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  1. 1. Political & Physical Features of Australia Unit 10 Notes
  2. 2. I. Australia’s Political Features
  3. 3. Australia… Is divided into territories and states: States: Tasmania, Victoria, South Australia, Western Australia, New South Wales, Queensland Territories: Northern Territory and Australian Capital Territory
  4. 4. Tasmania Island off the southeast coast of the mainland Almost half of Tasmania is unspoiled land that is protected by the government
  5. 5. Tasmanian Devil?
  6. 6. Victoria State closest to Tasmania Southeast part of the mainland Capital is Melbourne; it’s the most urban state in Australia The many rivers of the region are a good source of fresh water for farming
  7. 7. South Australia State in south-central Australia The Great Victoria Desert is located here…
  8. 8. Western Australia Largest state; makes up 1/3rd of the mainland Most of Western Australia is desert (Great Victoria Desert and Great Sandy Desert are located here)
  9. 9. Great Sandy Desert
  10. 10. New South Wales North of Victoria, on the eastern coast Has more people than any other Australian state The capital, Sydney, is the most populated city in Australia -- 3 1/2 million people live there! Australian Capital Territory is located here
  11. 11. Sydney, New South Wales
  12. 12. Queensland Second largest state; 7 times the size of England!  In the northeastern part of the mainland Great Barrier Reef is located off the coast in the Coral Sea More than half of Queensland’s population lives in the capital: Brisbane
  13. 13. Brisbane
  14. 14. Northern Territory Northern coast of the mainland, between Western Australia and Queensland Largest population of Aborigines in Australia
  15. 15. Australian Capital Territory Located in New South Wales The national capital, Canberra, is located here
  16. 16. Canberra (Australia’s Capital)
  17. 17. II. Australia’s Physical Features
  18. 18. Australia… The only country on the world’s smallest and flattest continent… Has Earth’s oldest and least fertile soils Only Antarctica receives less rainfall! Commonwealth of Australia also includes Tasmania, an island south of the mainland It’s surrounded by the Indian and Pacific Oceans
  19. 19. Huge desert plains stretch across the country’s middle--central Australia’s climate is hot and dry Milder climates along the southeastern and southwestern coasts Most Australians live in the southeastern coastal region
  20. 20. Great Barrier Reef World’s largest coral reef! Lies off the northeast coast of Queensland--over 1,200 miles long Contains an amazing variety of marine life, including the world’s largest collection of coral 400 types of coral, 1,500 species of fish, & 4,000 mollusks (snails, clams, octopi, & squid) Also includes rare species like the sea cow and the large green turtle
  21. 21. Great Barrier Reef from space
  22. 22. Coral Sea An important source of coral for the Great Barrier Reef Part of the Pacific Ocean Off the northeast coast of Australia When the earth’s crust moved millions of years ago, it created the Coral Sea and the Great Dividing Range (largest mountain range in Australia) Coral Sea islands are scattered over thousands of miles of ocean--no one lives on the islands except for a small group of weather specialists
  23. 23. Ayers Rock A huge, reddish rock in the center of Australia Very close to the geographic center of the continent… It’s a monolith, which is a single, large rock sticking out of the earth Appears reddish because its iron content “rusts” at the surface Nearly 12 stories high and almost 6 miles wide!
  24. 24. Ayers Rock Aborigines call it “Uluru”, which is its official name European surveyor visited the rock in 1873 and named it after Sir Henry Ayers, an English government official in South Australia In 1950, Australia created Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park around Ayers Rock Both are located in the southwest corner of the state called Northern Territory
  25. 25. Great Victoria Desert Stretches through the states of South Australia and Western Australia Receives only 8 to 10 inches of rain each year, and it never snows! Some grasslands in the desert along with sandhills and salt
  26. 26. Great Victoria Desert First Europeans to cross the desert named it after British Queen Victoria in 1875 160,000 miles long & is a protected wilderness area Very few Australians live here because it’s too hot and dry