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YOUTH EMPOWERMENT
SUMMIT
NURTURING MINDS, DEVELOPING LEADERS
WRITING A BUSINESS PLAN
TUESDAY TALK
EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION
AND
WHAT IS A BUSINESS PLAN
 A business plan is a written description of your business's future. That's all there is to it-
-a document that describes what you plan to do and how you plan to do it. If you jot down
a paragraph on the back of an envelope describing your business strategy, you've written a
plan, or at least the germ of a plan.
 Business plans can help perform a number of tasks for those who write and read them.
They're used by investment-seeking entrepreneurs to convey their vision to potential
investors. They may also be used by firms that are trying to attract key employees, prospect
for new business, deal with suppliers or simply to understand how to manage their
companies better.
BUSINESS PLAN
 Simply stated, a business plan conveys your business goals, the strategies you'll
use to meet them, potential problems that may confront your business and ways to
solve them, the organizational structure of your business (including titles and
responsibilities), and finally, the amount of capital required to finance your venture
and keep it going until it breaks even.
 A good business plan follows generally accepted guidelines for both form and
content. There are three primary parts to a business plan:
PRIMARY PARTS TO A BUSINESS PLAN
 The first is the business concept, where you discuss the industry, your business
structure, your particular product or service, and how you plan to make your business
a success.
 The second is the marketplace section, in which you describe and analyze
potential customers: who and where they are, what makes them buy and so on. Here,
you also describe the competition and how you'll position yourself to beat it.
 Finally, the financial section contains your income and cash flow statement,
balance sheet and other financial ratios, such as break-even analyses. This part may
require help from your accountant and a good spreadsheet software program.
THE COMPONENTS OF A BUSINESS
PLAN
Breaking these three major sections down even further, a business plan consists of
seven key components:
 Executive summary
 Business description
 Market strategies
 Competitive analysis
 Design and development plan
 Operations and management plan
 Financial factors
DETAILS OF A BUSINESS PLAN
The detail outline of the business plan is as follows:
• Introductory Page.
- Name and address of the business.
- Name and address of the entrepreneur.
- Nature of the business.
- statement of financing need.
- statement of confidentiality of report.
DETAILS OF A BUSINESS PLAN
• Executive summary.
- The summary should be at least four pages that summarizing the complete business plan.
-Industry analysis.
- Future outlook and trends.
- analysis of competitors.
- Market segmentation.
- Industry forecasts.
• Description of ventures.
- product.
- services.
- size of business.
- office equipment and personnel.
- background of entrepreneurs.
DETAILS OF A BUSINESS PLAN
• Production plan.
- Manufacturing process.
- Physical plant.
- Machinery and equipment.
- Names of suppliers of raw materials.
• Marketing plan.
- Pricing.
- distribution.
- promotion.
- product forecast.
• Organizational Plan.
- Form of ownership.
- Identification of partners or shareholders.
- Authority of principals.
- Management team background.
- roles and responsibilities of members of organisation.
DETAILS OF A BUSINESS PLAN
• Assessment of risk
- evaluate weakness of business.
- New technologies.
- contingency plans.
• Financial plans.
- pro forma income statements.
- cash flow projections.
- pro forma balance sheet.
- Break-even analysis.
- sources and applications of funds.
• Appendix.
- Letters.
- Market research data.
- Leases or contract.
- Price lists from suppliers.
A BUSINESS PLAN
• The business plan is designed to guide the entrepreneur through the first
year of operations.
• There has been the tendency among many entrepreneurs to avoid
planning.
• Planning is an important part of any business operations.
• Without good planning the entrepreneur is likely to pay an enormous
price.
• Without good planning the employees will not understand the company’s
goals and how they are expected to perform in their jobs.
EFFECTIVE COOMUNICATION
EFFECTIVE COOMUNICATION
 Communication is about more than just exchanging information. It's about
understanding the emotion and intentions behind the information. Effective
communication is also a two-way street. It’s not only how you convey a message so that it
is received and understood by someone in exactly the way you intended, it’s also how you
listen to gain the full meaning of what’s being said and to make the other person feel
heard and understood.
 More than just the words you use, effective communication combines a set of skills
including nonverbal communication, engaged listening, managing stress in the moment,
the ability to communicate assertively, and the capacity to recognize and understand your
own emotions and those of the person you’re communicating with.
BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE
INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
 Stress and out-of-control emotion. When you’re stressed or emotionally overwhelmed, you’re more
likely to misread other people, send confusing or off-putting nonverbal signals, and lapse into unhealthy knee-
jerk patterns of behaviour. Take a moment to calm down before continuing a conversation.
 Lack of focus. You can’t communicate effectively when you’re multitasking. If you’re planning what
you’re going to say next, daydreaming, checking text messages, or thinking about something else, you’re
almost certain to miss nonverbal cues in the conversation. You need to stay focused on the moment-to-
moment experience.
 Inconsistent body language. Nonverbal communication should reinforce what is being said, not
contradict it. If you say one thing, but your body language says something else, your listener will likely feel
you’re being dishonest. For example, you can’t say “yes” while shaking your head no.
 Negative body language. If you disagree with or dislike what’s being said, you may use negative body
language to rebuff the other person’s message, such as crossing your arms, avoiding eye contact, or tapping
your feet. You don’t have to agree, or even like what’s being said, but to communicate effectively without
making the other person defensive, it’s important to avoid sending negative signals.
BECOME AN ENGAGED LISTENER
 There’s a big difference between engaged listening and simply hearing. When you really
listen—when you’re engaged with what’s being said—you’ll hear the subtle intonations in
someone’s voice that tell you how that person is feeling and the emotions they’re trying to
communicate. When you’re an engaged listener, not only will you better understand the
other person, you’ll also make that person feel heard and understood, which can help build
a stronger, deeper connection between you.
 By communicating in this way, you’ll also experience a process that lowers stress and
supports physical and emotional well-being. If the person you’re talking to is calm, for
example, listening in an engaged way will help to calm you, too. Similarly, if the person is
agitated, you can help calm them by listening in an attentive way and making the person
feel understood.
HOW DO YOU BECOME AN ENGAGED
LISTENER
 Focus fully on the speaker, his or her body language, tone of voice, and other nonverbal cues. Tone of
voice conveys emotion, so if you’re thinking about other things, checking text messages or doodling, you’re
almost certain to miss the nonverbal cues and the emotional content behind the words being spoken. And if
the person talking is similarly distracted, you’ll be able to quickly pick up on it. If you find it hard to
concentrate on some speakers, try repeating their words over in your head—it’ll reinforce their message and
help you stay focused.
 Favour your right ear. The left side of the brain contains the primary processing centers for both speech
comprehension and emotions. Since the left side of the brain is connected to the right side of the body,
favouring your right ear can help you better detect the emotional nuances of what someone is saying. Try
keeping your posture straight, your chin down, and tilting your right ear towards the speaker—this will make
it easier to pick up on the higher frequencies of human speech that contain the emotional content of what’s
being said.
 Avoid interrupting or trying to redirect the conversation to your concerns, by saying something like,
“If you think that’s bad, let me tell you what happened to me.” Listening is not the same as waiting for your
turn to talk. You can’t concentrate on what someone’s saying if you’re forming what you’re going to say next.
Often, the speaker can read your facial expressions and know that your mind’s elsewhere.
HOW DO YOU BECOME AN ENGAGED
LISTENER
 Show your interest in what’s being said. Nod occasionally, smile at the person, and make
sure your posture is open and inviting. Encourage the speaker to continue with small verbal
comments like “yes” or “uh huh.”
 Try to set aside judgment. In order to communicate effectively with someone, you don’t
have to like them or agree with their ideas, values, or opinions. However, you do need to set
aside your judgment and withhold blame and criticism in order to fully understand a person. The
most difficult communication, when successfully executed, can lead to the most unlikely and
profound connection with someone.
 Provide feedback. If there seems to be a disconnect, reflect what has been said by
paraphrasing. "What I'm hearing is," or "Sounds like you are saying," are great ways to reflect
back. Don’t simply repeat what the speaker has said verbatim, though—you’ll sound insincere or
unintelligent. Instead, express what the speaker’s words mean to you. Ask questions to clarify
certain points: "What do you mean when you say..." or "Is this what you mean?"
ASSERT YOURSELF
 Direct, assertive expression makes for clear communication and can help boost self-esteem
and decision-making. Being assertive means expressing your thoughts, feelings, and needs in an
open and honest way, while standing up for yourself and respecting others. It does NOT mean
being hostile, aggressive, or demanding. Effective communication is always about understanding
the other person, not about winning an argument or forcing your opinions on others.
 To improve assertiveness:
 Value yourself and your opinions. They are as important as anyone else’s.
 Know your needs and wants. Learn to express them without infringing on the rights of
others.
 Express negative thoughts in a positive way. It’s OK to be angry, but you must be
respectful as well.
 Receive feedback positively. Accept compliments graciously, learn from your mistakes, ask
for help when needed.
 Learn to say “no.” Know your limits and don’t let others take advantage of you. Look for
alternatives so everyone feels good about the outcome.
ASSERT YOURSELF
Developing assertive communication techniques
 Empathetic assertion conveys sensitivity to the other person. First, recognize the
other person's situation or feelings, then state your needs or opinion. "I know you've been
very busy at work, but I want you to make time for us as well."
 Escalating assertion can be used when your first attempts are not successful. You
become increasingly firm as time progresses, which may include outlining consequences if
your needs are not met. For example, "If you don't abide by the contract, I'll be forced to
pursue legal action."
 Practice assertiveness in lower risk situations to start with to help build up your
confidence. Or ask friends or family if you can practice assertiveness techniques on them
first.
ASSERT YOURSELF
Developing assertive communication techniques
 Empathetic assertion conveys sensitivity to the other person. First, recognize the
other person's situation or feelings, then state your needs or opinion. "I know you've been
very busy at work, but I want you to make time for us as well."
 Escalating assertion can be used when your first attempts are not successful. You
become increasingly firm as time progresses, which may include outlining consequences if
your needs are not met. For example, "If you don't abide by the contract, I'll be forced to
pursue legal action."
 Practice assertiveness in lower risk situations to start with to help build up your
confidence. Or ask friends or family if you can practice assertiveness techniques on them
first.

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youth empowerment summit day two

  • 2. WRITING A BUSINESS PLAN TUESDAY TALK EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION AND
  • 3. WHAT IS A BUSINESS PLAN  A business plan is a written description of your business's future. That's all there is to it- -a document that describes what you plan to do and how you plan to do it. If you jot down a paragraph on the back of an envelope describing your business strategy, you've written a plan, or at least the germ of a plan.  Business plans can help perform a number of tasks for those who write and read them. They're used by investment-seeking entrepreneurs to convey their vision to potential investors. They may also be used by firms that are trying to attract key employees, prospect for new business, deal with suppliers or simply to understand how to manage their companies better.
  • 4. BUSINESS PLAN  Simply stated, a business plan conveys your business goals, the strategies you'll use to meet them, potential problems that may confront your business and ways to solve them, the organizational structure of your business (including titles and responsibilities), and finally, the amount of capital required to finance your venture and keep it going until it breaks even.  A good business plan follows generally accepted guidelines for both form and content. There are three primary parts to a business plan:
  • 5. PRIMARY PARTS TO A BUSINESS PLAN  The first is the business concept, where you discuss the industry, your business structure, your particular product or service, and how you plan to make your business a success.  The second is the marketplace section, in which you describe and analyze potential customers: who and where they are, what makes them buy and so on. Here, you also describe the competition and how you'll position yourself to beat it.  Finally, the financial section contains your income and cash flow statement, balance sheet and other financial ratios, such as break-even analyses. This part may require help from your accountant and a good spreadsheet software program.
  • 6. THE COMPONENTS OF A BUSINESS PLAN Breaking these three major sections down even further, a business plan consists of seven key components:  Executive summary  Business description  Market strategies  Competitive analysis  Design and development plan  Operations and management plan  Financial factors
  • 7. DETAILS OF A BUSINESS PLAN The detail outline of the business plan is as follows: • Introductory Page. - Name and address of the business. - Name and address of the entrepreneur. - Nature of the business. - statement of financing need. - statement of confidentiality of report.
  • 8. DETAILS OF A BUSINESS PLAN • Executive summary. - The summary should be at least four pages that summarizing the complete business plan. -Industry analysis. - Future outlook and trends. - analysis of competitors. - Market segmentation. - Industry forecasts. • Description of ventures. - product. - services. - size of business. - office equipment and personnel. - background of entrepreneurs.
  • 9. DETAILS OF A BUSINESS PLAN • Production plan. - Manufacturing process. - Physical plant. - Machinery and equipment. - Names of suppliers of raw materials. • Marketing plan. - Pricing. - distribution. - promotion. - product forecast. • Organizational Plan. - Form of ownership. - Identification of partners or shareholders. - Authority of principals. - Management team background. - roles and responsibilities of members of organisation.
  • 10. DETAILS OF A BUSINESS PLAN • Assessment of risk - evaluate weakness of business. - New technologies. - contingency plans. • Financial plans. - pro forma income statements. - cash flow projections. - pro forma balance sheet. - Break-even analysis. - sources and applications of funds. • Appendix. - Letters. - Market research data. - Leases or contract. - Price lists from suppliers.
  • 11. A BUSINESS PLAN • The business plan is designed to guide the entrepreneur through the first year of operations. • There has been the tendency among many entrepreneurs to avoid planning. • Planning is an important part of any business operations. • Without good planning the entrepreneur is likely to pay an enormous price. • Without good planning the employees will not understand the company’s goals and how they are expected to perform in their jobs.
  • 13. EFFECTIVE COOMUNICATION  Communication is about more than just exchanging information. It's about understanding the emotion and intentions behind the information. Effective communication is also a two-way street. It’s not only how you convey a message so that it is received and understood by someone in exactly the way you intended, it’s also how you listen to gain the full meaning of what’s being said and to make the other person feel heard and understood.  More than just the words you use, effective communication combines a set of skills including nonverbal communication, engaged listening, managing stress in the moment, the ability to communicate assertively, and the capacity to recognize and understand your own emotions and those of the person you’re communicating with.
  • 14. BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION  Stress and out-of-control emotion. When you’re stressed or emotionally overwhelmed, you’re more likely to misread other people, send confusing or off-putting nonverbal signals, and lapse into unhealthy knee- jerk patterns of behaviour. Take a moment to calm down before continuing a conversation.  Lack of focus. You can’t communicate effectively when you’re multitasking. If you’re planning what you’re going to say next, daydreaming, checking text messages, or thinking about something else, you’re almost certain to miss nonverbal cues in the conversation. You need to stay focused on the moment-to- moment experience.  Inconsistent body language. Nonverbal communication should reinforce what is being said, not contradict it. If you say one thing, but your body language says something else, your listener will likely feel you’re being dishonest. For example, you can’t say “yes” while shaking your head no.  Negative body language. If you disagree with or dislike what’s being said, you may use negative body language to rebuff the other person’s message, such as crossing your arms, avoiding eye contact, or tapping your feet. You don’t have to agree, or even like what’s being said, but to communicate effectively without making the other person defensive, it’s important to avoid sending negative signals.
  • 15. BECOME AN ENGAGED LISTENER  There’s a big difference between engaged listening and simply hearing. When you really listen—when you’re engaged with what’s being said—you’ll hear the subtle intonations in someone’s voice that tell you how that person is feeling and the emotions they’re trying to communicate. When you’re an engaged listener, not only will you better understand the other person, you’ll also make that person feel heard and understood, which can help build a stronger, deeper connection between you.  By communicating in this way, you’ll also experience a process that lowers stress and supports physical and emotional well-being. If the person you’re talking to is calm, for example, listening in an engaged way will help to calm you, too. Similarly, if the person is agitated, you can help calm them by listening in an attentive way and making the person feel understood.
  • 16. HOW DO YOU BECOME AN ENGAGED LISTENER  Focus fully on the speaker, his or her body language, tone of voice, and other nonverbal cues. Tone of voice conveys emotion, so if you’re thinking about other things, checking text messages or doodling, you’re almost certain to miss the nonverbal cues and the emotional content behind the words being spoken. And if the person talking is similarly distracted, you’ll be able to quickly pick up on it. If you find it hard to concentrate on some speakers, try repeating their words over in your head—it’ll reinforce their message and help you stay focused.  Favour your right ear. The left side of the brain contains the primary processing centers for both speech comprehension and emotions. Since the left side of the brain is connected to the right side of the body, favouring your right ear can help you better detect the emotional nuances of what someone is saying. Try keeping your posture straight, your chin down, and tilting your right ear towards the speaker—this will make it easier to pick up on the higher frequencies of human speech that contain the emotional content of what’s being said.  Avoid interrupting or trying to redirect the conversation to your concerns, by saying something like, “If you think that’s bad, let me tell you what happened to me.” Listening is not the same as waiting for your turn to talk. You can’t concentrate on what someone’s saying if you’re forming what you’re going to say next. Often, the speaker can read your facial expressions and know that your mind’s elsewhere.
  • 17. HOW DO YOU BECOME AN ENGAGED LISTENER  Show your interest in what’s being said. Nod occasionally, smile at the person, and make sure your posture is open and inviting. Encourage the speaker to continue with small verbal comments like “yes” or “uh huh.”  Try to set aside judgment. In order to communicate effectively with someone, you don’t have to like them or agree with their ideas, values, or opinions. However, you do need to set aside your judgment and withhold blame and criticism in order to fully understand a person. The most difficult communication, when successfully executed, can lead to the most unlikely and profound connection with someone.  Provide feedback. If there seems to be a disconnect, reflect what has been said by paraphrasing. "What I'm hearing is," or "Sounds like you are saying," are great ways to reflect back. Don’t simply repeat what the speaker has said verbatim, though—you’ll sound insincere or unintelligent. Instead, express what the speaker’s words mean to you. Ask questions to clarify certain points: "What do you mean when you say..." or "Is this what you mean?"
  • 18. ASSERT YOURSELF  Direct, assertive expression makes for clear communication and can help boost self-esteem and decision-making. Being assertive means expressing your thoughts, feelings, and needs in an open and honest way, while standing up for yourself and respecting others. It does NOT mean being hostile, aggressive, or demanding. Effective communication is always about understanding the other person, not about winning an argument or forcing your opinions on others.  To improve assertiveness:  Value yourself and your opinions. They are as important as anyone else’s.  Know your needs and wants. Learn to express them without infringing on the rights of others.  Express negative thoughts in a positive way. It’s OK to be angry, but you must be respectful as well.  Receive feedback positively. Accept compliments graciously, learn from your mistakes, ask for help when needed.  Learn to say “no.” Know your limits and don’t let others take advantage of you. Look for alternatives so everyone feels good about the outcome.
  • 19. ASSERT YOURSELF Developing assertive communication techniques  Empathetic assertion conveys sensitivity to the other person. First, recognize the other person's situation or feelings, then state your needs or opinion. "I know you've been very busy at work, but I want you to make time for us as well."  Escalating assertion can be used when your first attempts are not successful. You become increasingly firm as time progresses, which may include outlining consequences if your needs are not met. For example, "If you don't abide by the contract, I'll be forced to pursue legal action."  Practice assertiveness in lower risk situations to start with to help build up your confidence. Or ask friends or family if you can practice assertiveness techniques on them first.
  • 20. ASSERT YOURSELF Developing assertive communication techniques  Empathetic assertion conveys sensitivity to the other person. First, recognize the other person's situation or feelings, then state your needs or opinion. "I know you've been very busy at work, but I want you to make time for us as well."  Escalating assertion can be used when your first attempts are not successful. You become increasingly firm as time progresses, which may include outlining consequences if your needs are not met. For example, "If you don't abide by the contract, I'll be forced to pursue legal action."  Practice assertiveness in lower risk situations to start with to help build up your confidence. Or ask friends or family if you can practice assertiveness techniques on them first.