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  1. 1. Australia’s Economy Unit 12 Notes
  2. 2. Australia’s Economy • one of the freest economies in the world • It is technically a mixed economy, but it’s close to market because there are very few rules to restrict the market. • government does not own major industry or business – prices are set by the agreement of buyers and sellers rather than by government rules
  3. 3. Australia’s Economy • There are no truly pure market economies, but Australia’s is close. – It is considered one of the most free economies in the world. – Businesses operate without too many rules from the government. – People are free to start a business and can do so quickly. – Courts use the laws of Australia to protect the property rights of citizens.
  4. 4. Australia’s Economy • People are free to own their own businesses and property. – They decide what they want to produce. • Buyers and sellers are able to agree on prices, and competition between sellers helps to keep the prices good for buyers. • Business owners and consumers can depend on good laws to protect them. – The courts are considered fair and honest. • It is very easy to start a business in Australia – the paperwork usually takes less than a week!
  5. 5. Economy Continuum Command Market Cuba Russi a Germany US Australia UK
  6. 6. Four Factors of Economic Growth • There are four factors that determine a country’s Gross Domestic Product for the year: 1. Natural Resources 2. Human Capital 3. Capital Goods 4. Entrepreneurship
  7. 7. Australia’s Natural Resources • Arable land is a valuable resource. – Farmers grow lots of crops. – The land also provides pasture for beef cattle (an important export). • Minerals are a major export and include: coal, iron ore, copper, tin, gold, silver, uranium, nickel, tungsten, mineral sands, lead, zinc, diamonds, natural gas, & petroleum. – world’s leader in bauxite (used to make aluminum) • Selling these natural resources brings in money from all over the world.
  8. 8. Australia’s Human Capital • Australia invests heavily in human capital. • Children are required to attend school from ages 6 to 18. – Taxpayers pay for schooling for all children. – The literacy rate is nearly 100%. • The workforce is well-trained and well-educated. • The healthcare system is very good. • All of these factors improve Australia’s standard of living - one of the highest in the world!
  9. 9. Capital Goods in Australia • Australia’s businesses use advanced technology to make their companies work more efficiently. • If a company does not keep its machinery up-to-date, other companies will be able to produce similar goods for a better price.
  10. 10. Australia’s Entrepreneurs • Australia is a world leader in entrepreneurship. – One (1) in twelve (12) adults owns his own business. • Laws in Australia are good for businesses because they protect entrepreneurs & their property, make it easy to start a business, and have few rules to restrict businesses. • Entrepreneurs are good for Australia. – Businesses keep economy moving & provide jobs for workers.
  11. 11. Your Task: • The Important Book by Margaret Wise Brown was written in 1949 and is still in print today! It contains eleven short essays all written in the same style, with an introductory fact, five supporting details, and a repeat of the most important first fact. • You are going to be creating your own version of The Important Book. Your topic is going to be Economic Growth in Australia.
  12. 12. Your Task: • Please Include: • A Cover = The Important Book of Economic Growth in Australia • A page for each factor of economic growth in Australia – Natural Resources – Human Capital – Capital Goods – Entrepreneurship • An illustration for each factor