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  1. 1. The study of human behavior- how people behave & why they behave in the way they do Concerned with individual, personality, behavior Helps to understand attitudes, beliefs, learning, memory process Helps to promote mental health in individuals & families
  2. 2. Normal psychology Abnormal psychology Educational psychology Social psychology Child psychology Applied psychology Psychoanalysis Medical psychology
  3. 3. Human behavior is result of physical & mental factors “The total reactions of an individual accessible to external observation” Thought & understanding are implicit behavior not directly observable Inferred from other observable behavior
  4. 4. Knowledge Beliefs Values Attitudes Skills Finance Materials Time Influence of family members, friends, co- workers, opinion-leaders, health-workers
  5. 5. Male/female roles Societal norms Ethnic discrimination Poverty Unemployment Educational opportunities
  6. 6. Aggregate of specific educational, scientific, & professional contributions of the discipline of psychology for - Promotion & maintenance of health - Prevention & treatment of illness - Identification of etiologic & diagnostic correlates of health, illness & related dysfunction
  7. 7. a) Research into psychological aspects of behavior relevant to the health system b) Application of psychological concepts & knowledge to problems arising in the health system c) Teaching relevant psychological material to the non-psychologists who work within the health system
  8. 8. - Studies psychological adaptive mechanisms of the body as it responds to challenges or hazards in the form of physical/chemical insults - Ways in which people respond to hazards & threats through complex, learned, socially modulated pattern of behavior - Originates from concern with interaction between biological stresses, symbolic processes & body’s reactions
  9. 9. Behavior guided by health purposes or reinforced by health outcomes Refers to those activities undertaken by people to avoid disease & to detect asymptomatic infections through appropriate screening tests Eg; - use of condoms - Keeping good health-habits (use of seat- belts, regular brushing of teeth, non- smoking)
  10. 10. Refers to how people react to symptom A friend / acquaintance is approached first before seeking formal medical advice Activities used to cure disease & restore health Cooperation of patients is important
  11. 11.  Early marriages for girls in certain traditional rural families High fertility & consequences of teenage pregnancy  Polygamy large family size  Polyandry Reduction in family sizes  Resistance of men to vasectomy  Universality of marriage in India No problem of unmarried mothers & illegitimate children
  12. 12. - Classification of responses: : habits, skills : emotions, feelings, tension perceptions, thinking, reasoning
  13. 13. i) Environmental stimuli: - Environmental stimuli generate nerve impulses, which reaching cerebral cortex & being assembled & evaluated, generates ones “conscious behavior”. - Determined by standards/expectations of society ii) Emotions & feelings: - Seat of primary emotions(anger, joy, hunger): thalamus - functions under cerebral cortex iii) Needs: - wants, desires, urges iv) Motivation: - Inner force driving individual to certain action v) Intellectual perceptions:
  14. 14. May be active or passive Loss of temper & making complaint Self isolation/ avoidance Making excuse Acceptance of failure with good spirit & making behavioral changes
  15. 15. A. Respondent learning: - Dependent upon the theory of respondent conditioning by Ivan Pavlov - Plays important role in many health problems & several therapeutic approaches are based on this principle - Peptic ulcer related to psychological stress B. Operant learning: - Behaviors are controlled by their consequences or environmental events that follow the behavior - Four techniques for modifying operant behavior - i)positive reinforcement, ii)punishment, iii)negative
  16. 16. Change in Health Behavior Social Support Goal specification Self- reinforcement Self monitoring Stimulus control
  17. 17. - Fear - Anger - Love - Hatred - Jealousy - Moodiness - Joy - Sorrow - Sympathy - Pity - Lust - Grief
  18. 18. - Most common emotion of man. - May produce excitement, depression, fight, flight - Fear of dark, fear of death, fear of dogs, fear of snakes, fear of ghosts, fear of sickness - When fear become exaggerate/ unnecessary: Phobia; common in patients with mental disorder
  19. 19. - Offensive reaction - Destructive in nature - If not controlled timely, may impel a person to commit crimes such as murder - Manifest in symptoms such as sapid pulse & breathing, flushing, tremors, sweating, dry mouth, nausea, diarrhea, raised blood pressure - Anxiety → Tension→ Pain - Doctor/ nurse has great role in relieving anxiety  Love - Feeling of attachment to some person
  20. 20.  Disorders of emotion may impede human efficiency: - Lack of concentration - Lack of appetite - Increased risk of accidents - Lack of sleep - Palpitation - Temper tantrums - Abdominal pains Emotional disorder - Spasms in children - Tics - Anti-social behavior
  21. 21. Essential hypertension Peptic ulcer Asthma Ulcerative colitis Disturbed emotional states
  22. 22. Cultivation of hobbies- reading & recreation Adopting a sane philosophy in life to avoid emotional conflicts Trying to understand one’s own limitations Development of a sense of humor - Study of psychology essential to understand the basis of emotion
  23. 23. Inner force driving an individual to a certain action Determines human behavior May be positive / negative Motives, needs, wants, urges –all interrelated a) Biological needs: - Food, sleep, rest, recreation, fresh air b) Social needs: - Need for company, love & affection; need for recognition; need for education c) Ego-integrative needs: - Desire for prestige, power & self-respect
  24. 24. - Stimulate motivation & encourage specific behaviors - May be intrinsic/extrinsic, material/psycholo gical, self determined/ selected by others
  25. 25. Legislation: - supports, promotes , maintains activities at community level - Should be compatible with the political, cultural, s ocial & economic situation of the country/ region - Should satisfy requirements
  26. 26. A psychological skill Consists of perception & attention Requires correct use of following senses: seeing, hearing, touch, smell, movements  correct observation → correct thinking, reasoning learning Correct observation promotes attention Sustained attention → concentration
  27. 27. Perception observation, recognition & discriminition Visual perception Auditory perception Muscular perception Disorders of perception i. Imperception: inability to recognize.(? Damage sensory organs) ii. Illusion: false perception. may be auditory or visual iii. Hallucinations: imaginary perception. Found in mental disorder
  28. 28. Acquired Permanent ways of behaving Three components: a) Cognitive/knowled ge : b) Affective/feeling: c) Tendency to action: - Attitudes are learnt through social interaction
  29. 29. Views held by people on a point of dispute Based on evidence available on time Temporary, provisional by nature Permanent, stable, almost unchangeable Handed down through generations Accepted without any question Difficult to change
  30. 30. Most significant- self-interest: security, pleasure, self-esteem Group interest: primary & secondary - caste interest - Language group interest - Peer group interest - Interests of religious, social, political, professional groups - Social, regional, national interests