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Fetal Circulation.pptx

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Fetal Circulation.pptx

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Introduction:-
1. In animals that give live birth, the fetal circulation is the circulatory system of a fetus. The term usually encompasses the entire fetoplacental circulation, which includes the umbilical cord and the blood vessels within the placenta that carry fetal blood.

2. The fetal (prenatal) circulation differs from normal postnatal circulation, mainly because the lungs are not in use. Instead, the fetus obtains oxygen and nutrients from the mother through the placenta and the umbilical cord.

Structures of fetoplacental circulation:-
Placenta : where gas exchange takes place during fetal life

Umbilical arteries: carry deoxygenated blood from the fetus to placenta

Umbilical vein: brings oxygenated blood coming from the placenta to the fetus

Foramen ovale: connects the left and right atrium. It pushes blood from the right atrium to the left atrium

Ductus venosus: carry oxygenated blood from umbilical vein to inferior vena cava, bypassing fetal liver

Ductus arteriousus: carry oxygenated blood from pulmonary artery to aorta, bypassing fetal lungs.

Mechanisms :-
Blood from the placenta is carried to the fetus by the umbilical vein.
This blood enters the fetal ductus venosus and is carried to the inferior vena cava, while the rest enters the liver proper from the inferior border of the liver.
The branch of the umbilical vein that supplies the right lobe of the liver first joins with the portal vein.
The blood then moves to the right atrium of the heart.
In the fetus, there is an opening between the right and left atrium (the foramen ovale), and most of the blood flows through this hole directly into the left atrium from the right atrium, thus bypassing pulmonary circulation.
The continuation of this blood flow is into the left ventricle, and from there it is pumped through the aorta into the body.
Some of the blood moves from the aorta through the internal iliac arteries to the umbilical arteries, and re-enters the placenta, where carbon dioxide and other waste products from the fetus are taken up and enter the maternal circulation.

Mechanism (After birth ) :-
At birth, when the infant breathes for the first time, there is a decrease in the resistance in the pulmonary vasculature, which causes the pressure in the left atrium to increase relative to the pressure in the right atrium.
This leads to the closure of the foramen ovale, which is then referred to as the fossa ovalis.
Additionally, the increase in the concentration of oxygen in the blood leads to a decrease in prostaglandins, causing closure of the ductus arteriosus.
These closures prevent blood from bypassing pulmonary circulation, and therefore allow the neonate's blood to become oxygenated in the newly operational lungs
ductus venosus = ligamentum venosum.

Introduction:-
1. In animals that give live birth, the fetal circulation is the circulatory system of a fetus. The term usually encompasses the entire fetoplacental circulation, which includes the umbilical cord and the blood vessels within the placenta that carry fetal blood.

2. The fetal (prenatal) circulation differs from normal postnatal circulation, mainly because the lungs are not in use. Instead, the fetus obtains oxygen and nutrients from the mother through the placenta and the umbilical cord.

Structures of fetoplacental circulation:-
Placenta : where gas exchange takes place during fetal life

Umbilical arteries: carry deoxygenated blood from the fetus to placenta

Umbilical vein: brings oxygenated blood coming from the placenta to the fetus

Foramen ovale: connects the left and right atrium. It pushes blood from the right atrium to the left atrium

Ductus venosus: carry oxygenated blood from umbilical vein to inferior vena cava, bypassing fetal liver

Ductus arteriousus: carry oxygenated blood from pulmonary artery to aorta, bypassing fetal lungs.

Mechanisms :-
Blood from the placenta is carried to the fetus by the umbilical vein.
This blood enters the fetal ductus venosus and is carried to the inferior vena cava, while the rest enters the liver proper from the inferior border of the liver.
The branch of the umbilical vein that supplies the right lobe of the liver first joins with the portal vein.
The blood then moves to the right atrium of the heart.
In the fetus, there is an opening between the right and left atrium (the foramen ovale), and most of the blood flows through this hole directly into the left atrium from the right atrium, thus bypassing pulmonary circulation.
The continuation of this blood flow is into the left ventricle, and from there it is pumped through the aorta into the body.
Some of the blood moves from the aorta through the internal iliac arteries to the umbilical arteries, and re-enters the placenta, where carbon dioxide and other waste products from the fetus are taken up and enter the maternal circulation.

Mechanism (After birth ) :-
At birth, when the infant breathes for the first time, there is a decrease in the resistance in the pulmonary vasculature, which causes the pressure in the left atrium to increase relative to the pressure in the right atrium.
This leads to the closure of the foramen ovale, which is then referred to as the fossa ovalis.
Additionally, the increase in the concentration of oxygen in the blood leads to a decrease in prostaglandins, causing closure of the ductus arteriosus.
These closures prevent blood from bypassing pulmonary circulation, and therefore allow the neonate's blood to become oxygenated in the newly operational lungs
ductus venosus = ligamentum venosum.

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Fetal Circulation.pptx

  1. 1. Fetal blood circulation Presented By :- Suhail Khan B.sc (N) 3rd Year Ch. Kehar singh institute of paramedical science and hospital Baraut (Baghpat)
  2. 2. Objective At the end of the class the group will be able to; 1. Explain fetal circulation 2. Explain the difference between normal circulation and fetal circulation 12/9/2022 2
  3. 3. Introduction • In animals that give live birth, the fetal circulation is the circulatory system of a fetus. The term usually encompasses the entire fetoplacental circulation, which includes the umbilical cord and the blood vessels within the placenta that carry fetal blood. • The fetal (prenatal) circulation differs from normal postnatal circulation, mainly because the lungs are not in use. Instead, the fetus obtains oxygen and nutrients from the mother through the placenta and the umbilical cord 12/9/2022 3
  4. 4. Gas exchange in Normal adult Gas exchange in fetus 12/9/2022 4
  5. 5. 12/9/2022 5
  6. 6. Structures of fetoplacental circulation 1. Placenta : where gas exchange takes place during fetal life 2. Umbilical arteries: carry deoxygenated blood from the fetus to placenta 3. Umbilical vein: brings oxygenated blood coming from the placenta to the fetus 4. Foramen ovale: connects the left and right atrium. It pushes blood from the right atrium to the left atrium 5. Ductus venosus: carry oxygenated blood from umbilical vein to inferior vena cava, bypassing fetal liver 6. Ductus arteriousus: carry oxygenated blood from pulmonary artery to aorta, bypassing fetal lungs 12/9/2022 6
  7. 7. 12/9/2022 7
  8. 8. Mechanism Blood from the placenta is carried to the fetus by the umbilical vein. This blood enters the fetal ductus venosus and is carried to the inferior vena cava, while the rest enters the liver proper from the inferior border of the liver. The branch of the umbilical vein that supplies the right lobe of the liver first joins with the portal vein. 12/9/2022 8
  9. 9. The blood then moves to the right atrium of the heart.  In the fetus, there is an opening between the right and left atrium (the foramen ovale), and most of the blood flows through this hole directly into the left atrium from the right atrium, thus bypassing pulmonary circulation. The continuation of this blood flow is into the left ventricle, and from there it is pumped through the aorta into the body. 12/9/2022 9
  10. 10. Some of the blood moves from the aorta through the internal iliac arteries to the umbilical arteries, and re-enters the placenta, where carbon dioxide and other waste products from the fetus are taken up and enter the maternal circulation. 12/9/2022 10
  11. 11. Some of the blood entering the right atrium does not pass directly to the left atrium through the foramen ovale, but enters the right ventricle and is pumped into the pulmonary artery.  In the fetus, there is a special connection between the pulmonary artery and the aorta, called the ductus arteriosus, which directs most of this blood away from the lungs 12/9/2022 11
  12. 12. Mechanism ( after birth ) At birth, when the infant breathes for the first time, there is a decrease in the resistance in the pulmonary vasculature, which causes the pressure in the left atrium to increase relative to the pressure in the right atrium. This leads to the closure of the foramen ovale, which is then referred to as the fossa ovalis. 12/9/2022 12
  13. 13. Additionally, the increase in the concentration of oxygen in the blood leads to a decrease in prostaglandins, causing closure of the ductus arteriosus. These closures prevent blood from bypassing pulmonary circulation, and therefore allow the neonate's blood to become oxygenated in the newly operational lungs ductus venosus = ligamentum venosum 12/9/2022 13
  14. 14. 12/9/2022 14
  15. 15. • From the aorta, the oxygen-rich blood is sent to the brain and to the heart muscle itself. Blood is also sent to the lower body. • Blood returning to the heart from the fetal body contains carbon dioxide and waste products as it enters the right atrium. • It flows down into the right ventricle, where it normally would be sent to the lungs to be oxygenated. 12/9/2022 15 Mechanism of deoxygenated blood
  16. 16. • Instead, it bypasses the lungs and flows through the ductus arteriosus into the descending aorta, which connects to the umbilical arteries. From there, blood flows back into the placenta. • There the carbon dioxide and waste products are released into the mother's circulatory system. Oxygen and nutrients from the mother's blood are transferred across the placenta. Then the cycle starts again. 12/9/2022 16
  17. 17. • At birth, major changes take place. The umbilical cord is clamped and the baby no longer receives oxygen and nutrients from the mother. • With the first breaths of air, the lungs start to expand, and the ductus arteriosus and the foramen ovale both close. • The baby's circulation and blood flow through the heart now function like an adult's. 12/9/2022 17
  18. 18. 12/9/2022 18

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