Thesis Proposal on Packaging as a Brand-Building Tool.


Published on

It is important that marketers really get to know their market well so that they can make sure that they are having a positive level of penetration. If the packaging is not doing anything, when it comes to drawing attention to the product, then probably nobody is going to buy the product. Whether brand packaging is designed for business to business or consumer retail sales, packaging is everything when it comes to truly reflecting the brand. Having a good packaging design will continue to work for company and product for many years to come, which will allow you to build large amount of loyalty all along the way.....

  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Thesis Proposal on Packaging as a Brand-Building Tool.

  1. 1. Thesis Proposal onPackaging as a Brand-Building Tool. Presented to: Dr. Muneeruddin Soomro. Institute of Commerce, University of Sindh. In (Partial) Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree M.S Commerce By Muhammad Yousif Shaikh 2K7/COM/82 October 2012
  2. 2. Packaging as a Brand-Building toolMarketing competition in this day & age as quite stiff, and as a result, businesses & otherorganizations are frantically trying to find new ways to get customers to purchase theirproducts, therefore by utilizing excellent packaging, companies can bring morecustomers’ in. nothing tends to get a attention of customer the same way that outstandingpackaging design can. At the point of purchasing a product packaging is what serves as adirect link between the product within and the customer looking to make a purchase.It is important that marketers really get to know their market well so that they can makesure that they are having a positive level of penetration. If the packaging is not doinganything, when it comes to drawing attention to the product, then probably nobody isgoing to buy the product. Whether brand packaging is designed for business to businessor consumer retail sales, packaging is everything when it comes to truly reflecting thebrand. Having a good packaging design will continue to work for company and productfor many years to come, which will allow you to build large amount of loyalty all alongthe way.It is important for this reason that you make a point to know your customers well, andthat you choose your packaging options accordingly. In order to be able to penetrate themarket with your packaging, that is when you can generate real brand power, generatingthe appreciation of your customers & building business as a result.Marketing & advertising will both play important roles in influencing the buyingintention of the customer, but neither of these roles are nearly as close to your product aspackaging is, because the decision to make a purchase during a shopping experience ismade specifically at the store level & not at the marketing or advertising level. Packaginghas a better reach than advertising does, and can set a brand apart from its competitors. Itpromotes & reinforces the purchase decision not only at the point of purchase, but alsoevery time the product is used. Packaging in different serving sizes can extend a productinto new target markets or help to overcome cost barriers.
  3. 3. An important part of the product decision making process is the design of the packaging.An effective packaging strategy can contribute to the firm’s competitive advantage. Agood packaging strategy will endeavor to produce packaging that is unique, functional,safe, easy to remove, promotes product benefits and promotes the brand. Packagingdesign, which upgrades the brand image value of its products in an artistic form and is forthe purpose of commodity sales, is a combination process of art & natural science.Excellent product packaging is a link that delivers the products’ information &consumers’ purchasing desire, and it should include the arts, materials, psychological,market and many other factors. Therefore, it is critical for the package designer toconduct a deep research into the consumers’ emotional appeal before carrying outproduct design, due to which marketer use various psychological tricks to influence theoverall behavior of the consumers.Products can be packaged in variety of styles. When it comes to packaging, size matters.And also changes in the shape of packaging or serving sizes can have a big impact onconsumption patterns. Lets take the example of Tang (powdered beverage), they offertheir packages in various sizes. Pack ranges size from 4 gm sachet to 1000 gm bulk unit.This can be either in the following formats, sachets, bag in box, printed bags, non glassjars, non glass canisters, metal cans, composite cans, etc.According to recent study, published in the journal of marketing research, volumechanges appear smaller when all three dimensions (height, width, and length) changes.This is because to double the size of one of its dimensions – and then people will notice –or one can just increase each dimension by 26 percent – and then people will underestimate how big the change is. For marketers, this means that if a company increases thesize of its packaging in one dimension, consumers perceive it to be much larger & soassume they’re getting a big deal and are more likely to buy it. If a company increases theproduct size by the same volume, but the package is expanded in three dimensions – notjust one – consumers don’t perceive as big the change is. If the consumers are willing tobuy a larger size, then packaging designers should just increase the height because peoplewill notice. If they want to reduce the quantity of your package, for example if you hadhigher raw material costs, marketers should reduce the height, the width, the lengthbecause people won’t notice.
  4. 4. For the health and diet conscious customers, one of the keys to a healthy weight whilestill getting all the nutrients and energy they need to enjoy life is watching packagingserve size. Serve size is the amount of food you eat at one time. To avoid temptation, buysingle serves or individual portions of treat foods rather than big blocks of products orfamily sized packs. The number of serves from each food group one need to meet theirnutrition needs depends on many things such as age, height, weight, how active consumeris and how much consumer is willing to use that product.There was a time when it was easy to raise the price of products and shoppers didn’t evennotice. Past researches showed that shoppers were completely unaware of little 5, 10, or15 percent rise in prices, that’s not true anymore. Such as the wholesale price ofingredients, their best option is to reduce the product size & retain the original price,instead of raising the price. Some examples include smaller pizza in the same sized box,more air space in the cereal boxes. There are all these kind of generic tactics being usedso shoppers don’t notice the difference.Humans have always been interested in the preservation of food to extend its storage life.Packaging became a necessity when food and other items needed to be packaged forstorage, transportation, protection, measurement, & display purposes. In early civilizationnature provided containers like hollowed-out trees and stones. A man discovered throughchemistry how to use elements like ores, product packaging took on new forms whichremain the standard today. However, the United States military has been a behind-the-scenes influence in product packaging. The need to get perishable and non-perishableproducts to servicemen around the world in all different climates led to many packaginginnovations. The space program has also been the source for packaging concepts.Packaging industry is constantly coming up with new techniques to improve the qualityof products final appearance while launching them in the market. Since, overallappearance of the products significantly impacts the marketing part, commercial productmanufacturing companies are very careful about the packaging services they hire.
  5. 5. Statement of the problemPackaging could be treated as one of most valuable tool in today’s marketingcommunications, necessitating more detail analysis of its elements & an impact of thoseelements on consumer buying behavior.The impact of package & its elements on consumer’s purchase decision can be revealedby analyzing an importance of its separate elements for consumer’s choice. For thispurpose main package’s elements could be identified: graphic, color, size, form, materialof packaging are considered, wrapper design, printed information, innovation whileproduct information, producer, country-of-origin & brand are considered as importantones. However, the impact of package elements on consumers purchase decisions shouldbe evaluated depending on the consumer’s involvement level, time pressure or individualcharacteristics of consumers.I am trying to point out few of the facts, which marketers will need to be aware of andconsider in product packaging. It’s important to understand the evolution of the packagebecause now products are using the packaging as the primary sales tool. It has to be“speak” to consumers both literally & visually.So, I do start my analysis by viewing a particular package from the eyes of consumers,and emphasis on how to shape the image of the product to better meet the needs of theconsumers.Research Questions: 1. Do verbal/informational packaging attributes influence the purchase decision? 2. Do visual packaging attributes influence the purchase decision?
  6. 6. Objective/Aim/VisionAccording to the World Packaging Organization (WPO), globally the packaging material& machinery industry is estimated to be worth 500 billion US $ per year, representingbetween 1-2 % of the GDP in industrialized countries. An estimated 100,000 millionpeople, and in principle, serve all business sectors manufacturing and/or trading physicalproducts.Packaging concept has gone through a fast & significant development in recent decades,however the smartest development are to be seen in developing economies. Today’smodern society depends to a large extend on the availability & use of modern packagingtechnology, comprising a vast variety of modern materials, high tech applications &smart concepts.The aim of the study is to understand integral role packaging has to play in marketing &selling product, as it’s no longer enough for the retail environment in a satisfactorycondition, now it has to sale the product too. Packaging plays an integral role in thedecision to purchase a product or not, therefore, it’s very crucial to analyze how thepsychological characteristic affects the buying behavior of customers.Objectives of the Study:  To find out the effects of packaging on the buying behavior.  Theoretical analysis of package elements & their impact on consumer’s purchase decision empirically reveal the elements having the ultimate effect on consumer choice in a case of different products.  To check the effect of packaging elements on the buying behavior.  To measure the relative impact of each packaging element on the consumer.  To identify the elements which should be highlight while design the packaging.  Respondents likes, dislikes as well as key purchase drivers will be examined.  Preference of different packages by different income groups.
  7. 7. Literature ReviewThe concept of package design is inherently multidimensional, incorporating multipleelements such as text, shape, graphics, design , logo, size, colors, illustrations, material,construction, texture, and so on (Underwood et al., 2001). With regard to the mainelements of packaging, many different points of views have been expressed (for exampleAmpuero & Vila, 2006, Underwood et al., 2001 and Vidales Giovannetti, 1995).According to Ampuero & Vila (2006), a distinction is made between two blocks ofcomponents: 1. Graphic Components: It includes color, typography, the graphical shapes used and the images introduced. And 2. Structural Components: It includes the shape & size of the packages & the materials used to manufacture them.Silayoi and Speece (2004) also divide packaging elements into two categories, which are,in part, different from Ampuero & Vilas (2006) view. According to Silayoi and Speece(2004) four main packaging elements potentially affect consumer purchase decisions, andthey can be separated into two categories: 1. Visual Elements: The visual elements consist of graphics, size, and shape of packaging, and relate more to the affective side of decision-making (Silayoi & Speece, 2004). 2. Informational Elements: The informational elements relate to information provided, and technologies used in the package, and are more likely to address the cognitive side of decisions (Silayoi & Speece, 2004).
  8. 8. Figure shows the two types of communication elements of packaging: Visual andInformational elements. Visual elements are divided into two parts: package graphics, &package size & shape, and package graphics are further divided into four parts: layout,illustrations, color, and typography. Informational elements are also divided into twoparts: Packaging Information & Packaging Technologies. First, the visual components,and then, the informational components of packaging should be looked more closely into.1.1) Package graphicsAccording to Silayoi and Speece (2004) the visual components of packaging are thedifferent graphical elements of the package and the size and shape of the package.
  9. 9. Furthermore, as mentioned, the graphical elements include layout, color combinations,typography, and product illustrations, and they all contribute to creating an image for theproduct or brand (Silayoi & Speece, 2004). Simply put, Silayoi and Speece (2004) statethat poor graphics can lose the sale for many consumers, while attractive graphics gains itfor many. First, a look at one of the most attention attracting graphical elements: color istaken.ColorMeyers-Levy and Peracchio (1995) suggested that color, which is assumed to be morevivid than black and white, attracts attention and can provide information, as we will seeshortly. As already discussed, a product must be able to stand out from the clutter ofcompeting brands in order to succeed and color has a great capacity to attract the neededattention (Fitzgerald Bone & Russo France, 2001; Meyers-Levy & Peracchio, 1995).However, color can also attract attention to irrelevant data at the expense of moreimportant and diagnostic information in a situation when colorful graphics useconsumers’ resources that might better be used in examining the verbal component of thepackage label, leading to an incorrect conclusion on the product (Fitzgerald Bone &Russo France, 2001). Especially in the grocery store environment, consumers may relyon cues that they can quickly assess (Richarsson et al., 1994) and therefore if theproduct’s color evokes associations that conflict with actual product attributes the risk ofmaking a bad product choice is possible.Color associations seem to be influenced by numerous aspects. Interestingly, Ampueroand Vila (2006) discovered some color associations they stated could cross categoryboundaries. In their study, the authors found that packaging in cold and dark colors wereusually associated with high-prices and refined aesthetics. In contrast, accessible productsthat are directed to price sensitive consumers required light, mainly white, coloredpackaging (Ampuero & Vila, 2006). Safe and guaranteed products were associated withred packaging (Ampuero & Vila, 2006).
  10. 10. LayoutAmpuero and Vila (2006) found, in the same way, some common associations in thesecond type of graphical elements: package layout. They found that non-selective, middleclass products were associated with horizontal and oblique straight lines, circles, curves,wavy outlines, asymmetrical compositions and the use of several elements. In contrast,high price products appeared to be associated with vertical straight lines, squares, straightoutlines, and symmetrical composition with one single element (Ampuero & Vila, 2006).Also Rettie and Brewer (2000) touched upon layout issues as they studied the recall ofpackaging elements. They found that elements were recalled differently according to theirplacement on the package. The results indicate that verbal stimuli is recalled better whenthey are on the right side of the visual field, and non-verbal stimuli recall would be betterwhen on the left hand side of the visual field (Rettie & Brewer, 2000). Hence, thecomposition of visual elements could be thought to influence both the productassociations and product recall.PicturesThe third graphical packaging element, packaging pictures, have been found to fulfillmultiple tasks. MacInnis and Price (1987), for instance, state that a consumer viewing aproduct picture on a package is more likely to spontaneously imagine aspects of how aproduct looks, tastes, feels, smells, or sounds like than they would with a picture lesspackage. Underwood et al. (2001), say that the positive impact of package pictures isPrimarily to increase attention to a brand, rather than increase the likelihood of the brandto be chosen. According to them, pictures are extremely vivid stimuli and incorporatingvisual imagery on a package may enhance the product’s accessibility to consumers(Underwood et al., 2001), which does not seem to be synonymous to brand choice.The picture can also be a source of information to a consumer (Underwood et al., 2001).Pictorial content represents concrete information that tends to be more influential in thedecision making process than more abstract verbal information (Underwood et al., 2001).A picture could actually show how the product looks like or how it could be served,while verbal information can only describe it. For consumers wishing to save money, for
  11. 11. example, a picture may validate the quality of a more inexpensive private label productwhen compared to a national brand (Underwood et al., 2001).TypographyWhen it comes to the forth graphical packaging element, package typography, someinteresting findings have come up in previous research. Ampuero and Vila (2006) foundthat packaging for elegant products usually presented bold, large, roman, upper caseletters with expanded characters (Ampuero & Vila, 2006). In contrast, accessibleproducts of reasonable price were associated with both serif and sans serif typographies(Ampuero & Vila, 2006).1.2) Size and shapeThe second type of visual packaging elements is package size and shape. According toSilayoi and Speece (2004), package size, shape, and elongation affect consumerassessment and decisions, much like graphical elements, but not always in easilyuncovered ways. In their study, Silayoi and Speece (2004) found that size and shape weremuch related to usability. While consumers thought of product pictures and graphics as ameans of communication, discussion about size and shape focused more on packagesbeing convenient to use and carry (Silayoi & Speece, 2004).Consumers appeared to use package size & shape as simplifying visual heuristics to makevolume judgments (Silayoi & Speece, 2004). Interestingly, consumers perceived moreelongated packages to be larger, even if there was no difference in the size with the lesselongated packages, and even when they frequently purchased these packages & hadexperience using them (Silayoi & Speece, 2007). Thus, elongating the shape, withinacceptable bounds, should result in consumers thinking of the package as a better valuefor money & result in larger sales generally (Silayoi & Speece, 2007).Shape is very important attribute as it is evidenced from the past researches & that signalstowards the fact that previous shape of package can become important marketing tool. Incase of Coca-Cola or other soft drinks, the bottle is the package so the shape of the bottlebecomes its brand identity. If we analyze the shapes of different soft drinks like pepsi or
  12. 12. sprite or fruit juices, we can see that different companies have got different shape of thebottle, so the shape of package can become an innovative marketing tool creating aniconic brand image through different shaped packages. Instead how we feel about theproduct itself. The shape of the package must be designed in such a way so as to enablethe product to cut through the clutter on shelf space & creates its own distinct identity.The replacement of tin pack of toothpaste with flexible, soft plastic pack, broadening ofcaps of face wash, shaving cream so that the package can stand upside down, innovationof liquid soap dispenser is the testimony to the fact that more & more effort should befocused on making the package easy to handle and use by the customers. The shape ofthe package is the significant attribute of the communication through the package and aninnovative pack design can help to set a brand apart from its competitors. Various studiesidentifies that ease of handling the packages & protection are also weighted highly byrespondents & thus it indicates towards the reasoning that most of the toothpastes havebecome soft plastic tubes rather than that old tin tube toothpaste used by companies likeforhans & colgate.Package size has been stressed as one important variable of packaging convenience(Draskovic, 2010). Size emerged as a very important factor thus indicating towards thevariation of packages sizes available for a particular product. We can take a examples ofshampoo sachet, deodorant sticks, small sized toothpaste packages or even more ofFMCG products. Variation of size makes the affordability of product adjustable as per theincome level & standard of living. Packaging in different serving sizes can extend aproduct into new target markets or help to overcome cost barriers. In developing marketssuch as Pakistan, the pack size can mean the difference between the success & failure ofa brand in the informal sector. Smaller packages & portions are usually priced at a lowerabsolute level – making the product more readily affordable to a greator proportion of thepopulation.Informational elementsThe second type of packaging elements, are the informational elements: informationprovided by the package and technologies used in the package. I will not be as thorough
  13. 13. in my exploration of the informational elements as I have been with the graphicalelements, due to the visual focus of this paper and the fact, that graphics may affectbeliefs more even when accurate verbal information is provided to the consumer(Fitzgerald Bone & Russo France, 2001). This revelation makes the role of informationalElements smaller in marketing communications.2.1) Product informationAs mentioned, one of packages’ functions is to communicate product information, whichcan assist consumers in making their decisions carefully (Silayoi & Speece, 2007), and itseems evident that written, verbal information has a great capacity to do this. However,written information on a package can also create confusion by conveying either too muchinformation or misleading and inaccurate information (Silayoi & Speece, 2007) in somecases. Furthermore, in a study by Silayoi and Speece (2007), consumers were found touse explicit product information to assess healthiness, and also many other aspects ofquality.2.2) TechnologyWhen it comes to the second type of informational elements: packaging technology,Silayoi and Speece (2007) found that the impression of the level of technology used inpackaging reflected the contemporary image of the product itself. Also, as conveniencehas become increasingly important for food products, consumers who are worried abouttime saving could pay more attention to claims of new technology, because oftechnologys association with convenience (Silayoi & Speece, 2007). Coca-Cola isexpanding the distribution of products — Coca-Cola, Diet Coke, Coke Zero and Sprite —that it sells in eight-ounce glass bottles, and S. C. Johnson now sells a line of reusableZiploc containers called Versa Glass that can be used in a microwave, a freezer and,without their lids, even in an oven up to 400 degrees. “Its part of our overall effort toincrease packaging diversity so that people have more choices of packaging and portionsize,” said Susan Stribling, a Coca-Cola spokeswoman. (Stephanie, 2012).
  14. 14. Scope of StudyA packaging that is well designed for its marketing function helps to sell the product byattracting the attention and expressing the product positively to the ultimate potentialconsumers. To achieve the communication goals effectively and to optimize the potentialof the packaging in a buying place, marketers must recognize the attributes of apackaging and their impact on consumer’s purchase decision and integrate theseperceptual attributes into their packaging design. This study is significant since majorityof the previous packaging studies were not locally-based (Silayoi and Speece, 2004;2007; Kuvykaite et al., 2009), and so ought not to be expected to reflect the samesituation settings as in Pakistan. Thus, the results of this study will provide a new insightto the local marketers towards the impact of visual as well as verbal packaging attributeson consumer’s purchase decisions of packaged food.It is important that business organizations focus on providing the best service to theircustomers. The survival of the organization depends ultimately on the service provided.Design is increasingly used by firms as a strategy to create a substantial competitiveadvantage. Good design uniquely differentiates a product. Companies mastering the art ofdesign have emerged as leaders in their respective markets. In this proposal, I examinehow consumers respond to the visual aspects of packaging design and benefits ofstudying consumer behavior.Today’s companies in the packaging supply chain are faced with acknowledging,understanding, addressing & managing a range of issues affecting the sustainable use ofpackaging.
  15. 15. In nowadays competitive environment the role of package has changed due to increasingself service & changing consumers’ life style. Firms’ interest in package as a tool of salespromotion is growing increasingly. Package becomes an ultimate selling propositionstimulating impulsive buying behavior, increasing market share & reducing promotionalcosts.Literature analysis on question under investigation has shown that there is no agreementon classification of packaging elements as well as on research methods of package impacton consumer’s purchase decision. Furthermore, the abundance of scientific literature onthis issue do not provide unanimous answer concerning impact of package elements onconsumer’s buying behavior: diversity of the results in this area depends not only aresearch models constructed & method employed, but on the context of the research too.Therefore, it’s very necessary to investigate the issue in more detail.In this study we will try to find out how important are some design attributes of theproducts for its quality perception. Also we are going to find out not only how importantare these attributes but furthermore in which way they affect consumers’ preferences.There will be an effort to link consumers’ attitudes towards the package design attributeswith their involvement in the particular products as well as their consumption habits.The final goal of this study is to help marketers to understand consumers’ preferencesabout the design of their products. By this study we seek to reveal attributes of packaginghaving the ultimate effect on consumer choice, taking into consideration that packagecould be treated as a set of various elements communicating different messages to aconsumer; the research model will be developed & tested in order to reveal impact ofvisual & verbal package elements on consumer’s purchase decisions.
  16. 16. MethodologyIn this study work, after exhaustively surveying the literature on the dependant &independent variables were jotted down & the questionnaire involving dependant andindependent variables will be administrated to the representative set of population. Thedata will be collected through survey will be analyzed by using multiple regressionanalysis. The questionnaire will be rated on the five point likert scale. The ratings of thequestionnaire will be ranged from strongly agree to strongly disagree. The stronglydisagree is to be allotted the scale of 1 and strongly agree will be allotted the scale of 5.The respondents will be asked to fill the questionnaire which will involve 20 questionsthat comprises the respondent’s feedback on various variables of the package. The surveyis to be conducted online as well as by the direct interaction at the point of purchase. Thesurvey will be conducted online to target the respondents on the random basis from thepopulation from the whole Pakistan, where though, the direct survey will be used as theprimary data collection tool for this study purpose, for which the convenient samplingtechnique will be used where respondents are to be selected because of their convenientaccessibility & proximity to the researcher. Many researchers prefer the samplingtechnique because it is fast, inexpensive, easy, and the respondents are readily available,therefore, in this study the respondents will be targeted at the various super stores of theHyderabad, where customers experience the shelf impact of the product, therefore theycan better understand & analyze the various attributes of the product, so in return theywill better provide their feedback & experience for this study. Sampling Design: • Sampling Population: Sampling population consisted of the different uses of packaging, which use the packaging in their day to day life, residing within the Hyderabad city. For this purpose, the respondents are to be targeted at the Delton super market, Zain super store, Haseen mart, Farhan departmental store, Sakrani super store, Syed brother’s super store, Pioneer bakery, Garison & various utility stores with in Hyderabad city. • Sampling size: 300 respondents for direct survey by a questionnaire.
  17. 17. Data Collection: Self designed questionnaires will be administrated to gauge the preferences of respondents. A Two-part questionnaire will be developed for use as a survey instrument. In the first part, demographics section collect information on gender, age, number of adults and children’s per household, level of education, ethnicity, area of residence and finally they have to select income group from the multiple options, however, it will not be compulsory for respondents to provide their complete demographic/personal information. In the second part, the questionnaires will be rated on the 5 point likert scale with 1 for strongly disagree & 5 for strongly agree, where they will be asked questions regarding the various attributes & variables of the particular products on the likert scale to measure the influence of various packaging attributes on the consumer perception. In this study, an online survey will also be used as internet access is increasing among consumers across the world. Consumers of all ages are becoming familiar with the use of this computer network. Questionnaires might be revised after surveying from 30 initial respondents to improve question clarity, user-friendliness, and enhance the quality of they collected data.
  18. 18. ResourcesI will use survey method as primary data collection method that would be conducted byquestionnaires. In regard to secondary data, books, journals, newspaper etc. will be usedto determine the solution of research problem. I have access to computer hardwaresoftware’s and internet facility to conduct my online survey. This study takes time andmoney, even if I am funding my own research time, I still need to consider the impact onthings such as your subject’s time, travel, equipment needed and any permission requiredto access the resources. For this study purpose I will need to use the printer, computersoftware’s to analyze data, recommendations and suggestions from the supervisor andother faculty members to assist in the methodology for this study, and need a priorpermission from the various superstores to let me conduct my survey over there.Not all research proposal require a budget (such as thesis proposals for academicinstitutions), however if researcher is intended to apply for funding for research, it isimportant that researcher must be able to show how much money you require, and justifythe amount asked for. However, as I will arrange financial assistance from my personalsources, that’s why I have estimated my financial expenses up to 69500.The following expenses are an outline of expenses that will be required whileundertaking this study: Expenses Description Cost in Rupees (PKR)Travel Cost (Petrol) 20000Phone and internet charges 8000Refreshments 10000Stationary 5000Photocopying & Binding 3000Postage 2500Computer Software/ Printing/ Ink Cartridges 6000Miscellaneous/ Unforeseen costs 5000Statistical Services (If Required) 10000 Total Estimated Cost: 69500
  19. 19. LimitationsAlthough this research is carefully prepared, I am still aware of its limitations and shortcomings. For the purpose of this study, an experiment will be conducted on particularfood products. The package design includes four attributes which vary in two particularlevels. Other products, other attributes & different levels may lead more or less indifferent results. Furthermore, the design of the experiment as well as the illustration ofthe participants will be done with my & my supervisor limited skills. Also the sample ofthe study comes from the urban population of the Hyderabad region. Hyderabad is asecond most big city & economical hub of the Sindh province, with its particular social,economic, & cultural characteristics. Therefore, the results cannot be over-generalized.
  20. 20. DurationThe proposed time duration for completing this study is over a 24 Weeks period. A tablepresented below outlines the estimates duration of each process. Time Scale Duration Description (Weeks) Review of Literature: Start Thinking about research ideas & objectives 2 clearly defined with reference to literature. Draft Literature Review: Collection of secondary data from books, 2 journals, articles. Compile, pilot, & Review Questionnaire: Design & testing of 2 questionnaire, if appropriate. 4 Administer Questionnaire: Design of a final questionnaire. Final Collection of Questionnaire: Editing of completed 6 questionnaire, grouping, and coding of data. Data Analysis: Entering data into a computer, analyze data, draft 3 findings chapter. Final Writing of Project: Complete remaining chapters, submit to 5 supervisor & await feedback, revise draft, format for submission, print, bind, submit. 24 Weeks Total
  21. 21. FindingsIt is expected that the study will make at least two contributions to the field of marketing.First, the study will contribute to the expanding knowledge base of packaging concepts.As more is known about the relationship between various packaging attributes and theireffects on the brand image, it will be possible to more clearly understand the importanceof visual and informative elements in influencing the consumer decision, which might beaffected by the level of education among the various customers, as it is already witnessedfrom the past researches that if the customers are educated, than they are probably lessinfluenced by the visual elements of the packaging, as they are more likely to beinfluenced by the informative elements such as usage information, nutrients facts, etc.The proposed research study is viewed as a piece of this puzzle. The study shouldcontribute toward a better understanding of these facts.I anticipate the impact of the results of the research to be useful for understanding the roleof packaging in the brand promotion. Marketers are always keen to adopt new tactics topromote their products, so through this study, they will find a new and various interestingfacts regarding the peoples from the selected population. Therefore, the marketers caninterpret and use the finding of this study to further enhance their product attributes. Thisstudy is important because it will show light on the general trends of the packaging in thefood products.
  22. 22. References• Ampuero, O., & Vila, N. (2006). Consumer perceptions of product packaging. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 23(2), 102-114.• Fitzgerald Bone, P., & Russo France, K. (2001). Package graphics and consumer product beliefs. Journal of Business and Psychology, 15(3), 467-489.• MacInnis, D. J., & Price, L. L. (1987). The role of imagery in information processing: Review and extensions. Journal of Consumer Research, 13(4), 473- 491.• Meyers-Levy, J., & Peracchio, L. A. (1995). Understanding the effects of color: How the correspondence between available and required resources affects attitudes. Journal of Consumer Research, 22(2), 121-138.• Rettie, R., & Brewer, C. (2000). The verbal and visual components of package design. The Journal of Product and Brand Management, 9(1), 56-68.• Richarsson, P. S., Dick, A. S., & Jain, A. K. (1994). Extrinsic and intrinsic cue effects on perceptions of store brand quality. Journal of Marketing, 58, 28.• Silayoi, P., & Speece, M. (2004). Packaging and purchase decisions: An exploratory study of the impact of involvement and time pressure. British Food Journal, 106(8), 607-628.• Silayoi, P., & Speece, M. (2007). The importance of packaging attributes: A conjoint analysis approach. European Journal of Marketing, 41(11/12), 1495- 1517.• Underwood, R. L., Klein, N. M., & Burke, R. R. (2001). Packaging communication: Attentional effects of product imagery. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 10(7), 403-422.
  23. 23. • Vidales Giovannetti, M. D. (1995). El mundo del envase. Manual para el diseño y producción de envases y embalajes. In Ampuero, O., & Vila, N. (2006). Consumer perceptions of product packaging. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 23(2), 102-114.• Bone, P.F., & Corey, R.J. (2000). Packaging Ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, pp. 199-211.• Omar, O. E. (1996). Grocery purchase behaviour for national and own label brands. The Service Industries Journal. pp. 58-66.• Rundh, B. (2005). The multi-faceted dimension of packaging. British Food Journal, pp. 670-683.• Sehrawet, M., & Kundu, S.C. (2007). Buying behaviour of rural and urban consumers in India: the impact of packaging. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 31(6), 630-638.doi:10.1111/j.1470-6431.2007.00629.x• Zikmund, W.G. (2003). Business Research Methods. Ohio: South-Western City.• Assoc. Professor Jane (2005), consumer response to sponsorship leveraged packaging (SLP), school of management and marketing university of Southern Queensland West Street.• Gonzalez M. P., Thorhsbury S., & Twede D. (2007). Packaging as a tool for productdevelopment: Communicating value to consumers. Journal of Food DistributionResearch, 38 (1), 61-66.• Sogn-Grundvag, G., & Østli, J. (2009). Consumer evaluation of unbranded andunlabelled food products: the case of bacalhau. European Journal of Marketing, 43 (1/2), 213-228.
  24. 24. • Young, S. (2006). Measuring success: Using consumer research to document the value of package design. Design management review, 17 (2), 60-65.• Gonzalez M. P., Thorhsbury S., & Twede D. (2007), packaging as a tool for product development: Communicating value to consumers, journal of fooddistribution research, 38 (1), 61-66.• Stephanie Storm, “Wary of plastic, and waste, some consumers turn to glass”, The Newyork Times, June 20, 2012.•, Secondary packaging puts pharma protection first, Lisa McTigue Pierce.