goodwill. The value of goodwill or public esteem for the firm maybe worth thousands of dollars.
7) CorrectnessAt the core of correctness is proper grammar, punctuation and spelling.however, message must be perfect grammatically and mechanically. The term correctness, as applied to business messages also mean three characteristicso Use the right level of languageo Check the accuracy of figures, facts and wordso Maintain acceptable writing mechanics
Use the right Level ofLanguagewe suggest that there are three level of language1. formal2. informal3. substandard.Take a quick guess: what kind of writing is associated with each level? What is the style of each?
Formal and Informal WordsFormal writing is often associated with scholarly writing: doctoral dissertations, scholarly, legal documents, top- level government agreements and other material where formality is demanded.Informal writing is more characteristic of business writing. Here you use words that are short, well-known and conversational as in this comparison list:More Formal less formalParticipate JoinEndeavor tryAscertain find outUtilize useInterrogate question
Substandard LanguageAvoid substandard language. Using correct words, incorrect grammar, faulty pronunciation all suggest as inability to use good English. Some examples follow:Substandard More AcceptableAin’t isn’t,aren’tCan’t hardly can hardlyAim to proving aim to proveDesirous to desirous ofStoled stolen
Proper Use of Confusing Words !Our Language (Any) is constantly changing. In fact,even dictionaries can not keep up with rapid change in our language. the following words often confusing in usage:A, An use a before consonants and consonants sounds or a long ” u” sound. Use an before vowels.Accept, except accept is a verb and means to receive. except is a verb or a preposition and relates to omitting or leaving out.Anxious, eager Anxious implies worry, eager conveys keen desire
Process of communicationCommunication has been defined as a process that refersto identifiable flow of information through interrelate stagesof analysis directed towards the achievement of anobjective. feedback
process Step 1: sender conceives an idea depending on the purpose of communication Step 2: sender chooses appropriate symbols, encodes the idea and formulates the message Step 3: sender sends the message through suitable channel
Continue…. Step 4: receiver receives the message. Step 5: receiver decodes the symbols, and interprets the message Step 6: receiver sends the feedback(response) that is observed by the sender
Forms of communication Types of communication On the basis of On the basis of On the basis of organization direction way of structure expressionFormalcommunicatio Informaln communication vertical horizontal Horizontal diagonal Diagonal Oral comm Written Gesture Downward Upward comm comm communication communication
Types of formal communication Single chain Wheel Circular Free flow Inverted v
Advantages of formalcommunication Maintains hierarchy Developing relationship Uniformity Directs the flow of communication
Disadvantages of communication Increased the work load Increase gap Distortion of message. Time consuming
Informal communication/grapevine Informal communication , also known as grapevine is not a planned or deliberately created channel of communication. It is free from all formalities Unofficial communication channels in an organization are referred to as a grapevine E.g ‘ hey guys, listen up!did you know that the boss is joining rival firm?’
Types of grapevine Single strand chain Gossip chain Cluster chain Probability chain
Advantages of grapevine Safety valve Supplement to other channels Quick transmission Feedback Less expensive than formal channels Used voluntarily by many employees
Disadvantage of grapevine Distortion of message Incomplete information Damaging swiftness Leakage Lack of authenticity Difficult to hold anybody responsible May lead to misunderstanding if incomplete
Advantages and disadvantage ofdownward communicationAdvantage DisadvantageDisseminate plans and Distortion of messagepolicesConvey expectation Delays in transmissionProvides feedback Overload messageMotivation Loss of information Built-n ressistance
Advantages and disadvantage ofupward communicationAdvantage DisadvantageCreate insight into Delays and distortionbehavioural problemCreate confidence and By passingtrustEnhance learning and Poor listeningexcellence Hesitation of employees
Advantages of oral communication Oral communication is a time and money saving device. As there is an element of personal touch, it is comparatively more effective. Doubts can be clarified on the spot and the communication can be understood easily. Important point can be emphasized through action. Speech is more powerful means of persuasion and control. The speaker can get immediate feedback. The informal plane of oral communication helps to promote friendly relations.
Disadvantages of oral communication It is not useful where the parties are very far from each other, even beyond telephonic range. It is not suitable for lengthy communication. Oral messages cannot be retained for a long time. Oral messages do not have any legal validity unless they are taped and made a part of permanent record. Body language and speech must match each other. If the communication is poor in vocal expression, oral communication are likely to be misunderstood and misinterpreted.
Advantages of written communication It is suitable for lengthy communication. It is accurate and precise. It can be kept as a permanent record and at times be referred to as evidence. It is a legal document. Written communication serves as a solid base for taking action against the subordinate who disobeys it. There are fewer chances of missing out a point.
Disadvantages of written communication There is greater chance of the communication being misunderstood. There is no scope for face to face discussion. It is time-consuming. It is costly. Quick clarification is not possible. It is difficult to maintain secrecy about the matter communicated. Poorly written messages followed by numerous clarification both written and oral, may lead to a lot of confusion
Channels of oral communication Face to face conversation Telephone conversation Presentation Public speech Interview Group discussion Negotiation Meeting
Channel of written communication Letter Memo Notice Circular Report Minutes
Non-verbal Communication Non-verbal communication is the process of communication without words. Facial expressions, movement, eye contact, vocal qualities all helps us without words.
Non-verbal communication differs from verbal communication in many ways: Non-verbal communication is less structured than verbal words. Non-verbal communication is unplanned. Non-verbal communication is intent and spontaneous. Non-verbal communication blends with speech.
Physical appearance.Facial expressions: It conveys emotions withremarkable accuracy and intensity of yourfeelings.Movement: the process of getting up from oneplace to another in front of audience or on theplatform.Posture: posture is the way you conduct yourselfwhen you face an audience.Gesture: A gesture is an expression of your anypart of your body. E.g. your head, hands, facewhich reinforce your idea while you speak.Eye contact.
Vocal communication techniques Voice Quality Volume Pitch Rate of delivery Pronunciation Pauses
Components of non-verbalcommunication Kinesics: Facial expression, posture, gesture. Oculesics: Eye contact. Haptics: The communication of touch Proxemics: the communication of space and proximity. Appearance: The physical characteristics Paralinguistics: variation in pitch Chronemics: the effects of time on communication
Barriers of communication:Semantic Emotional Physical Orgn Personal Culturalbarriers and barriers barriers barriers barriers Psychologic al barriers Barriers in Barriers supervisors regarding Poor subordinates listening
Semantic barriers Different languages Words Pictures Actions Poor vocabulary
Emotional and psychologicalbarriers Loss of transmission and retention Distrust of communication Failure to communicate Inattention of receiver
Physical barriers Noise Improper time Distance Organizational barriers: Organization policy Rules and regulations Lack of orgn facilities Wrong selection of channel
Personal barriers Barriers in supervisor: Attitude of supervisor Fear of challenging of authority Ignoring the juniors Underestimation of there subordinates. Insistence on following proper channel.
Barriers regarding subordinates: Unwillingness to communicateLack of proper incentive. Poor listening:EgoismEmotionsSelective perception
Methods to overcome barriers Semantic barriers: Use simple and precise message. Use less verbalism. Use suitable language. Employ different methods of communication. Avoid ambiguous and abstract words.
Psychological barriers Plan and clarify ideas and opinions. Support decision making. Use feedback process. Develop trust and confidence. Explain the importance of message. Make it purposeful communication. Time your message carefully. Catch up with audience back ground.
Physical barriers Make suitable seating arrangement. Ensure audibility and visibility. Minimize aural and visual distraction. Provide environmental comfort. Proper posture and proper body.
Organizational barriers: Make it a two way process Provide network to permit direct access from top to bottom and vice-versa. Dissemination of information through several channels. Establish feed back system Use informal channel of communication Provide information to the concerned person
Interpersonal barriers Explain the importance of msg. Attitude of the sender and receiver Create a climate of trust and confidence Time your message carefully that is : what, when, how, why to say. Attentive listening with full concentration.
Communication Road blocks A primary reason for lack of effective communication is that without realizing it ppl typically inject communication barriers in to their communication known as road blocks.
Following are such road blocks Difference in perspective. Difference in knowledge level. Lack of common language Tendency to stereotype and jump to conclusions Self centeredness Plain laziness