Sociology & its concepts


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Sociology & its concepts

  1. 1. • Socio (Latin): Society • Logos(Greek): Science • Socius: Individual , Societa:: Group • Sociology can be study of relationships between human beings and changes or variations in these relationships in different part of world & at different times • The study of human behavior
  2. 2. • Medical Sociology • Urban Sociology • Rural Sociology • Industrial Sociology • Criminology • Hospital Sociology • Sociology of religion • Sociology of education
  3. 3. • Sociology enables to see & analyze social world from the viewpoint other than ones’s own • Helps in understanding of how other’s live, • Powerful insights gained into one’s particular problem • Policy can be formulated to suit for those it has been intended
  4. 4. • Sociological research is a guide to assess the results of policy initiatives • A program/reform may fail what it intends to strive or end up in undesirable results • Eg.- “Relocation of slums to Planned Resettlement Colonies” - Fairly unpopular : i. Uproots from livelihood ii. Detaches from Social network Development of the slums are better option
  5. 5. • Empowerment of the individuals and groups with unbiased understanding • Self-enlightened groups can benefit from sociological research & influence government policies or may formulate policies of their own • Eg: - Self-help groups of Diabetics/ Alcoholics - Environmental movements
  6. 6. - Traditional attempts made to understand ownselves & conventional wisdoms handed down through generations; - Expressed in terms of religion, myths, superstitions, traditional beliefs - Objective & systematic study of human behavior since 1700s. - Era of emergence of scientific disciplines - Traditional & religion based explanations gave way to objective scientific theories
  7. 7. - French revolution (1789) championed values of equality & liberty over traditional social order - Industrial revolution of late 18th century Britain produced spread of new technology - Led to complete change of social order , decline of feudal system, large-scale migration to industrial towns - Breakdown of established forms of society & emergence of newer social systems
  8. 8. • A French thinker, credited with coining of the term „Sociology • Sought to establish sociology as a positive science which would conform to laws as in natural sciences • Formulated “laws of three stages”- theological, metaphysical & positive; • Considered world have passed through 3 stages
  9. 9. - thoughts were guided by religious ideas : during the time of Renaissance, came a transition in the worldview of society from supernatural(religious) to natural application of scientific techniques to a variety of other disciplines become a popular intellectual exercise (Following discoveries by Copernicus, Galileo, Newton
  10. 10. B. • Another French thinker • Sought to establish sociology as a scientific discipline • Studied social norms & social integration • Looked at interactions between individuals & society • Observed society regulates the individuals & there are various levels of such regulation
  11. 11. c. • A German settled in Britain • Pioneering work in industrial revolution • Sought to link economic problems to social institution • Propounded the Materialistic Conception of History • Argued social changes primarily driven by economic changes • Examined how societies had undergone several transformations over the course of history
  12. 12. D. • Identified basic characteristics of modern industrialized societies based on a series of empirical studies • Negated the materialistic conception of history & considered class conflict less significant • Considered human motivation & ideas are real factors for changes • Thought sociology should focus on Social Action , not on social structures
  13. 13. - A basic social structure exists, so social behavior is regulated to a certain extent - Societal level is the most useful for examination & study of individuals cannot adequately explain the aggregate-level phenomen - Social structure imposes some constraints on both individuals & groups; but it is debatable whether human behavior is controlled essentially by social behavior or is self- determined
  14. 14. - Concerned with study of health, health-behavior & health institutions, in a psychological & social dimension - 1879 J S Billings linked study of sociology with hygiene - 1894: Charles Mcintire defined medical sociology as , the science: i. Of the special phenomena of the physicians themselves as a class apart & separate ii. That investigates the laws regulating the relations between the medical profession & human society as a whole
  15. 15. - Assumes an ideal as a point of reference & therefore examines deviations from this ideal - Assumes that events are real & thus concludes cuasal relationship can be studied - Takes an idealistic perspective and considers that there is no general law , focus should thus be attributed to meanings of social events - This approach analyzes- i) how people react to deviant signs in themselves & others, ii) whether they label them as deviant or not & iii) how they respondwhen one or the other attribution is made
  16. 16. This approach analyzes- i) how people react to deviant signs in themselves & others, ii) whether they label them as deviant or not & iii) how they respondwhen one or the other attribution is made c) - It merely observes the most frequent behavior those are prevalent - Does not concern itself with the meaning of either moral or deviant behavior - Only observes & record what is done
  17. 17. - Kendall & Merton in 1958 identified four key areas addressed by medical sociology - Mechanic also defined three analytical perspectives in medical sociology
  18. 18. • Beliefs: - Human Belief Model: One‟s daily activities were conceived of a process of interaction between the positive forces & negative forces - Individuals vary widely in their acceptance of their susceptibility to a condition - There may be Denial, Consideration, or Acceptance
  19. 19. • Society: - An organization of member agents - Main feature: system of social relationship between individuals - It controls & regulates the behavior of the individual by law & custom - Can exert pressure on individuals to conform to its norms - Dynamic character, changes with time & place - Society is a vast network of relationships & compulsions that propel, direct & constrain man‟s individual efforts - Public Health is an integral part of social system - SOCIETY PUPLIC HEALTH
  20. 20. - “ A community is a social group determined by geographical boundaries and or common values and interests. Its members know and interact with each other. It functions within a particular social structure and exhibits and creates certain forms, values and social institutions. The individual belongs to the society through his family and community.”
  21. 21. - Refers to the pattern of inter-relations between persons - Consists of - complex of major institutions, groups, power structure & status hierarchy - An organized complex pattern of behavior in which a number of persons participate in order to further their group interest - Rights & duties of each member is defined within each institutions - Family, school, the church, club, hospital, college, political parties, professional organizations, panchayats
  22. 22. - Each individuals are allocated role in society - Classified as “ given” or “ acquired” - Given by virtue of sex, age, birth status - Acquired by virtue of education or earned otherwise - Single day single person can play- husband, father, employee, friend, son, brother, guest, neighbor, - When one falls ill, he assumes “ Sick roll”, relinquishes/decreases normal duties, seek medical aid, and carry out orders given by physician
  23. 23. - Economic doctrine that favors use of property & resources of the country for public welfare - A system of production & distribution based on social ownership for raising the living standards of the working class - “Each according to his abilities, to each according to his needs”
  24. 24. - Process by which an individual gradually acquires culture & becomes member of a social group - Children going to school - Internship of medical graduates
  25. 25. - Societal rules are present, formal & informal, for maintenance of relationship of authority & subordination - Informal social pressure are imposed on individuals to help to construct norms of behavior - Social pressure may be exerted by powerful groups, individuals, friends - Acts through rewards & punishments - Financial reward to undergo voluntary sterilization
  26. 26. - Classified into “folkways” & “mores” - Folkways are considered as right ways of doing things in what is considered as the less vital areas of human conduct - More stringent customs are called mores - Public takes active part in enforcement of mores - Staring point of all customs are convention - “convention”: practice promoted by the convenience of the society or individual
  27. 27. - “learned behavior which has been socially acquired” - Product of human societies - Man is a product of his cultural environment - Culture transmitted from one generation to another through formal & informal learning - Lays down norms & behavior
  28. 28. - Provides mechanism for an individual for his personal & social survival - Culture stands for customs, beliefs, laws, religion, moral percepts, arts & other capabilities & skilled acquired by man as a member of society - Cultural factor plays important role in health & disease - Culture is not inherited genetically; it is learned- through formal & informal interaction - Situational learning, Social Learning, Symbolic Learning
  29. 29. - Lung cancer (smoking) - cirrhosis of liver (alcoholism) - Oral cancer( pan chewing) - Cultural factors are closely associated with personal hygiene, nutrition, Immunization, health care seeking, family planning, child rearing, disposal of refuse & excreta,
  30. 30. - Diffusion of culture between groups & communities - “culture contact” - Made by : trade & commerce, industrialization, propagation of religion, education,conquest
  31. 31. - Social diagnosis of an illness needs application of behavioral sciences to arrive at community diagnosis & accordingly the therapy applied is social therapy in the form of education, legislation , individual & group counseling, motivation & team building apart from provision of services on basis of equity without any discrimination with focus on economically weaker section of the society
  32. 32. - refers to usual scale of expenditure, goods consumed, services enjoyed, mode of living - Depends upon national income, total amount of goods & services a country is able to produce - Size of population - Level of education - General price level - Distribution of national income - Per capita income
  33. 33. - 19th century Europe, industrial revolution brought increase in income & wealth accompanied by decrease in birth & death rates - Late 20th century, steady reduction in Death rate, IMR, in Latin America & parts of Asia with modest rise in income - Both death & birth rate remains high in Africa
  34. 34. - Generated by new opportunities & frustrations arising from social changes - Wave of migration from rural to urban areas - Diminution of traditional family support system - Greater exposure through mass media to ideas which has been previously considered culturally alien - Tourism - Changes in technological needs of the society requiring skills different from previous generation
  35. 35. - Pressure mostly felt by young - Resources inadequate to meet their needs - Discrepancy between actual & perceived demand of a stressful situation - Psychological stress & inadequate coping ability implicated as contributory to disorders - stress→ hypertension → CHD
  37. 37. - Individual problems become social problems when they affect large number of people amounting a threat to welfare of the society - Predominant behavioral component in causation - Widespread over large geographical areas & affect many people - Disrupts trade, affects the economy
  38. 38. - May lead to discrimination & ostracism - Many public Health problems ↔ Social problems - Alcoholism, venereal diseases, mental illness, narcotic addiction - Following Social Health Problems: housing, divorce, population growth, increased number of old people, population explosion ► calls for combined sociological & public health action
  39. 39. - Relationship between disease & social condition - Linked to poverty, crime, delinquency, vagrancy - Social pathology of accidents, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, chronic bronchitis, - Social pathology is uncovered by social surveys - Strong kinship between epidemiological & social survey - Investigation on the relationship of social factors to heart disease, cancer & arthritis
  40. 40. - Method of exploring & analyzing life of a social unit – person, family, institution, group, community - Determines the factors responsible for complex behavioral pattern of the unit & relationship of the unit to the surrounding - It collects a large number of data from small number of units whereas in survey relatively small amount of information is collected from a large number of units - But a single instance may/may not be representative of a larger population - Concerned with depth of knowledge - Observation of people in situ
  41. 41. - Defence of society against criminality not only by treating & defending the offende but also by creating conditions in community conducive for healthy & wholesome growth of human life. - Entire range of preventive, therapeutic & rehabilitative services for the protection of society from antisocial, criminal or deviant conduct of man
  42. 42. - Measures related to the control of juvenile delinquency, eradication of beggary, social & moral hygienic programs, welfare of prisoners, prison reforms, elimination of prostitution, control of alcoholism, drug addiction & suicides - Children Act (prevention &control of juvenile delinquency) - Suppression of Immoral Traffic in Woman & Girls Act( elimination of prostitution) - GOI renamed Central Bureau of Correctional Services as National Institute of Social Defence in 1975( Ministry of Social Welfare)