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Lab manual.pptx


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Lab manual.pptx

  1. 1. OE Laboratory 1
  2. 2. List of experiments•Calibration of following transducer–Wave probe–LVDT–Accelerometer–Pressure transducer–Load cell–Inclinometer•Gauge factor for resistance strain gauge•Data acquisition system
  3. 3. Writing the report•Student name and Reg. Number•Title•Aim•Apparatus required•Theory and working principle with figures•Procedure•Table of results•Plots•ConclusionHand written report
  4. 4. Expt1: Calibration of Wave Probe.
  5. 5. Expt1: Calibration of Wave Probe.•Apparatus–Wave probe, Amplifier, Height Gauge, Bucket of water•Purpose of wave probe–To measure the fluctuating water depth•Type of wave probe–Change in resistance–Change in capacitance–Ultrasonic wave probe–Change in conductivity•Working–Conductivity between two stainless steel electrodes changes withchange in water
  6. 6. Expt1: Calibration of Wave Probe.•Procedure–Fix the wave probe in the calibration set up–Connect the wave probe to the amplifier and to the multi-meter–With the help of amplifier node set the multi-meter reading to zero–Move wave probe (up/down) in side the water with the help of scale set upand note the reading from multi-meter(volt)–Repeat the experiment for wave probe movement once downward then forupward. Take the average of multi-meter reading for every matching scalevalue.–Plot water depth versus volts and get the slope of the curve.–Slope of curve will give calibration constant in cm/volt.
  7. 7. Expt1: Calibration of Wave Probe.S. No Wave Probeposition (cm)Test No 1 (Volt) Test No 2 Test No 3Up Down Avg Up Down Avg Up Down Avg1 +15 -3.74 3.39 -3.392 +10 -2.49 -2.49 -2.493 +5 -1.26 -1.23 -1.244 0 -0.02 -0.02 -0.025 -5 1.21 1.22 1.2156 -10 2.47 2.42 2.447 -15 3.39 3.39 3.39Plot displacement Vs Volt and get the slope (cm/volt)
  8. 8. End of Experiment 1
  9. 9. Expt2: Calibration of Linear Variable Transformer(LVDT)
  10. 10. Expt2: Calibration of Linear Variable Transformer(LVDT)•Apparatus–LVDT, DC current supplier, Multi-meter, Height Gauge•Purpose of LVDT–To measure the time varying displacement in digital form•Working–Consists of one primary coil, two secondary coils and ferromagneticcore–Secondary coils are connected to each other in series but in opposite.–Position of ferromagnetic core decides the amount of induced currentin secondary coils.
  11. 11. Expt2: Calibration of Linear Variable Transformer(LVDT)•Procedure–Connect the LVDT to DC voltage supplier and Multi-meter.–Voltage supplied to the LVDT is 15 to 30 volt.–Connect the other end (moving core) of LVDT to Height Gauge.–Adjust the height gauge such that red mark on moving core of LVDT should be justvisible• This ensure that volt output from primary and secondary coils are balanced to show zero output–Make upward and downward reading zero in height gauge.–Move the height gauge by 10mm and note the reading in multi-meter–Repeat this procedure for upward and downward movement and take average
  12. 12. Expt2: Calibration of Linear Variable Transformer(LVDT)Gauge movement (mm) Measured output (volt)upward Downward Average-100-90-80-70-60-50-40-30-20-100
  13. 13. End of Experiment 2
  14. 14. Expt3: Gauge factor of resistance strain Gauge
  15. 15. Expt3: Gauge factor of resistance strain Gauge
  16. 16. Expt3: Gauge factor of resistance strain Gauge
  17. 17. Expt3: Gauge factor of resistance strain Gauge•Apparatus–Strain gauge, Dial gauge, simply supported beam, weights, measuringinstruments (scale, vernier scale, digital strain meter), loading system.•Purpose–To determine the gauge factor of resistance strain gauge–To determine the Young’s Modulus of the given material (beam).•Working principle–External load applied on material produces strain.–Strain gauge with the help of strain-meter measures the strain developed inbeams.–Gauge factor is obtained with the help of strain meter and dial gauge reading–Young modulus is obtained with the help of beam parameters and its deflection
  18. 18. Expt3: Gauge factor of resistance strain Gauge•Known parameters (after measurement)–Width of section (b), depth of section (d), Span of beam(L),–Deflection in dial gauge ( )–Moment of inertia•Young modulus of material•Strain in beam=section modulus•312bdI =paEzε =max∂( )2 2max3 424paE l aI= −∂RKRε∆=RR∆26bdz =
  19. 19. Expt3: Gauge factor of resistance strain Gauge•Procedure–Prepare the experimental set up as shown in figure–Measure the all parameters• Beam- width, depth, point of load, span length,–Strain and dial gauges should be at middle of span–Put load on load hooks (same on both)–Note dial and strain meter reading ( and )–Repeat the test for different set of loading (increasingand decreasing)RR∆max∂( )2 2max3 424paE l aI= −∂RKRε∆=paEzε =RR∆
  20. 20. Expt3: Gauge factor of resistance strain GaugeSlNoLoad(p)Distance(mm)Loading unloading YoungmodulusStrain Gaugefactor(K)DialgaugeStrainmeterDialgaugeStrainmeter12345678AverageRR∆RR∆max∂max∂εE
  21. 21. End of experiment 3
  22. 22. Expt 4: Calibration of Accelerometer
  23. 23. Expt 4: Calibration of Accelerometer•Apparatus–Accelerometer, Data acquisition, Arrangement for circular movement•Purpose of Accelerometer–To measure the acceleration•Type of accelerometer–Potentiometric–Piezoelectric–Resistive type–Capacitive type–Vibrating quartz•Working
  24. 24. Expt 4: Calibration of Accelerometer•Procedure–Connect accelerometer on circular mount–Connect accelerometer wire to data acquisition system–Set data acquisition system for the range of accelerometer–Keep accelerometer arm perfectly vertical and set data acquisitionmeter to zero or to take the displayed reading as reference–Move accelerometer arm clock wise in step of 5 degree and note thereading in data acquisition system.–Repeat the above step for anti clock wise movement of accelerometerarm
  25. 25. Expt 4: Calibration of AccelerometerAngle in degree Measured voltageClock wise Anti clock wise Average051015202530|||90
  26. 26. End of experiment 4
  27. 27. Expt 5: Calibration of pressure transducer
  28. 28. Expt 5: Calibration of pressure transducer
  29. 29. Expt 5: Calibration of pressure transducer
  30. 30. Expt 5: Calibration of pressure Transducer•Apparatus–Pressure transducer, dead weight calibration, Pressure gauge•Purpose–To calibrate the pressure transducer for measuring pressure in fieldenvironment•Working principle–Pressure is an expression of force per unit area of application–Pressure transducer generates the signal (electrical) as a function ofpressure imposed–For calibration a known pressure is applied on pressure transducer withthe help of hydraulic fluid.
  31. 31. Expt 5: Calibration of pressure transducer•Procedure–Switch on the data acquisition system and fix the range according to pressure transducer asshown in figure–Centre column is fitted with dead weight and right column is fitted with pressure transducer–Open the cock on the left of calibrator and rotate the piston handle to counter clock-wise toallow the oil to enter in chamber–Close the cock–Rotate the piston handle slowly in clockwise direction to pressurize the two columns.Centre column will lift and will show red mark–Red mark ensures that pressure in fluid is exactly same as pressure applied in centrecolumn.–Take the reading of data acquisition system for applied pressure on centre column.–Repeat the procedure for different pressure applied at centre column.
  32. 32. Expt 5: Calibration of pressure transducerSl No Pressure (bar) Voltage123456789101112Plot pressure Vs voltage and get the slope (bar/volt)
  33. 33. End of experiment 5
  34. 34. Expt 6: Calibration of Inclinometer
  35. 35. Expt 6: Calibration of Inclinometer
  36. 36. Expt 6: Calibration of Inclinometer•Apparatus–Inclinometer, DC supplier, Multi-meter•Purpose of Inclinometer–To measure the angle of inclination•Type of inclinometer–Potentiometric–LVDT–Piezoelectric•Working–Consists of spring mass system attached with ferromagnetic substancewhich produces current
  37. 37. Expt 6: Calibration of Inclinometer•Procedure–Connect inclinometer on circular mount–Connect inclinometer wire to DC current supplier and multi-meter–Keep inclinometer arm perfectly vertical and take the displayedreading as reference value–Move inclinometer arm clock wise in step of 10 degree up to (80degree) and note the reading from multi-meter.–repeat the step in anti clock wise direction and go up to -80 degreeand come back to 0 degree (vertical arm)( )Position Angle(degree)0.025outV RF inVolt−=Manufacturer calibration coefficient (volt/degree)
  38. 38. Expt 6: Calibration of InclinometerAngle in degree Measured voltageClock wise Anti clock wise Average-80-70-60|0 Reference value(RF)102030||80Plot volt Vs angle to get calibration coef. (volt/degree)
  39. 39. Expt 6: Calibration of Inclinometer
  40. 40. End of experiment 6
  41. 41. Expt 7: Calibration of Load cell
  42. 42. Expt 7: Calibration of Load cell
  43. 43. Expt 7: Calibration of Load cellCanister load cell S-type load cellCantilever type load cell Miniature type load cellPiezoresistive loadcell
  44. 44. Expt 7: Calibration of Load cell•Apparatus–Load cell, Strain meter, Loading pan, Loads•Purpose of load cell–To measure the time varying load•Type of load cell–Cantilever type–Canister type–Miniature type–Piezoresistive type•Working–Consists of strain gauge with bending arrangement
  45. 45. Expt 7: Calibration of Load cell•Procedure–Fix the one hanging end of cantilever type load cell to rigid body–Connect the load cell to strain meter–Tune the strain meter display to zero for no load–At loading end of load cell apply the load with the help of load panand note down the strain meter reading–Increase the load and note down the strain meter reading–Repeat the steps for increasing load and then for decreasing load
  46. 46. Expt 7: Calibration of Load cellSL no Load (gram) Measured voltageLoading Unloading Average12345678910Plot load Vs voltage to get the slope i.e. calibration coef. (gram/volt)
  47. 47. End of experiment 7
  48. 48. Expt 8: Use of data acquisition system, signalgenerator
  49. 49. Expt 8: Use of data acquisition system, signalgenerator
  50. 50. Expt 8: Use of data acquisition system, signalgenerator
  51. 51. Expt 8: Use of data acquisition system, signalgenerator•Apparatus–Signal generator, Data acquisition card, Computer with software•Purpose of experiment–To acquire the data from signal generator in digital form•Working–Signal generator is a electronic device which generates continuousanalog signal at different frequency and amplitude.–Signal generator can generate different type of signal (sin, cosine,trapezoidal etc)–Data acquisition card (HBM spider8) acquires the continuous analogsignal and transform that into digital form.–With the help of software acquired digital signal is stored on spreadsheet.
  52. 52. Expt 8: Use of data acquisition system, signalgenerator•Procedure–Connect signal generator out put to spider8 (data acquisition card)first port (zeroth port)–Connect the output of spider8 to the computer–Switch on the signal generator and software in computer–Tuned the signal generator for sin wave and specified frequency andamplitude–Click on start button of software to start acquiring the data–Acquire the data for at least 10 seconds then stop and save the dataon spread sheet–Change the frequency in signal generator and repeat the step for dataacquisition–Plot the acquired data along the time and compare with
  53. 53. End of experiment 8