One Stop Shop For Educators
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
SOCIAL STUDIES  GR...
One Stop Shop For Educators
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
SOCIAL STUDIES  GR...
One Stop Shop For Educators
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
SOCIAL STUDIES  GR...
One Stop Shop For Educators
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
SOCIAL STUDIES  GR...
One Stop Shop For Educators
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
SOCIAL STUDIES  GR...
One Stop Shop For Educators
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
SOCIAL STUDIES  GR...
One Stop Shop For Educators
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
SOCIAL STUDIES  GR...
One Stop Shop For Educators
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
SOCIAL STUDIES  GR...
One Stop Shop For Educators
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
SOCIAL STUDIES  GR...
One Stop Shop For Educators
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
SOCIAL STUDIES  GR...
One Stop Shop For Educators
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
SOCIAL STUDIES  GR...
One Stop Shop For Educators
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
SOCIAL STUDIES  GR...
One Stop Shop For Educators
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
SOCIAL STUDIES  GR...
One Stop Shop For Educators
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
SOCIAL STUDIES  GR...
One Stop Shop For Educators
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
SOCIAL STUDIES  GR...
One Stop Shop For Educators
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
SOCIAL STUDIES  GR...
One Stop Shop For Educators
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
SOCIAL STUDIES  GR...
One Stop Shop For Educators
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
SOCIAL STUDIES  GR...
One Stop Shop For Educators
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
SOCIAL STUDIES  GR...
One Stop Shop For Educators
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
SOCIAL STUDIES  GR...
One Stop Shop For Educators
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
SOCIAL STUDIES  GR...
One Stop Shop For Educators
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
SOCIAL STUDIES  GR...
One Stop Shop For Educators
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
SOCIAL STUDIES  GR...
One Stop Shop For Educators
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
SOCIAL STUDIES  GR...
One Stop Shop For Educators
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
SOCIAL STUDIES  GR...
One Stop Shop For Educators
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
SOCIAL STUDIES  GR...
One Stop Shop For Educators
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
SOCIAL STUDIES  GR...
One Stop Shop For Educators
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
SOCIAL STUDIES  GR...
One Stop Shop For Educators
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
SOCIAL STUDIES  GR...
One Stop Shop For Educators
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
SOCIAL STUDIES  GR...
One Stop Shop For Educators
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
SOCIAL STUDIES  GR...
One Stop Shop For Educators
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
SOCIAL STUDIES  GR...
One Stop Shop For Educators
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
SOCIAL STUDIES  GR...
One Stop Shop For Educators
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
SOCIAL STUDIES  GR...
One Stop Shop For Educators
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
SOCIAL STUDIES  GR...
One Stop Shop For Educators
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
SOCIAL STUDIES  GR...
One Stop Shop For Educators
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
SOCIAL STUDIES  GR...
One Stop Shop For Educators
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
SOCIAL STUDIES  GR...
One Stop Shop For Educators
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
SOCIAL STUDIES  GR...
One Stop Shop For Educators
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
SOCIAL STUDIES  GR...
One Stop Shop For Educators
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
SOCIAL STUDIES  GR...
One Stop Shop For Educators
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
SOCIAL STUDIES  GR...
One Stop Shop For Educators
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
SOCIAL STUDIES  GR...
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  1. 1. One Stop Shop For Educators Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools SOCIAL STUDIES  GRADE SIX TEACHER NOTES Approved 7/27/2009  Page 1 of 43 Copyright 2009 © All Rights Reserved STANDARDS and ELEMENTS TEACHER NOTES 6th GRADE SOCIAL STUDIES AUSTRALIA GEOGRAPHIC UNDERSTANDINGS Geographic Resources: Sites for online maps Outline Maps and Map Tests- Maps provided by: www.worldatlas.com. Physical Maps- Maps provided by http://www.freeworldmaps.net Regional Maps- Maps provided by CIA World Factbook. Extensive Map Collection- Maps provided by The University of Texas. Historical Maps- Maps provided by The University of Texas. Maps of Australia- Natural resource maps and many others (scroll down on webpage) provided by the Australian Government-Geoscience Australia. SS6G12 The student will be able to locate selected features of Australia. The intent of this standard is for students to be able to locate major physical features in or near Australia using a world and regional political- physical map. a. Locate on a world and regional political-physical map: the Great Barrier Reef, Coral Sea, Ayers Rock, and Great Victoria Desert. EU- Location- Location affects a society’s economy, culture, and development. Students are expected to be able to use a world and regional political- physical or physical map to locate listed physical features in Australia. For the CRCT, students will be provided a political-physical or a physical map and asked to locate a specific physical feature from the element. There are two ways this element may be assessed. The question may name a physical feature and ask students to locate the feature on a map, or a physical feature will be pointed to on a map and the student will be asked to give the name.
  2. 2. One Stop Shop For Educators Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools SOCIAL STUDIES  GRADE SIX TEACHER NOTES Approved 7/27/2009  Page 2 of 43 Copyright 2009 © All Rights Reserved Map of Australia provided by: www.worldatlas.com.
  3. 3. One Stop Shop For Educators Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools SOCIAL STUDIES  GRADE SIX TEACHER NOTES Approved 7/27/2009  Page 3 of 43 Copyright 2009 © All Rights Reserved Map of Australia provided by: www.worldatlas.com.
  4. 4. One Stop Shop For Educators Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools SOCIAL STUDIES  GRADE SIX TEACHER NOTES Approved 7/27/2009  Page 4 of 43 Copyright 2009 © All Rights Reserved Map of Australia provided by http://www.freeworldmaps.net
  5. 5. One Stop Shop For Educators Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools SOCIAL STUDIES  GRADE SIX TEACHER NOTES Approved 7/27/2009  Page 5 of 43 Copyright 2009 © All Rights Reserved Map of Australia provided by Geoscience Australia, 1996: Australia Report Map, copyright Commonwealth of Australia. http://www.ga.gov.au/image_cache/GA4073.jpg
  6. 6. One Stop Shop For Educators Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools SOCIAL STUDIES  GRADE SIX TEACHER NOTES Approved 7/27/2009  Page 6 of 43 Copyright 2009 © All Rights Reserved Map of Australia provided by Bureau of Meteorology, 2006: Average daily mean temperature- Annual, copyright Commonwealth of Australia. http://www.bom.gov.au/jsp/ncc/climate_averages/temperature/index.jsp?maptype=6&period=an
  7. 7. One Stop Shop For Educators Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools SOCIAL STUDIES  GRADE SIX TEACHER NOTES Approved 7/27/2009  Page 7 of 43 Copyright 2009 © All Rights Reserved Map of Australia provided by Bureau of Meteorology, 2005: Average daily maximum temperature- Annual, copyright Commonwealth of Australia. http://www.bom.gov.au/jsp/ncc/climate_averages/temperature/index.jsp?maptype=1&period=an
  8. 8. One Stop Shop For Educators Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools SOCIAL STUDIES  GRADE SIX TEACHER NOTES Approved 7/27/2009  Page 8 of 43 Copyright 2009 © All Rights Reserved Map of Australia provided by Bureau of Meteorology, 2005: Average daily minimum temperature- Annual, copyright Commonwealth of Australia. http://www.bom.gov.au/jsp/ncc/climate_averages/temperature/index.jsp?maptype=3&period=an
  9. 9. One Stop Shop For Educators Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools SOCIAL STUDIES  GRADE SIX TEACHER NOTES Approved 7/27/2009  Page 9 of 43 Copyright 2009 © All Rights Reserved Map of Australia provided by Geoscience Australia, 2005, copyright Commonwealth of Australia. http://www.ga.gov.au/image_cache/GA5566.pdf
  10. 10. One Stop Shop For Educators Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools SOCIAL STUDIES  GRADE SIX TEACHER NOTES Approved 7/27/2009  Page 10 of 43 Copyright 2009 © All Rights Reserved SS6G13 The student will explain the impact of location, climate, distribution of natural resources, and population distribution on Australia. This standard requires students to explain how location, climate, and distribution of natural resources have impacted population distribution and trade in Australia. a. Describe how Australia’s location, climate, and natural resources have affected where people live. Have students look at a population density map, a climate map, a natural resource map, and a physical map to determine how these features are interrelated and the impact they have on where people live. * Students should explain why most people live along the coast, particularly the Eastern and Southeastern coastline. * Why do so few people live in Australia’s interior? * Extension activity- why do many large cities develop near bodies of water? (rivers, oceans, lakes)
  11. 11. One Stop Shop For Educators Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools SOCIAL STUDIES  GRADE SIX TEACHER NOTES Approved 7/27/2009  Page 11 of 43 Copyright 2009 © All Rights Reserved Population Distribution Map of Australia provided by the Australian Bureau of Statistics 2003, Census of Population and Housing 2001: Population Growth and Distribution, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra, viewed 29 Nov 2005,
  12. 12. One Stop Shop For Educators Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools SOCIAL STUDIES  GRADE SIX TEACHER NOTES Approved 7/27/2009  Page 12 of 43 Copyright 2009 © All Rights Reserved Map of Australia provided by the Australian Bureau of Statistics 2004, Australia in Profile: A Regional Analysis, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra, viewed 29 Nov 2005,
  13. 13. One Stop Shop For Educators Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools SOCIAL STUDIES  GRADE SIX TEACHER NOTES Approved 7/27/2009  Page 13 of 43 Copyright 2009 © All Rights Reserved
  14. 14. One Stop Shop For Educators Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools SOCIAL STUDIES  GRADE SIX TEACHER NOTES Approved 7/27/2009  Page 14 of 43 Copyright 2009 © All Rights Reserved World (Mercator with borders) map provided by www.worldatlas.com. b. Describe how Australia’s location, climate, and natural resources impact trade. EU- Location- Location affects a society’s economy, culture, and development. For element b, utilize the same resources, but apply the information to the impact on trade. Utilize CIA World Factbook for information on trade and the economy. Australia has high export prices for raw materials and agricultural products, which are fueling the economy, particularly in mining states. Increased trade with China has also helped the Australian economy to expand. How does physical proximity (location) impact trade? Australia’s export partners (2007- CIA World Factbook) Japan 18.9%, China 14.2%, South Korea 8%, US 6%, NZ 5.6%, India 5.5%, UK 4.2% (2007) Australia’s import partners (2007- CIA World Factbook) China 15.5%, US 12.8%, Japan 9.6%, Singapore 5.6%, Germany 5.2%, UK 4.3%, Thailand 4.2% (2007) How do Australia’s natural resources impact trade? Australia’s natural resources (CIA World Factbook) bauxite, coal, iron ore, copper, tin, gold, silver, uranium, nickel, tungsten, mineral sands, lead, zinc, diamonds, natural gas, petroleum Note: Australia is the world's largest net exporter of coal accounting for 29% of global coal exports (This is not an expectation for students to memorize a long list of natural resources but to understand how Australia’s natural resources impact trade.) (Internet Resources- To access a variety of maps, use a search engine site and type in key words such as “Australia’s population density map.”) SS6G14 The student will describe the cultural characteristics of people who live in Australia. The intent of this standard is for students to get a general idea of the broad cultural diversity in Australia. It is not necessary for students to understand all of the nuances of the various cultures of Australia. Students should understand what factors make cultures unique and what factors differentiate them from other groups. a. Explain the impact of English colonization on the language and religion of Australia. Students should understand that when the British arrived in Australia, it was already inhabited by Aborigines. Students should understand the impact colonization had on the culture of Australia. Utilize CIA
  15. 15. One Stop Shop For Educators Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools SOCIAL STUDIES  GRADE SIX TEACHER NOTES Approved 7/27/2009  Page 15 of 43 Copyright 2009 © All Rights Reserved EU- Culture- The culture of a society is the product of the religion, beliefs, customs, traditions, and government of that society. World Factbook for information on religions, languages, and ethnic groups of Australia. Explain the impact of English colonization on the languages of Australia. Australia’s languages: (2006 Census- CIA World Factbook) English 78.5%, Chinese 2.5%, Italian 1.6%, Greek 1.3%, Arabic 1.2%, Vietnamese 1%, other 8.2%, unspecified 5.7% Australia’s ethnic groups: White 92%, Asian 7%, aboriginal and other 1%. Explain the impact of English colonization on the religion of Australia. Australia’s religions: (2006 Census- CIA World Factbook) Christian 63.8% (Catholic 25.8%, Anglican 18.7%, Uniting Church 5.7%, Presbyterian and Reformed 3%, Eastern Orthodox 2.7%. other Christian 7.9%), Buddhist 2.1%, Muslim 1.7%, other 2.4%, unspecified 11.3%, none 18.7% (This is not an expectation for students to memorize a long list of statistics regarding the languages and religions of Australia but to understand the impact of English colonization on these aspects of culture.) Extension activity: What impact did colonization have on the Aboriginal culture and the Aboriginal people? Students should notice similar trends, regarding impact on culture, as they study other regions/countries around the world colonized by Europeans. b. Evaluate how the literacy rate affects the standard of living EU- Culture This element should be taught using graphs and charts. It should also be linked with the impact of economics on the ability of a country to improve literacy and standard of living. The intent is for students to understand the relationship of literacy to the standard of living and the cultural development of a country. When studying this element, students should link to SS6E10a and explain how literacy rate is a factor affecting human capital, which in turn impacts standard of living and culture.
  16. 16. One Stop Shop For Educators Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools SOCIAL STUDIES  GRADE SIX TEACHER NOTES Approved 7/27/2009  Page 16 of 43 Copyright 2009 © All Rights Reserved A good contrast to Australia is the island of Vanuatu Category Australia Vanuatu Literacy Rate 99%; 74% GDP per Capita $38,100 $4,600 Life Expectancy 81.63 63.98 Unemployment Rate 4.5% (2008) 1.7% (1999) These are just a few factors to help gauge Standard of Living. For updated data or to find additional factors that represent standard of living, use the CIA World Factbook and/or the US State Department Background Notes. The SCIS Europe in Transition book has a good activity which can be adapted to this region and standard/element- see pages 147-150. Sample Question for G14b (OAS Database) How does the high literacy rate in Australia affect its economy and enhance the standard of living for its citizens? A. Australia’s high literacy rate contributes to its economic success and promotes a high standard of living.* B. The literacy rate has little effect on Australia’s economy; thus, it does not affect the standard of living. C. Australia’s high literacy rate is the result of its poor economy. D. The small percentage of people who cannot read are hindering most of Australia’s economic growth.
  17. 17. One Stop Shop For Educators Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools SOCIAL STUDIES  GRADE SIX TEACHER NOTES Approved 7/27/2009  Page 17 of 43 Copyright 2009 © All Rights Reserved STANDARDS and ELEMENTS TEACHER NOTES 6th GRADE SOCIAL STUDIES AUSTRALIA CIVICS/GOVERNMENT UNDERSTANDINGS The Facets of Government Government! It can be confusing because much like history, there can be many layers and things do not always fit into a nice, neat category. For example, the State of Israel is classified as a parliamentary democracy while Canada is classified as a constitutional monarchy, a parliamentary democracy, and a federation. Most countries have their form of government listed in their official country name. For example, Brazil’s conventional long form name is the Federative Republic of Brazil and its government type is a Federal Republic. This is not always accurate as North Korea’s official name is the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and its government type is a Communist state one-man dictatorship (CIA World Factbook). Countries do not design their government systems to fit into categories. Therefore, a government may have aspects of more than one system. Sources that attempt to categorize may sometimes conflict. For example, Switzerland may be listed as a federal system (Forum of Federations) on one site and a confederation on another (Center for Civic Education– Constitution Day lesson). China may be listed as a unitary system on one source and a federal system on another (Scholastic/Grolier Online). Rather than focus on classifying a country’s government, teachers should focus on the characteristics of government systems. Unitary, Confederation, and Federal The elements dealing with unitary, confederation, and federal systems focus on the ways in which government systems distribute power– the relationship between the national or central government and the smaller governmental divisions (states, provinces, counties and cities). On a continuum, unitary would be on one end, with all key powers being held by the central government and confederation would be on the other end with state/regional authorities holding most of the power, creating a much weaker central authority. A federal system is in the middle with power being divided between the central government and regional governments. Some powers re-side with the central government, some powers reside with the regional governments, and some powers are shared. Thank you to Ed Flowers, Ware County Middle School teacher in Waycross, for the visual representation of these three systems.
  18. 18. One Stop Shop For Educators Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools SOCIAL STUDIES  GRADE SIX TEACHER NOTES Approved 7/27/2009  Page 18 of 43 Copyright 2009 © All Rights Reserved Autocratic, Oligarchic, and Democratic The elements dealing with autocratic, oligarchic, and democratic types of governments focus on how citizen participation is determined. In an autocracy, where most dictators maintain their position via inheritance or military power, the citizen has little, if any, role in the government. People who try to speak out against the government are often silenced through use of power. In an oligarchy, a small group exercises control. Communist countries are mostly oligarchies. The citizen has a very limited role in government. In a democracy, supreme power is vested in the people and exercised by them directly or indirectly through a system of representation usually involving periodically held free elections. The size of the circles represents the amount of power, and the arrows represent the direction the power flows. Ways Government Distributes Power FederalUnitary Confederation All key powers are held by the central government State/regional authorities hold most of the power Strong central government Weaker central government
  19. 19. One Stop Shop For Educators Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools SOCIAL STUDIES  GRADE SIX TEACHER NOTES Approved 7/27/2009  Page 19 of 43 Copyright 2009 © All Rights Reserved SS6CG6 The student will compare and contrast various forms of government. This is a shared standard that appears at the beginning of each Civics/Government section. It is to be taught the first time it is encountered. After the first time, the information should be reviewed to help students make connections to the new learning. The intent of this standard is to lay a foundation for students to understand the basic organization of governments before attempting to compare actual governments. a. Describe the ways government systems distribute power: unitary, confederation, and federal. EU- Governance- As a society increases in complexity and interacts with other societies, the complexity of the government also increases. Students should be able to describe these ways governments distribute power or identify the type of distribution from a description. According to The Forum of Federalism, only 24 of the world's 193 countries have federal political systems. However, their citizens make up 40 per cent of the world's population. In addition, there are two more countries that are making the transition to a federal system. There are still others considering adopting federalism in their constitutions. Unitary: characterized by or constituting a form of government in which power is held by one central authority; Examples: Cuba and the United Kingdom
  20. 20. One Stop Shop For Educators Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools SOCIAL STUDIES  GRADE SIX TEACHER NOTES Approved 7/27/2009  Page 20 of 43 Copyright 2009 © All Rights Reserved Federal: characterized by or constituting a form of government in which power is divided between one central and several regional authorities. Examples: Australia, Germany, Russia, Canada, Brazil, Mexico Confederation: voluntary associations of independent states that, to secure some common purpose, agree to certain limitations on their freedom of action and establish some joint machinery of consultation or deliberation. Example: European Union Note: The vast majority of countries have a unitary system. There are only (approximately) 24 countries that utilize a federal system. The United Kingdom can be confusing due to devolutions, which we do not get into in the sixth grade. A government may have aspects of more than one system. Rather than focus on classifying a specific country’s government, teachers should focus more on the characteristics of government systems. A government newsletter, PowerPoint, and webinar were developed and made available to teachers to clarify government questions regarding the sixth and seventh grade standards. Contact Shaun Owen (sowen@doe.k12.ga.us) if you have not received these materials or if you would like to be added to our listserv to receive newly developed resources. b. Explain how governments determine citizen participation: autocratic, oligarchic, and democratic. EU- Governance Students should be able to explain the different ways citizen participation in their government is defined. Autocratic: government in which one person possesses unlimited power and the citizen has little if any role in the government. Example: Cuba Oligarchic: government by the few, sometimes a government in which a small group exercises control especially for corrupt and selfish purposes. The citizen has a very limited role. Democratic: a government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised by them directly or indirectly through a system of representation usually involving periodically held free
  21. 21. One Stop Shop For Educators Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools SOCIAL STUDIES  GRADE SIX TEACHER NOTES Approved 7/27/2009  Page 21 of 43 Copyright 2009 © All Rights Reserved elections. Examples: United Kingdom, Germany, Mexico, Brazil, Canada, Australia See the notation about “classifying Russia” in the CG5 government section of the Europe Teacher Notes. Utilize sources such as CIA World Factbook and US State Department Background Notes for information pertaining to personal freedoms of citizens and ways citizens participate in government. Sample Question for CG6b (OAS Database) What is a basic way citizens of a democratic nation can influence the government? A. voting* B. working C. obeying laws D. consuming goods Sample Question for CG6b (OAS Database) Which type of government would most likely abolish all opposing political parties, the direct election of leaders, and free speech? A. republic B. constitutional monarchy C. autocratic* D. representative democracy c. Describe the two predominant forms of democratic governments: parliamentary and presidential. EU- Governance The students should be able to explain each form of government and identify the major differences in these two forms of democratic governments. Parliamentary: a system of government having the real executive power vested in a cabinet composed of members of the legislature who are individually and collectively responsible to the legislature. May have a Prime Minister elected by the legislature. Example: United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Germany Presidential: a system of government in which the president is constitutionally independent of the legislature. Example: Mexico and Brazil Sample Question for CG6c (OAS Database) In which system of government does the legislature elect the executive leader of the government? A. presidential democracy B. communist C. parliamentary democracy* D. dictatorship Sample Question for CG6c (OAS Database) Which best describes how a parliamentary democracy differs from a presidential democracy? A. The legislature consists of two houses. B. There are usually two major political parties. C. There are state as well as national governments. D. The head of the government is a member of the legislature.* Sample Question for CG6c
  22. 22. One Stop Shop For Educators Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools SOCIAL STUDIES  GRADE SIX TEACHER NOTES Approved 7/27/2009  Page 22 of 43 Copyright 2009 © All Rights Reserved You are the chief executive in your country’s democratically-elected national government. You came to power in the last election after your political party won a majority of seats in the national legislature. As the leader of your political party, you were chosen to be the government by your co-workers in the legislature. Which form of government do you have? A. parliamentary* B. presidential C. autocratic D. oligarchic Sample Question for CG6c (OAS Database) The leader of the Parliament in countries such as Australia, Canada, and the United Kingdom is called the A. speaker. B. president. C. chairman. D. prime minister.* Sample Question for CG6c (OAS Database) In which system of government does the legislature elect the executive leader of the government? A. presidential democracy B. communist C. parliamentary democracy* D. dictatorship SS6CG7 The student will explain the structure of the national government of Australia. Students should use the information from SS6CG6 to describe the form of government and formulate appropriate research questions to understand the government of the countries listed in the element. {The type of government for each country listed in the elements is found in the State Department’s Background Notes {http://www.state.gov/countries/} and the CIA World Fact Book {https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html}, as are definitions of each type of government. a. Describe the federal parliamentary democracy of Australia, distinguishing form of leadership, and the role of the citizen in terms of voting and personal freedoms. EU- Governance When one compares governments, only the type leadership and the roles of the citizen are assessable. In identifying the type of leadership, students should know the type of leader (monarch, president, prime minister, etc.) and how this person becomes the country’s leader. To identify the role of the citizen, students should look at SS6CG6b and determine what role the citizen actually plays in the government. For personal freedoms, students should understand those freedoms in terms of such things as freedom of speech and freedom of the press as understood in the United States. Assessment questions should not focus on discrete fact-related questions, such as which country has a monarch; rather, they should focus on how a leader of a specific country becomes its leader and what impact that has on the role of the citizen. The following descriptions come from the CIA World Factbook (https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world- factbook/index.html) and/or the State Department’s Background Notes (http://www.state.gov/countries/).
  23. 23. One Stop Shop For Educators Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools SOCIAL STUDIES  GRADE SIX TEACHER NOTES Approved 7/27/2009  Page 23 of 43 Copyright 2009 © All Rights Reserved Australia is a federal parliamentary democracy. Federal (Federation) - a form of government in which sovereign power is formally divided - usually by means of a constitution - between a central authority and a number of constituent regions (states, colonies, or provinces) so that each region retains some management of its internal affairs; differs from a confederacy in that the central government exerts influence directly upon both individuals as well as upon the regional units. Parliamentary democracy - a political system in which the legislature (parliament) selects the government - a prime minister, premier, or chancellor along with the cabinet ministers - according to party strength as expressed in elections; by this system, the government acquires a dual responsibility: to the people as well as to the parliament. Constitutional monarchy - a system of government in which a monarch is guided by a constitution whereby his/her rights, duties, and responsibilities are spelled out in written law or by custom. Australia Chief of state: Since 1952 is Queen Elizabeth II of the U.K. who is represented by Governor General.. Head of government: Prime Minister Elections: The monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is sworn in as prime minister by the governor general Bicameral Federal Parliament consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives. Senate and House of Representative members are elected by popular vote. Suffrage: 18 years of age. Compulsory. Utilize sources such as CIA World Factbook and US State Department Background Notes for information pertaining to personal freedoms of citizens and ways citizens participate in government.
  24. 24. One Stop Shop For Educators Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools SOCIAL STUDIES  GRADE SIX TEACHER NOTES Approved 7/27/2009  Page 24 of 43 Copyright 2009 © All Rights Reserved Sample Question for CG7a (OAS Database) Australia's government power is divided between one central and several regional authorities. Name the type of government. A. Unitary B. Confederation C. Federal* D. Autocratic STANDARDS and ELEMENTS TEACHER NOTES 6th GRADE SOCIAL STUDIES AUSTRALIA ECONOMIC UNDERSTANDINGS Economic Resources: GCEE Economic Resources The Georgia Council on Economic Education is an excellent resource to assist teachers with the GPS economic domain. There are 40 state economic councils across the U.S., and GCEE is the most active. In 2008, GCEE presented 200 day-long workshops to 5,983 teachers. GCEE has the largest state run stock market game in the country and is the largest purchaser of Council for Economic Education materials. There is no registration fee for GCEE middle school workshops, materials are provided without charge, and breakfast and lunch are usually provided. GCEE also pays for the substitutes for all middle school workshops except Virtual Economics. Research supports the effectiveness of GCEE workshops. Students whose teachers have attended a GCEE workshop score higher on the Economics EOCT. The increase in test results is in direct proportion to the number of trainings teachers have attended. For example, if a teacher has attended four workshops, his/her students perform statistically, significantly better than a teacher who has attended three workshops. Research refers to high school teachers in regard to the Economics EOCT. There was a statistical significance associated with up to 13 workshops. The Georgia Council on Economic Education offers a variety of workshops throughout the year for elementary, middle, and high school teachers. For additional information, go to http://www.gcee.org/ Middle School Workshops * Economies in Transition (command vs. market economies, currency exchange, economic and political freedom indices). * Financial Fitness for Life (personal finance– consumers, savers, investors). * Georgia Economic History (Award-winning project for 8th grade Georgia Studies teachers). * Learning, Earning and Investing (ins-and-outs of long term investing–mutual funds, stocks, bonds) * Stock Market Game Advisor Orientation (Introduction for teachers new to the ten-week, web-based stock training simulation).
  25. 25. One Stop Shop For Educators Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools SOCIAL STUDIES  GRADE SIX TEACHER NOTES Approved 7/27/2009  Page 25 of 43 Copyright 2009 © All Rights Reserved * Virtual Economics 3 (A wealth of resources from 51 key economics concepts with practical teaching tips to 1,200 reproducible activity-based, GPS correlated lessons). * Wide World of Trade (International trade, trade restrictions, and how weak or strong the dollar is relative to other currencies). GCEE also has regional workshops that are tailored to the 6th and 7th grade GPS. Regional workshops– Latin America, Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Middle East. Visit the GCEE blog- A place for teaching tips, econ in the news, and GCEE program information. (www.georgiacouncil.blogspot.com) For more information about GCEE, contact Glen Blankenship at mailto:gblankenship@gsu.edu. Communism, long lines, and toilet paper Why would people stand in line all day long for one roll of toilet paper? This was the situation created by centralization in a command economy under the Soviet Union. In a command economy, all economic activity is done on the orders of the government. Until the fall of the Berlin Wall and the subsequent collapse of communism in the late 1980s and early 1990s, a large part of the world’s population lived in countries that had command economies. Sadly, they didn’t live very well. Goods and services weren’t allocated using a price system whereby output went to those willing and able to pay for it. Rather, because everyone in a communist country is ideologically equal, the government attempted to give everyone an equal share of the goods and services made. The result of this system was not an equal division but rather shortages of everything from toilet paper to medicine. There were exceedingly long lines with more going to those willing to wait in line the longest. Because everything was in short supply, people would get into long lines, even if they did not know what was being sold. How did centralization lead to this problem? In Moscow, government officials, called central planners, attempted to determine the correct amounts to produce for 24 million different items! It was an impossible task. Take, for instance, toilet paper. Central planners would have to estimate all of the following: how many millions of rolls of toilet paper are needed?; how many trees need to be cut down to make that much paper?; how many railcars are needed to carry the trees to paper mills?; how many workers are needed to cut down the trees, run the railcars and work in the paper mills?; In addition, planners had to balance production of toilet paper against the other zillion things that required trees, railcars, and workers. The result was that resources were constantly being misdirected and wasted. For instance, food often rotted at farms because no railcars had been scheduled to take it to cities; the officials hadn’t accounted for an early harvest, and the railcars were busy elsewhere. In a price system, the farmers would have simply paid to bid the railcars away from other users. This solution wasn’t possible in a centralized economy in which prices weren’t used to allocate resources. Excerpts from Flynn, S. (2005). Communism, long lines, and toilet paper. Economics for Dummies. (p. 47). New Jersey: Wiley.
  26. 26. One Stop Shop For Educators Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools SOCIAL STUDIES  GRADE SIX TEACHER NOTES Approved 7/27/2009  Page 26 of 43 Copyright 2009 © All Rights Reserved Countries on an Economic Continuum Economics! Once relegated to the backseat of the four domains, it seemed to have very little relevance to middle schoolers whose primary encounters with money seemed to be… do I have enough to buy this item or that item? For good or bad, economics has now moved to the front seat and has everyone’s attention. Terms such as market and command economy, globalization, interdependence, depression, and recession have been dusted off the econ shelf and are now part of our everyday vernacular. On the CRCT, economics counts for 25% of the content weight in 6th and 7th grades and 16% in 8th. It is crucial that our middle schoolers develop a sound understanding of economic principles. Students learn about money on a personal level (money management), on a state level (importance of entrepreneurs in Georgia who developed enterprises such as Coca-Cola, Delta Airlines, Georgia-Pacific, and Home Depot), and on a national and international level (voluntary trade, factors that influence economic growth/GDP, and economic systems from various countries around the world). Let’s start with the basics. How many types of economic systems are there? Name the economic systems. Which economic system do a majority of textbooks say is the most common throughout the world? According to our economic experts (GCEE), there are three types of economic systems: command, traditional, and market. This may seem a little confusing because many textbooks say that there are four. This is because many textbooks include mixed as a type of economy. Mixed is not a type of economy. Since there are no “pure command” economies (total government control) and no “market economies” (no government control), countries lie somewhere on a continuum, which means they are a mixture of command and market systems. Thus the term mixed. Mixed means that they lie somewhere on the continuum, but mixed is not one of the three basic economic systems. The more government control a country has in its economy, the closer it is to a command economy. The less government control a country has in its economy, the closer it is to a market economy. The element that seems to receive the most questions in 6th and 7th grades is “Compare and contrast the basic types of economic systems found in…..various countries listed.” In 6th grade, students look at Canada, Cuba, Brazil, United Kingdom, Germany, Russia, and Australia (SS8E1c, E5c, and E8c) In 7th grade, students look at South Africa, Nigeria, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, China, India, Japan, and North Korea (SS7E1c, E5c, E8c). How do we determine where countries fall on the economic continuum between pure market and pure command? Once again, CIA World Factbook is an excellent, reliable, and up-to-date resource. The Introduction Background and the Economy Overview help explain some of the important transitional events in a country’s history...including economic changes/developments. The Economy section offers a lot of information pertaining to the factors that influence economic growth. Another excellent source to help with the economic continuum is the U.S. Department of State. Click on Travel on the top nav, then from the drop down menu click countries and regions. When you go to the next screen on the left nav under General Information, click Background Notes, then select a country from the list. Read the information under Economy. Under this section, teachers want to look for words like the following: market reforms, market-based, privatized, nationalized, public owned, protection of private property rights, etc. Our economics expert,
  27. 27. One Stop Shop For Educators Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools SOCIAL STUDIES  GRADE SIX TEACHER NOTES Approved 7/27/2009  Page 27 of 43 Copyright 2009 © All Rights Reserved Sherilyn Narker, provided a few examples of what to look for when evaluating where a country lies on the economic continuum utilizing the U.S. Department of State website. * Canada- Due to the close relationship between the United States and Canada, most of the Background Notes information in the economy, trade, and investment sections focuses on trading relationship between the two countries. Canada definitely leans toward the market side of the economic system continuum. Although famous for its socialized medicine, Canadian industries are mostly privately owned. Canada allows a tremendous amount of direct foreign investment by American companies. * Cuba- By official government statements, Cuba would be considered a socialist state with most industries controlled by the government and 75 – 93% of the labor force employed by the government. This places Cuba very close to the command side of the economic system continuum. In reality, however, like many centrally planned economies, Cuba’s state-run entities are inefficient and do not provide all the goods and services desired by citizens. Because of these inefficiencies, Cuba has a vibrant informal economy that is estimated at about 40% of the total economy. Since informal economies tend to be very close to pure market systems, this would move Cuba somewhat away from the command side of the continuum. However, in comparison to Canada, it would still be more command-based. * Brazil- Since 1996, many Brazilian industries have become privatized. There is competition, both foreign and domestic, in most major industries. On the command side, the two largest banks in Brazil are government- owned and there are still higher taxes than in many other market leaning countries. The ownership of productive resources tends to be held by an increasingly larger yet still more privileged class, with a large number in the population living in poverty. However, Brazil’s reforms and its large scale participation in international free trade relationships places it more toward the market side of the continuum than the command side. It would fall between Cuba and Canada on the continuum. This list is not meant to be all inclusive but rather to be an insight into some of the factors that influence where a country lies on the economic continuum. Students are not expected to memorize all the factors for the various countries of study. Instead, have an understanding of what factors move a country more toward a pure command economy and what factors move a country more toward a pure market economy. The information should then be applied to the various specific countries outlined in the 6th and 7th grade GPS. Lesson Plans and Online Activities Economic Education Web The Educators’ Reference Desk The New York Times Economics Wisconsin Federal Reserve Education Federal Reserve Teacher Resources Search by educational level, type of media, and concept/standard. The Federal Reserve System DVD and Video Lending Library Topics: personal finance, government and the economy, competition, entrepreneurs, specialization, how society has evolved from the subsistence economies of old to the global trade economies of today, why countries trade? NAFTA: who wins? Who loses?, (rental is free- $2 return shipping) Lesson Plans and Teaching Strategies
  28. 28. One Stop Shop For Educators Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools SOCIAL STUDIES  GRADE SIX TEACHER NOTES Approved 7/27/2009  Page 28 of 43 Copyright 2009 © All Rights Reserved The Mint PBS Teachers - Middle School Economics Lessons PBS—Don’t Buy It! Tonya Skinner’s Economics Lesson Plans/Activities McRel Lesson Plan Library– Economics Sites for Teachers Teachers.net Middle School Lesson Plans Teachers.net Social Studies Lesson Plans Africa: Scarcity of Clean Water, Desertification of Farmland, and the Economy Lesson plan from PBS/Nova. Russia’s Conversion from Communism to Capitalism Lesson plan from PBS/Frontline. Foundation for Teaching Economics This site is geared towards high school teachers but many lessons can be modified for lower grades. Teachers can also watch teaching videos online to develop a deeper understanding of economics. Bead Game Simulation Comparing market, command, traditional systems). Posted on FTE website. Market Economy Simulation Lesson plan posted on Foundation for Teaching Economics website. Comparing Economic Systems Lesson plan from EconEd Link. Trade Barriers, such as tariffs, quotas and embargos Lesson plan (Limiting Trade) from Economic Education Web. Maryland Council on Economic Education Sixteen lesson plans for middle school teachers. Southern Center for International Studies Complementary material to the Southern Center instructional resources that were distributed during revised GPS training. Check the Educational Updates for World Regions for supplemental updates. GPB Education Streaming To access the clips go to GPB.org, then GPB Education, then GPB Education Streaming. There are numerous video clips pertaining to economic principals, factors of production and economic information about numerous countries throughout the world. Galileo Social Studies resources such as Compton’s Encyclopedia, SIRS Discoverer, Kids Search, Book Collection: Nonfiction, Digital Library of Georgia, New Georgia Encyclopedia are available through this site. If you do not have a password, see your media specialist. GCEE, Council for Economic Education, Atlanta Federal Reserve Teacher Resources, Dallas Federal Reserve Teacher Resources, Boston Federal Reserve Teacher Resources, Minneapolis Federal Reserve Teacher Resources, New York Federal Reserve Teacher Resources, GCSS, NCSS, UN Cyber School Bus, Country at a glance- UN Cyber School Bus, The Battle for the World Economy, Ask Dr. Econ, Economoagic, EconData The links/resources provided in this newsletter are for informational purposes only. Teachers should always preview any resource and determine the value and appropriateness for students. None of these resources should be considered the advice or guidance of the Georgia Department of Education. SS6E8 The student will analyze different economic systems. This is a generic standard that is placed at the beginning of the economics understandings of each region. It is
  29. 29. One Stop Shop For Educators Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools SOCIAL STUDIES  GRADE SIX TEACHER NOTES Approved 7/27/2009  Page 29 of 43 Copyright 2009 © All Rights Reserved intended to be taught in depth with the first region. Once it has been taught in depth, only a brief review is needed in other regions. The goal of this standard is to acquaint students with the three major types of economic systems. The second element helps students understand how every country’s economy is a blend of command and market economies. Students are then asked to compare specific economies within the region being studied. a. Compare how traditional, command, and market economies answer the economic questions of (1) what to produce, (2) how to produce, and (3) for whom to produce. EU- Production, Distribution & Consumption- The production, distribution, and consumption of goods/services produced by the society are affected by the location, customs, beliefs, and laws of the society. Students should understand the basic characteristics of each of the three types of economic systems in relation to how they answer the three basic economic questions. Students should focus on the characteristics of command and market economies. Students should understand how each economic system answers: what to produce, how to produce, and for whom to produce (the three basic economic questions). Sample Question for E8a (OAS Database) In a traditional economic system people usually exchange goods or services rather than use money. Which of the following is an example of this exchange process? A. charging goods on a credit card B. bartering with a seller* C. paying for services by check D. using currency to pay Sample Question for E8a (OAS Database) A market economy is very different from a command economy. Which of the following is found in a market economy? A. competition* B. guaranteed yearly pay raises C. government control of industry D. government control of agriculture Sample Question for E8a (OAS Database) In which economic system are the production and distribution of goods owned by private individuals or corporations? A. traditional B. feudalism C. market* D. command Sample Question for E8a (OAS Database) When a country has a market economy, which of these statements correctly defines this system? A. Workers are guaranteed a pay raise every year. B. The government controls most of the businesses in the country. C. Basic goods in the country are provided to all people without charge. D. Companies produce goods of their choice and consumers decide whether to buy the goods.* Sample Question for E8a (OAS Database) Which of following best describes a market economy? A. A person can start any legal business and charge any price.* B. The government provides food and housing to all workers. C. The government provides services, such as telephones and television. Sample Question for E8a (OAS Database) Which term best describes an economic system in which the people—not the government—own land, factories, and businesses? A. communism B. market*
  30. 30. One Stop Shop For Educators Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools SOCIAL STUDIES  GRADE SIX TEACHER NOTES Approved 7/27/2009  Page 30 of 43 Copyright 2009 © All Rights Reserved D. National businesses, such as airlines, are owned by the government. C. command D. traditional b. Explain how most countries have a mixed economy located on a continuum between pure market and pure command. EU- Production, Distribution & Consumption Since no country has a pure command or pure market economic system, all economies combine aspects of both of these pure economic systems, albeit to different degrees. Students should understand how real economies fall somewhere between the two extremes. This is not an in-depth study of economic principles. This should be combined with element “a” in instruction. Economic Systems Pure Market Pure Command Sample Question for E8b (OAS Database) Which of the following explanations would reflect a country with a mixed economy (i.e., between a pure market and pure command)? A. Prices and wages are solely regulated by a country’s government. B. A combination of privately-owned industry and government control.* C. A country’s distribution of resources is based on inheritance. D. Prices and wages are determined by the laws of supply and demand rather than being regulated by a country’s government. Sample Question for E8b (OAS Database) The economic system of communist countries is most closely related to which of the following? A. command* B. market C. traditional D. supply and demand c. Describe the economic system used in Australia. EU- Production, Distribution & Consumption Using the information learned in elements “a” and “b” students should explain how the economy in Australia answers the basic questions of economics from element “a.” They should also be able to explain from their answers the basic questions of economics and approximately where on the continuum between pure market and pure command each economy falls. They should also be able to explain why the
  31. 31. One Stop Shop For Educators Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools SOCIAL STUDIES  GRADE SIX TEACHER NOTES Approved 7/27/2009  Page 31 of 43 Copyright 2009 © All Rights Reserved country is in that position on the continuum. The following information is based on material found in the U.S. State Department Background Notes and the Heritage Foundation/Wall Street Journal Economic Freedom Index. (1) What to produce? Australia's economy is dominated by its services sector, yet it is the agricultural and mining sectors that account for the bulk of Australia's exports. (2) How to produce? Since the 1980s, Australia has undertaken significant structural reform of its economy and has transformed itself from an inward-looking, highly protected, and regulated marketplace to an open, internationally competitive, export-oriented economy. Key economic reforms included reducing barriers to free trade such as high tariffs, deregulating the financial services sector, including liberalizing access for foreign banks, increasing flexibility in the labor market, and privatizing many government-owned monopolies, The overall freedom to start, operate, and close a business is strongly protected under Australia's regulatory environment. Starting a business takes only two days, compared to the world average of 38. Obtaining a business license requires less than the global average of 18 procedures and 225 days. Closing a business is very easy. (3) For whom to produce? Australia's comparative advantage in the export of primary products is a reflection of the natural wealth of the Australian continent and its small domestic market; 21 million people occupy a continent the size of the contiguous United States. The relative size of the manufacturing sector has been declining for several decades, but has now steadied at around 10% of GDP. Australia currently enjoys a record high terms-of-trade well above its long-run average, reflecting the rise in global commodity prices created by booming demand in China and the drop in prices for imports for manufactured goods, mainly from China.
  32. 32. One Stop Shop For Educators Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools SOCIAL STUDIES  GRADE SIX TEACHER NOTES Approved 7/27/2009  Page 32 of 43 Copyright 2009 © All Rights Reserved Pure Market Pure Command Australia 83% The purpose of the Economic Systems numbering system is not for students to memorize numbers, but to understand which factors contribute to a country moving more toward a command or a market economy. (Resource: Heritage Foundation Economic Freedom Index) To read country specific information and check for updates, click on the links- Australia. SS6E9 The student will give examples of how voluntary trade benefits buyers and sellers in Australia. The intent of this standard is to have students explain the importance of voluntary trade and how it benefits Australia. The elements for this standard, which are general in nature, are to be applied to Australia. a. Explain how specialization encourages trade between countries. EU- Production, Distribution & Consumption Specialization encourages trade and can be a positive factor in a country’s economy. Specialization occurs when one nation can produce a good or service at a lower opportunity cost than another nation. Students should be able to discuss how this has helped Australia. It is not necessary that students know specific nations for the CRCT, as questions will be of a broad nature. Students should also note where specialization has not functioned as expected. What are the potential problems of over-specialization, such as one-crop economies
  33. 33. One Stop Shop For Educators Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools SOCIAL STUDIES  GRADE SIX TEACHER NOTES Approved 7/27/2009  Page 33 of 43 Copyright 2009 © All Rights Reserved and lack of diversification? How can this impact a region’s economy? Description of question format: Students may be provided with examples of resources and/or products that different countries produce. The question would then ask students to explain why two countries would engage in trade. The answer would show that each country specializes in something the other country needs and produces it at a lower opportunity cost than that country. b. Compare and contrast different types of trade barriers, such as tariffs, quotas, and embargos. EU- Production, Distribution & Consumption Students should be able to describe each of the listed trade barriers and apply them to Australia. Questions will not require students to associate trade barriers with specific countries but to explain an example provided in an assessment question. Students should be able to explain the reasons a specific trade barrier would be used and how that trade barrier would affect each country involved. Sample Question for E9b (OAS Database) Which word has the same meaning as the economic term "tariff"? A. tax* B. savings C. debt D. money Sample Question for E9b (OAS Database) You are the governor of New South Wales, Australia. Living in Sydney, you have learned that surfing has a huge impact on your state’s local economy. As governor, you have two economic goals: * Protecting local Australian surfboard manufacturers from foreign competition, * Generating more tax revenue for your state government. What type of trade barrier could you use that would accomplish both of these goals? A. embargo B. quota C. exchange rate D. tariff* Sample Question for E9b (OAS Database) Which trade barrier discourages trade by placing a tax on foreign goods? A. Embargo B. Quota C. Subsidy D. Tariff* Sample Question for E9b (OAS Database) (DOK 3) Have to know types of governments and tariffs, quotas and embargos. A country's parliament votes to increase tariffs upon goods from another country. This is an example of A. a monarchy encouraging free trade. B. a representative democracy restricting trade.* C. a socialist congress preventing free enterprise. D. a communist government allowing freedom of speech. Sample Question for E9b (OAS Database) What is the purpose of a tariff, such as a protective tariff? A. to increase the prices of imported goods and protect a country's own industries from foreign competition* B. to decrease the prices of imported goods so a country's people can buy what they need for the lowest cost C. to increase the prices of exported goods so a country's own businesses are less likely to send their
  34. 34. One Stop Shop For Educators Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools SOCIAL STUDIES  GRADE SIX TEACHER NOTES Approved 7/27/2009  Page 34 of 43 Copyright 2009 © All Rights Reserved products to other nations D. to decrease the prices of exported goods so people in other countries will buy the foreign nation's product over one from home c. Explain why international trade requires a system for exchanging currencies between nations. EU- Production, Distribution & Consumption Students should be able to explain the reasons why currency exchange systems facilitate international trade. Students should be able to identify examples, from Australia, on how international trade between these countries and other countries of the world has benefited from a system for the exchange of currency. Students do not need to know types of currency or how to calculate exchange rates. It is sufficient for them to know that exchange rates provide a procedure for determining the value of one country’s currency in terms of another country’s currency. They should also understand that without a system for exchanging currencies it would be very difficult to conduct international trade. SS6E10 The student will describe factors that influence economic growth and examine their presence or absence in Australia. The generic elements in this standard are intended to be applied to Australia, the continent/country identified in the standard. The four elements in this standard focus on the factors that most influence economic growth in a nation. Students should be able to describe these factors and explain how the presence or absence of them has influenced economic growth in Australia. There are four factors - land, labor, capital, entrepreneurship - that influence economic growth. Three of the four- land, capital, and entrepreneurship - are addressed in these elements. Capital is split into two categories: human and physical. Economic growth is usually measured by calculating the percent increase in GDP from one year to the next. This is known as the GDP Growth Rate. a. Explain the relationship between investment in human capital (education and training) and gross domestic product (GDP). Students should be able to explain both human capital and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and how human capital influences GDP. Students need to determine the education and training level of the workforce in Australia and how these factors impact economic growth in specific nations in the region. This is not to be done at a complex level, but in general. If the literacy rate is growing quickly, is GDP
  35. 35. One Stop Shop For Educators Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools SOCIAL STUDIES  GRADE SIX TEACHER NOTES Approved 7/27/2009  Page 35 of 43 Copyright 2009 © All Rights Reserved EU- Production, Distribution & Consumption growing at a fast rate also? Using this information, students should be able to infer that there is a relationship between the literacy rate and a nation’s ability to produce income. Using this information, students should evaluate the level of education and training to see what impact it has on the GDP of three nations in this region. The information below is from the U.S. State Department’s Background Notes. *Note to teacher: It is important to let students know that highly developed economies, like the USA and Israel, have smaller growth rates because the size of these economies are already so large. Australia Literacy Rate— 99% Real economic growth rate (2008 est): 2.2% (Real economic growth rate is the percent the GDP increased over the previous year after taking into consideration inflation or deflation) http://earthtrends.wri.org/ CIA World Factbook Sample Question for E10a You are watching a speech by the Prime Minister of Australia on T.V. with your parents. The Prime Minister is explaining a plan for improving the Australian economy. In the speech, the Prime Minister says: “Our workers must be prepared for the high-tech jobs of the 21 st century. My plan will give incentives to companies who provide technology education and training for their employees.” The Prime Minister’s plan is based on the conclusion that: A. An investment in human capital will increase the country’s gross domestic product (GDP)* B. Adjusting the exchange rate will increase the profit the Australia makes in international trade C. An investment in capital goods will increase the country’s gross domestic product (GDP) D. An embargo on technology from other countries will help the Australian economy. b. Explain the relationship between investment in capital (factories, machinery, and technology) and gross domestic product (GDP). EU- Production, Distribution & Consumption Students should be able to explain capital and its relationship to GDP. They should be able to explain how investment in capital influences GDP. Students should determine how capital investment affects the GDP of Australia. As with element (a), students should use the information about capital and GDP to make inferences regarding the investment in capital in Australia’s and their GDP. The below figures show the investment in capital as a percentage of the country’s GDP. Investment in capital tends to produce increased GDP; hence, the real economic growth rate would be expected to increase with increased
  36. 36. One Stop Shop For Educators Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools SOCIAL STUDIES  GRADE SIX TEACHER NOTES Approved 7/27/2009  Page 36 of 43 Copyright 2009 © All Rights Reserved capital investment. Australia Capital Investment— 27.6% of GDP (2008 est.) Real growth rate: 2.2% (2008 est.) Sample Question for E10b You are watching a speech by the President of the United States on T.V. with your parents. The President is explaining a plan for improving the U.S. economy. In the speech, the President says: “Our workers must be prepared for the high-tech jobs of the 21st century. My plan will give incentives to companies who invest in new computers and wireless communications systems.” The President’s plan is based on the conclusion that: A. An investment in human capital will increase the country’s gross domestic product (GDP) B. Adjusting the exchange rate will increase the profit the U.S. makes in international trade C. An investment in capital goods will increase the country’s gross domestic product (GDP)* D. An embargo on technology from other countries will help the U.S. economy. Sample Question for E10b (OAS Database) Use the information in the box below to answer this question. In order to produce a good or a service, four factors of production are needed—natural resources (land), human resources (labor), capital resources (buildings and machinery), and entrepreneurship (organization). A sixth−grade class decides to open a popcorn stand. The stand and the popcorn popper are examples of which factor of production? A. natural resources B. human resources C. capital resources* D. entrepreneurship Sample Question for E10b You are watching a speech by the Prime Minister of Australia on T.V. with your parents. The Prime Minister is explaining a plan for improving the Australian economy. In the speech, the Prime Minister says: “Our workers must be prepared for the high-tech jobs of the 21 st century. My plan will give incentives to companies who invest in new computers and wireless communications systems.” The Prime Minister’s plan is based on the conclusion that: A. An investment in human capital will increase the country’s gross domestic product (GDP) B. Adjusting the exchange rate will increase the profit the Australia makes in international trade C. An investment in capital goods will increase the country’s gross domestic product (GDP)* D. Tariffs placed on technology from other countries will help create larger computer companies. c. Describe the role of natural resources in a country’s economy. EU- Production, Distribution & Consumption Students do not need to identify the natural resources of specific countries, but they should be able to explain how the presence or absence impacts a country’s economy. Students may be provided charts and/or graphs to evaluate the impact of natural resources on the development of that country’s economy. Sample Question for E10c
  37. 37. One Stop Shop For Educators Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools SOCIAL STUDIES  GRADE SIX TEACHER NOTES Approved 7/27/2009  Page 37 of 43 Copyright 2009 © All Rights Reserved You are watching a speech by the Prime Minister of Australia on T.V. with your parents. The Prime Minister is explaining a plan for improving the Australian economy. In the speech, the Prime Minister says: “Our economy is too dependent on imports of oil from foreign countries. My plan for energy independence will focus on using sources of energy we already have here in the Australia—including oil & natural gas, wind, and solar power.” The Prime Minister’s plan is based on the conclusion that: A. An investment in human capital will increase the country’s gross domestic product (GDP) B. A tariff on oil imported from other countries will double Australia’s oil production. C. An investment in capital goods will increase the country’s gross domestic product (GDP) D. The development and use of domestic natural resources will help the Australian economy.* d. Describe the role of entrepreneurship. EU- Production, Distribution & Consumption Students should explain entrepreneurship and its importance in economic development. Students should be able to explain how entrepreneurship affects Australia’s economic development. Students are not expected to know specific examples from any of these countries. They may be required to use charts and graphs to evaluate the impact of entrepreneurship on economic development. One source for information on entrepreneurship in various countries is The Heritage Foundation’s Economic Freedom Index. The index ranks countries based on scores in ten economic categories, one of which is Business Freedom. Since the same criteria are used for all countries, the index can help with comparisons of entrepreneurship. For over a decade, The Wall Street Journal and The Heritage Foundation have tracked the march of economic freedom around the world with the Index of Economic Freedom. Teachers need to be aware of this and be willing to share information about the website if requested. Australia Based on information from the Economic Freedom Index (EFI), the overall freedom to start, operate, and close a business is strongly protected under Australia's regulatory environment. Starting a business takes only two days, compared to the world average of 38. Obtaining a business license requires less than the global average of 18 procedures and 225 days. Closing a business is very easy. Australia’s rating for Business Freedom= 91; the world average= 64 (2009). To view the EFI for Australia go to: http://www.heritage.org/Index/Country/Australia.
  38. 38. One Stop Shop For Educators Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools SOCIAL STUDIES  GRADE SIX TEACHER NOTES Approved 7/27/2009  Page 38 of 43 Copyright 2009 © All Rights Reserved Sample Question for E10d You are watching a speech by the Prime Minister of Australia on T.V. with your parents. The Prime Minister is explaining a plan for improving the Australian economy. In the speech, the Prime Minister says: “We must take make is easier for Australians to open small businesses. My plan will give tax breaks and incentives to Australians who want to start their own small business...” The Prime Minister’s plan is based on the conclusion that: A. Investing in human capital will increase the country’s gross domestic product (GDP). B. Promoting entrepreneurship will improve economic development.* C. Investing in capital goods will increase the country’s gross domestic product (GDP). D. A tariff on goods imported from other nations will help Australian businesses compete.
  39. 39. One Stop Shop For Educators Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools SOCIAL STUDIES  GRADE SIX TEACHER NOTES Approved 7/27/2009  Page 39 of 43 Copyright 2009 © All Rights Reserved STANDARDS and ELEMENTS TEACHER NOTES 6th GRADE SOCIAL STUDIES AUSTRALIA HISTORICAL UNDERSTANDINGS SS6H8 The student will describe the culture and development of Australia prior to contact with Europeans. The intent of this standard is to provide the student with the historical background that led to the issues facing Australia today. It is not a complete history of the country/continent. This standard links to 7th grade and provides background on European presence/influence throughout the world. a. Describe the origins and culture of the Aborigines. EU- Culture- The culture of a society is the product of the religion, beliefs, customs, traditions, and government of that society. Aborigines arrived from Southeast Asia and settled in Australia at least 40,000 years before the Europeans arrived. Aborigine, which is Latin for “from the beginning,” refers to the native or first known inhabitants. The Aboriginal population at the time of European colonization in the late 18th century has been estimated to have numbered between 300,000 and 800,000. Today, Aborigines make up only about 1% of Australia’s population. The Aborigines were nomadic hunters and gatherers. They used boomerangs and spears for hunting and engaged in extensive intergroup trade throughout the continent. Aborigines were divided into many groups or tribes and spoke many languages. Some sources estimate there were 500-600 distinct groups of Aborigines speaking about 200 different languages or dialects. Aborigines’ spiritual beliefs are based on Dreamtime or the time long ago when all things were created. Dreamtime stories explain how animals, plants, water holes, etc., were shaped by spirit beings. These beings still exist and may appear in many forms. Aborigines feel a very strong connection to the land and believe that they have been entrusted as caretakers. Many sites are sacred, such as Uluru-Ayers Rock. Australia has thousands of sites where rocks have been painted or engraved with human and animal shapes; some have existed for thousands of years. Aborigines believe that these paintings were done in Dreamtime.
  40. 40. One Stop Shop For Educators Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools SOCIAL STUDIES  GRADE SIX TEACHER NOTES Approved 7/27/2009  Page 40 of 43 Copyright 2009 © All Rights Reserved The Aborigines had no written language and, thus, relied on song and word of mouth to pass information from one generation to the next. Because of Australia’s remote location, the Aborigines were untouched by outside influences until the arrival of Europeans in the 18th century. (Resource: Columbia Encyclopedia and Britannica Concise Encyclopedia) Sample Question for H8a (OAS Database) Who were the first inhabitants of Australia? A. prisoners from Britain B. Europeans looking for spices C. people who migrated from Asia* D. sailors from Captain Cook's ships Sample Question for H8a (OAS Database) The first Australians were nomadic hunters and gatherers. When Europeans reached Australia, they called the dark−skinned people they encountered A. Maoris. B. Inuits. C. Aztecs. D. Aborigines.* SS6H9 The student will explain the impact European exploration and colonization had on Australia. The intent of this standard is to provide the student with the historical background that led to the issues facing Australia today. It is not a complete history of the country/continent. This standard provides background on European presence/influence throughout the world. a. Explain the reasons for British colonization of Australia; include the use of prisoners as colonists. EU- Movement & Migration In the 1600s, Dutch sailors were the first known Europeans to land on Australia. The English Captain James Cook later landed at Botany Bay and claimed the Australian south-east coast for Britain in 1770. Britain decided to use Australia as a penal colony for convicts. This system of deportation had been in place for some time as a way of easing overcrowding of English jails. After the American Revolution, Britain could no longer use the colonies in North America as a place to send exiled prisoners. In 1788, ships arrived from Britain to Australia carrying convicts, women, and guards. Over the next several decades, more than 150,000 prisoners were transported to Australia. The Gold Rush of 1851 and the growth of sheep farming brought more and more free settlers to Australia. (Note: The information provided is not an expectation for students to memorize a long list of dates and numbers. Sources often differ regarding dates and numbers as one says 174,000 prisoners and another says the last convict ship arrived in 1849. Students should understand the big picture. A significant number of convicts were brought to Australia, not just several hundred, and this event did not occur in the 1400s.)
  41. 41. One Stop Shop For Educators Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools SOCIAL STUDIES  GRADE SIX TEACHER NOTES Approved 7/27/2009  Page 41 of 43 Copyright 2009 © All Rights Reserved Sample Question for H9a (OAS Database) In the late 1700s the British government used the colony of Australia as A. a location in which to build new factories. B. a prison to which criminals could be sent.* C. a military base to replace the African colonies. D. a source of resources like coal and iron. Sample Question for H9a The British colonized Australia and made a penal colony for prisoners. There are other reasons why the British colonized Australia? Why did the British use Australia as a place to send prisoners? A. Australia’s remote location* B. Australia’s proximity to England C. Pre-existing prison facilities D. Australia was encourage migration at the time b. Explain the impact of European colonization of Australia in terms of diseases and weapons on the indigenous peoples of Australia. EU- Conflict & Change- Societies resolve conflicts through legal procedures, force, and/or compromise. “Wherever the Europeans trod, death seems to pursue the aboriginal.” Charles Darwin wrote these words in 1836 and the statement can be applied to Australia, Africa, Asia, the Americas, and Polynesia. Europeans brought devastating diseases, such as smallpox, with them to Australia. Since the Aborigines had no immunity to these “new” diseases, large numbers died. With a smaller population, weakened by disease, conquest of the indigenous peoples became easier. Many Aborigines were forced off their land, and some were killed. Surviving Aborigines were discriminated against and had few rights. By the 1870s, there were no Aborigines left in Tasmania. Aborigines who did fight stood little chance of winning due to the advanced weapons, such as guns, used by the British. Students should make correlations throughout the year to other regions and the role diseases played in European colonization. What impact did these diseases have on indigenous people? EU- Did Europeans resolve their conflicts with the Aborigines through legal procedures, force, and/or compromise? Sample Question for H9b Why did so many aborigines die from diseases after European colonization of Australia? A. Europeans brought new diseases to Australia* B. Eating habits changed C. An increased need for sewage facilities D. A shortage of soap
  42. 42. One Stop Shop For Educators Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools SOCIAL STUDIES  GRADE SIX TEACHER NOTES Approved 7/27/2009  Page 42 of 43 Copyright 2009 © All Rights Reserved CRCT Information Content Weights for the GPS-Based CRCT Social Studies 6th Grade 7th Grade 8th Grade History 29% 20% 47% Geography 31% 35% 12% Civics/Government 15% 20% 25% Economics 25% 25% 16% Assessment page for the CRCT, EOCT, GHSGT, GAA Frameworks page for Georgia Standards. and Writing Assessment. The following information is from the March 2009 social studies middle school newsletter (Economics Instructional Guide) which is posted on the Georgia Standards website. The weather is changing, the end of the school year is right around the corner, and the CRCT is drawing near. After the 6th and 7th grade social studies test results were nullified last year, we know that there may still be many questions about this year’s test. As you are aware, the grade 6 and 7 Georgia Performance Standards in Social Studies were reviewed last summer and revised. As is our practice, each year we develop and field test new items. This year, all items are new and reflect the revised curriculum. This spring, those new test items will be field tested with Georgia students. The purpose of the field test is to validate new test items with a representative group of students.
  43. 43. One Stop Shop For Educators Georgia Department of Education Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools SOCIAL STUDIES  GRADE SIX TEACHER NOTES Approved 7/27/2009  Page 43 of 43 Copyright 2009 © All Rights Reserved On a typical CRCT, students only take 10 field test items, which do not contribute to students' scores. All items on the grades 6 and 7 Social Studies CRCT are new and, therefore, considered field test items. Given the purpose of the field test is to gather information about how the items perform and not students, no results -- at any level -- will be reported. During the summer, a committee of Georgia social studies teachers will review the field tested items, along with key statistical data, and recommend which items should be kept for inclusion on an operational test, which items should be discarded, and which items should be edited for re-field testing. Interested teachers should contact their System Test Coordinator and/or Curriculum Director to serve on the committee. Standardized test development is a highly specialized process which includes extensive data analysis. A detailed description of the process is included on pages 2-3 of the Assessment Newsletter. Where do we go from here? The field item tests will be reviewed after students take the CRCT. Some items will remain, and some items will be eliminated based on specific, data driven criteria. Next year, (2009-2010) systems, administrators, teachers, and students will receive CRCT results for sixth and seventh social studies. For more information on the CRCT, please contact Joe Blessing, the CRCT Specialist, at mailto:jblessing@doe.k12.ga.us. Additional Testing Resources * Study Guide- Grade 6 * Study Guide- Grade 7 * Study Guide- Grade 8 * Content Descriptions-Grade * Online Assessment System * Content Weights CRCT * Promotion and Retention * Assessment Newsletter * The sixth grade Teacher Notes for Europe, Australia, Latin America and the Caribbean and Canada were written by Shaun Owen, with additional input from Dr. Bill Cranshaw, Sherilyn Narker, Sarah Brown, Marlo Mong, and Chris Cannon.

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