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Learning

  1. 1. LEARNING & SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Kingsuk Sarkar, MD Asst. Prof. Dept. of Community Medicine DSMCH
  2. 2. -“global or aggregative capacity of the individual to think rationally,deal effectively and act purposefully with his environment.”
  3. 3. - Important aspect of personality - Includes perceiving, knowing, reasoning & remembering - Interplay between environmental & genetic factors - Relationship exists between a person’s level of intelligence & his range of activities, level of achievement & his depth of understanding
  4. 4. Mental Age: - Based on concepts of intelligence tests - Indicates the level o intelligence achieved - Gives no indication on brightness/dullness - Four sectors of intellectual development: a)motor ability, b)adoptive behavior, c)language development & d)personal -social behavior
  5. 5. -“the ratio of mental age & chronological age expressed in percentage” IQ ═{Mental age/Chronological age X100}
  6. 6. - Improvement over the concept of mental health - If Mental age ═ Chronological age; IQ ═100 - ≈80% of population have an IQ of/around 100 - IQ tests are not predictive of adaptive functioning ( except those with significant retardation) - Criteria of social adaptation was added to the definition of mental retardation
  7. 7. Levels of Intelligence IQ Range Idiot 0 -24 Imbecile 25 – 49 Moron 50 – 69 Borderline 70 – 79 Low Normal 80 – 89 Normal 90 – 109 Superior 110 – 119 Very Superior 120 – 139 Near genius ≥140
  8. 8. i. Space-ability to perceive objects ii. Number-familiarity with elementary arithmetic iii. Verbal comprehension: ability to reason from verbal concepts iv. Facility of expression-ability to employ appropriate words v. Memory-ability to retain words & ideas vi. Induction-ability to discover principles vii. Deduction-ability to use principles to solve concrete problems viii.Flexibility & rapidity of thought
  9. 9. - Group tests & Individual tests - Group test: all subjects begins & finishes at same time - No constant time factor in individual tests - Measures performance
  10. 10. Minimal understanding -Performance Use of language - Measures fundamental psychological process: reasoning, relationship, without reference to cultural / educational opportunities - Helps to measure intelligence of: young people yet to learn any language, illiterates -- because of lack of educational benefits or feeble mindedness, those speaking a foreign language
  11. 11. - Changes in educational opportunities → fluctuations in IQ - IQ may rise considerably after glandular therapy - Those having low IQ can be provided special education according to their capacity - Those with very high IQ can also be given education as per their need - Can aid in determining the right time to join school - Help to adjust a student to his work - Selection procedure for colleges & professional schools - As in educational guidance & various therapies
  12. 12.  Measures development/ maturation: i. Bayley Infant Scale ii. Gassel’s Development Schedule iii. National Institute for Mentally Handicapped Development Assessment Schedule
  13. 13.  Verbal tests: i. Binet Kamat’s test ii. Binet Kulshetra test iii.Binet Shukla Test iv.Malin’s Intelligence Scale for Indian Children- Verbal Scale
  14. 14.  Non- verbal tests: - Developmental screening test - Raven’s Progressive Matrix – Coloured  Performance tests: - Seguin Form Board Test - Gassel’s Drawing Test - Draw a man test - Malin’s Intelligence Scale for Indian Children – Performance Scale
  15. 15.  Adaptive Behavior Scales: - Vineland Social Maturity Scale - American Association on Mental Retardation Adaptive Behavior Scale  Tests for specific abilities: - Attention - Concentration
  16. 16. - Wing’s Comprehensive Handicaps, Behavior & Skill Schedule (HBS) - Disability Assessment Schedule (DAS) - Measures & records in standardized format the aspects of behavior, psychological functions & social performance
  17. 17. Science of behavior of the individual in the society o Studies behavior of the individual in social situations – group, crowd, mob, audience o Also concerned with attitudes of individuals towards cultural & social values
  18. 18. Also known as Social Behavior Man, being a social creature is influenced by - Customs & Laws - Ideals - Art & literature - Crafts - Science & technology
  19. 19.  Inter – personal relationships: - Also known as person- to – person interaction. - Individual learns from parents, teacher, friends  Inter – group relationships: - Individual adherence to the traditions of the group - Social interaction → development of attitude towards persons, situations, issues - Social attitudes – attitude towards non-adoption of family planning, child marriage
  20. 20. Every group has its leader - Leader is responsible for solidarity of the group - Upholds the morale of the group member - Group members work together with definite programmes & objectives - Members may think, feel, act together - Community problems may be solved through group effort
  21. 21. Right of the Individual: 1948, General Assembly of United nations Adopted Universal Declaration of Human Rights - Recognition that human beings are born free & equal, should enjoy dignity & rights - 30 articles - Right to better living conditions - Right to Health & Medical Services
  22. 22. o The Universal Declaration of Human Rights refer - “ Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well being of himself and his family, including food, clothing, housing, medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widow-hood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control
  23. 23. - Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children, whether born in or out of wedlock , shall enjoy the same social protection.
  24. 24. 1)Right to equality 2)Right to freedom of speech & expression 3)Right against exploitation 4)Right to freedom of practice & propagation of religion 5)Right to minorities to conserve their culture 6)Right to property 7)Right to constitutional remedies for the enforcement of fundamental rights
  25. 25. Responsibility for health: - Health has to be earned by individual effort - It cant be granted individually Responsibility lies both upon - individual - community/state
  26. 26. Personal responsibilities: - Diet - care of teeth & skin care - Recreation & exercise - cultivation of healthful habits - Immunization - Early report of sickness episode - Optimum utilization of available healthcare facilities
  27. 27. Government/ State responsibility - To safeguard & promote health & welfare of citizens o Provision of health under Government of India - Health & strength of workers, men & women and the tender age children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter a vocation unsuited to their age or strength
  28. 28. - The children & youth are protected against exploitation and against moral & material abandonment - The state shall, within the limits of its economic capacity & development , make effective provision for securing the right to work, to education & to public assistance in case of un employment, old age, sickness, & disablement, and in other cases of underserved want.
  29. 29. - The state shall regard the raising of the level nutrition & standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties.
  30. 30. THANK YOU

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