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1.1.1 Systems and Synergy 
Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 
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What do these pictures, have in common? 
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They are all Systems 
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What is the meaning of the word system? 
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A system is something that: 
1.Is made up of individual component parts that work together to perform a particular functio...
But if the parts of the bicycle are piled up in the middle of the room, they cease to work together and thus stop being a ...
So a system could be...? 
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•A building 
•a flower 
•an atom 
•a political party 
•a car 
•your body 
•furniture 
•an electric circuit 
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What is the use of Systems Concept 
Why do we use Systems? 
•Useful for understanding and explaining phenomena 
•A holisti...
k.kumar@pathways.in 
•gurucharankumar16@gmail.com 
•9650834269 
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SYNERGY 
• One of the most fascinating characteristics of any and all structures is the characteristic called SYNERGY 
Gur...
WHAT IS SYNERGY? 
•A state in which two or more things work together in a particularly fruitful way that produces an effec...
EXAMPLE OF SYNERGY 
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Another example of synergy 
•Ordinary Table Salt (NaCl, Sodium Chloride) 
•Synergy: The behaviour of whole systems that is...
SALT 
•When combined, we witness synergy. Two deadly substances combine to produce something that we cannot live without. ...
Atoms combine together to form structural systems 
1.The behaviour of the table salt is totally unpredictable by simply kn...
Another way to say this is : 
•Even if you know all the parts that make up a system you still cannot know or even predict ...
The Human Body 
1.If you take all the stuff that makes up a person, you would find that we are made up of: 
2.Hydrogen, Ni...
Even if you looked at the next level up…the Cell 
1.Even if you knew what all the cells in your body do, you still could n...
Discovery 
•One great truth about discovery is that, “One discovery often leads to further discoveries” 
Guru IB ESS SYSTE...
Bring different ideas Together 
•One of the best places to find ideas for structural systems is in NATURE. 
•Nature always...
What is a Model? 
What is a model? 
•A representation or a simulation, could be conceptual, physical, mathematical 
Guru I...
Why Models 
Why models? 
•The real thing is not available or it’s impractical 
•Too rare, too complex, too big, too expens...
How to evaluate a model? 
•Does it explain past observations 
•Does it agree with other models 
•Does it predict accuratel...
RECAP 
•What is SYSTEM? 
•Examples of SYSTEM? 
•Why do we use Systems? 
•What is SYNERGY? 
•Examples of SYNERGY? 
•What is...
Ecosystems Ecological Systems 
•Ecological Systems follow the laws of synergy as well. 
•It is the interrelationships betw...
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Environmental Systems and Societies 
Interrelationships among climate, geology, soil, vegetation, and animals. 
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What is ENERGY? 
•Energy is defined as the ability or the capacity to do work. 
•Energy causes things to happen around us ...
What is MATTER? 
•Matter is generally considered to be anything that has mass and volume 
•Example: 
•a car would be said ...
1.1.1.Outline the concept and characteristic of systems 
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TYPES OF SYSTEM 
1.OPEN SYSTEM 
2.CLOSED SYSTEM 
3.ISOLATED SYSTEM 
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1. OPEN SYSTEM: a system in which both matter and energy are exchanged across boundaries of the system. 
Systems are defin...
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2. CLOSED SYSTEM: a system in which energy is exchanged across boundaries of the system, but matter is not. Example-Aquari...
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A small enclosure or closed container in which selected living plants and sometimes small land animals, such as turtles an...
3. ISOLATED SYSTEM: a system in which neither energy nor matter is exchanged with its envioronemt.Do not exist naturally 
...
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CLOSED SYSTEM 
CLOSED SYSTEM 
CLOSED SYSTEM 
OPEN SYSTEM 
OPEN SYSTEM 
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Components of a system: 
1.Inputs such as energy or matter. 
Calories 
Protein 
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2. Flows of matter or energy within the systems at certain rates. 
Calories 
Protein 
Calories 
Protein 
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3.Outputs of certain forms of matter or energy that flow out of the system into sinks in the environment. 
Calories 
Prote...
4. Storage areas in which energy or matter can accumulate for various lengths of time before being released. 
Calories 
Pr...
RECAP 
•What is open system? Example 
•What is closed system? Example 
•What is Isolated system? Example 
•Components of a...
Two basic processes must occur in an ecosystem: 
1.A cycling of chemical elements. 
2.Flow of energy. Energy flows through...
1.1.7 Desccribe transfer and transformation processes 
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TRANSFERS OF ENERGY 
TRANSFORMATTION OF ENERGY 
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What are transfer process 
•A transfer is a process where there is a change in location within the system, but there is no...
CLOUDS IN THE FORM OF WATER 
OCEAN 
CHANGE IN LOCATION 
STATE 
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What are transformation process? 
•Transformation are process that leads to the formation of new products or change in sta...
•Transfer are process that lead to a change in location but not a change in state 
•Transformation are process that leads ...
Describe Transfer and Transformation 
•Transfer - just a movement from one place to another ….water mountain to ocean.. 
•...
Transfer vs. transformation 
•Transfer involves a change in location 
–e.g. water falling as rain, running off the land in...
AUGUST FORMATIVE & SUMMATIVE 
•FORMATIVE WORKSHEET-20 MARKS 
•Due date:3.09.2012 
•SUMMATIVE-CHART -20 MARKS 
•Topic-3 typ...
TRANSFERS OF ENERGY 
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ENERGY TRANSFORMATIONS 
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1.1.8 Distinguish between flows and storage in relation to systems 
•Flows :Flows are movements from one place to another ...
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•Storages are where something in a system and are shown by boxes 
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Inputs and Outputs 
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1.1.4. Thermodynamics nutrient cycles 
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1.Thermodynamics is the study of the energy transformations that occur in a system. 
2.It is the study of the flow of ener...
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•The study of thermodynamics is about energy flow in natural systems 
•The Laws of Thermodynamics describe what is known a...
•Two laws 
•First Law of Thermodynamics 
•Second Law of Thermodynamics 
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1st Law of Thermodynamics 
•States that energy can be transferred and transformed, 
but it CANNOT be created nor destroyed...
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First Law of Thermodynamics 
ENERGY 2 
PROCESS 
ENERGY 1 (WORK) 
ENERGY 3 
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In Ecosystem where you can apply first law 
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Photosynthesis: an example of the First Law of Thermodynamics: Energy Transformation 
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Photosynthesis is the First Law of Thermodynamics 
Heat Energy 
Light Energy 
Chemical Energy 
Photosynthesis 
78 
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Thermal equilibrium = inpuGtsu rue q u a l o u tIBp EuStSs o v e r a long period of time. 
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Sun 
Producers (rooted plants) 
Producers (phytoplankton) 
Primary consumers (zooplankton) 
Secondary consumers (fish) 
Di...
Answer this……………….. 
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Using the first law of thermodynamics explain why the energy pyramid is always pyramid shaped (bottom bigger than top) 
Gu...
2nd Law of Thermodynamics 
1.The Second Law is the Law of Entropy(disorder, randomness or chaos). 
2.It is essential state...
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•In any spontaneous process the energy transformation is not 100 % efficient, part of it is lost (dissipated) as heat whic...
What results from the second law of Thermodynamics? 
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The Second Law of Thermodynamics in numbers: The 10% Law For most ecological process, theamount of energy that is passed f...
Second Law of Thermodynamics 
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•Any conversion is less than 100% efficient and therefore some energy is lost or wasted. 
•Usually this energy is lost in ...
Only 25% of chemical “E” stored in gasoline is transformed in to motion of the car and 75% is lost as heat!! 
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Without adding energy to a system, the system will break down . 
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Primary Producers and the 2nd law of Thermodynamics 
(Output) 
(Output) 
(Output) 
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Consumers and the 2nd law of Thermodynamics 
10% for growth 
2850 kJ.day- 1 Food Intake 
Respiration 
2000 kJ.day-1 
565 k...
The Ecosystem and the 2nd law of Thermodynamics 
Heat 
Heat 
Heat 
Heat 
Heat 
95 
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RECAP 
•What is First law of thermodynamics? 
•What is second law of thermodynamics? 
•Another name of First law 
•Another...
Why both the laws are important in ecosystem or environment? 
•Both the laws are important because when analyzing the ener...
•1.One way energy enters an ecosystem is as sunlight. This sunlight energy is then changed into biomass by photosynthesis....
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•4.Available energy is used to do work such as growth, movement and making complex molecules. 
•5.All the energy leaves th...
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RECAP 
•What is First Law of Thermodynamics 
•What is Second Law of Thermodynamics? 
•What is EQUILIBRIUM? 
•Three types o...
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What is Equilibrium 
•Equilibrium is the tendency of the system to return to an original state following disturbance, a st...
3 TYPES 
1.STEADY –STATE EQUILIBRIUM 
2.STATIC EQUILIBRIUM 
3.STABLE & UNSTABLE EQUILIBRIUM 
Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS ...
STEADY –STATE EQUILIBRIUM EXAMPLE 
If these birth & death rates are equal there is no net change In population size 
birth...
WHERE YOU CAN SEE STEADY –STATE EQUILIBRIUM IN ECOSYSTEM 
QUESTION 
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Food chain & Food web are the example of Steady –State Equilibrium 
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Steady –State Equilibrium 
•A Steady –state equilibrium is a characteristic of open system where there are continuous inpu...
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Rate of water entering = Rate of water leaving Hence the level of water is constant 
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STATIC EQUILIBRIUM 
•Static Equilibrium in which there is no change over time 
•The force within the system are in balance...
let us consider two children sitting on a see- saw. At balance point (i.e., the equilibrium position) no movement of child...
QUESTION 
WHERE YOU CAN SEE STATIC EQUILIBRIUM IN ECOSYSTEM 
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•Most non living system are in Static Equilibrium 
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STABLE & UNSTABLE EQUILIBRIUM 
•In a stable equilibrium the system tends to return to the same equilibrium after a disturb...
STABLE EQUILIBRIUM 
UNSTABLE EQUILIBRIUM 
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FOREST FIRE -DISTURBANCE 
AFTER DISTURBANCE 
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RECAP 
•What is First Law of Thermodynamics 
•What is Second Law of Thermodynamics? 
•What is EQUILIBRIUM? 
•Three types o...
RECAP 
1.What is Equilibrium 
2.STEADY –STATE EQUILIBRIUM 
3.STATIC EQUILIBRIUM 
4.STABLE & UNSTABLE EQUILIBRIUM 
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SELF ASSESSMENT TEST 
•What is the difference between a steady state equilibrium and a static equilibrium? 
•Which type of...
•1.1.6 Define and explain the principles of positive feedback and negative feedback. 
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What is FEEDBACK? 
•Feedback occurs when part of the output from a system returns as input , in order to influence later o...
The sense of cold is the information, putting on clothes or heating up is the reaction 
cold 
clothes 
heating up 
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Respond Positively in the class 
Showing interest 
Teacher is successful 
POSTIVE FEEDBACK 
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NEGATIVE FEEDBACK 
Respond negatively in the class 
Showing distraction 
Methodology is not appropriate 
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1Positive and Negative Feedback 
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Walking in hot sun, temperature rises 
Body will lose heat 
ONE ACTION IS INCREASING 
ONE ACTION IS DECREASING 
Negative f...
Negative feedback systems 
•Negative feedback systems include a sequence of events that will cause an effect that is in th...
Example of Negative Feedback 
•Predator/prey relationships 
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•Predator/prey relationships are usually controlled by negative feedback where: 
The increase in prey  increase in predat...
The classic study in Northern Canada between the Wild Cat and the hare populations is famous for its regular 11 year cycle...
Negative feedback 
•Predator Prey is a classic Example 
–Snowshoe hare population increases 
–More food for Lynx  Lynx po...
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CLOSED CANOPY IN 
RAINFOREST 
WIND BLOWS DOWN OLD TREE 
MORE LIGHT AT THE FOREST FLOOR 
GROWTH OF YOUNG TREES 
YOUNG TREES...
ANSWER THIS 
•IDENTIFY THIS BIRD 
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SARUS CRANE at a height of up to 1.8 m (5.9 ft) 
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POSTIVE FEEDBACK 
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Poor standards of education 
Absence of family planning 
Positive feedback 
poverty 
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Positive feedback 
•Positive feedback includes a sequence of events that will cause a change in the same direction as the ...
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Positive feedback 
•Change leads to increasing change – it accelerates deviation 
Example: Global warming 
1.Temperature i...
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Solar radiation 
Energy in = Energy out 
Reflected by atmosphere (34%) 
UV radiation 
Absorbed by ozone 
Absorbed by the e...
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Most systems change by a combination of positive and negative feedback processes 
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Which of the populations show positive feedback? Which of the populations show negative feedback? 
I-POSTIVE FEEDBACK II-N...
WHICH IS POSTIVE & NEGATIVE 
•If a pond ecosystem became polluted with nitrates, washed off agricultural land by surface r...
End result? Equilibrium…Recap 
•A sort of equalization or end point 
•Steady state equilibrium  constant changes in all d...
Equilibrium generally maintained by negative feedback – inputs should equal outputs 
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You should be able to create a system model. 
Observe the next two society examples and create a model including input, fl...
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High Throughput System Model 
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High-quality energy 
Matter 
System Throughputs 
Output (intro environment) 
Unsustainable high-waste economy 
Low-quality...
Low Throughput System Model 
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High-quality energy 
Matter 
Pollution prevention by reducing matter throughput 
Sustainable low-waste economy 
Recycle an...
Easter Island 
What are the statues and where are the trees? A case Study in unsustainable growth practices. 
Guru IB ESS ...
Evaluating Models 
•Used when we can’t accurately measure the real event 
•Models are hard with the environment because th...
Anticipating Environmental Surprises 
•Remember any action we take has multiple unforseen consequences 
•Discontinuities =...
What can we do? 
•Develop more complex models for systems 
•Increase research on environmental thresholds for better predi...
Systems Measurement 
Data Analysis 
System Modeling 
System Simulation 
System Optimization 
Define objectives 
Identify a...
Other systems examples 
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Uranium 100% 
Electricity from Nuclear Power Plant 
14% 
Resistance heating (100%) 
90% 
Waste heat 
Passive Solar 
Sunlig...
sun 
EARTH 
Natural 
Capital 
Air; water, land, soil, biodiversity, minerals, raw materials, energy resources, and dilutio...
Energy Inputs 
System 
Outputs 
U.S. economy and lifestyles 
84% 
8% 
4% 
4% 
9% 
7% 
41% 
43% 
Nonrenewable fossil fuels ...
AUGUST FORMATIVE & SUMMATIVE(11B4) 
•FORMATIVE WORKSHEET-20 MARKS 
•Due date:31.08.2012(this Friday) 
•SUMMATIVE-CHART -20...
Formative 
•Do formative in the EVM note book 
•Write page number and question for each activity 
•Leave proper space for ...
Self Assessment Test 
•Give two examples of negative feedback and two of positive feedback system. 
•Explain why most ecos...
•1.1.2 Apply the systems concept on a range of scales 
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•Ecosystems provide a good example of how systems can be applied to a range of scales 
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•Ecosystem can be any size from small scale to global. 
•The forest itself can also be seen as an ecosystem. 
•The same ty...
SCALE 
ECOSYSTEM 
ECONOMIC 
SYSTEM 
SOCIAL 
SYSTEM 
Political 
System 
SMALL 
LOCAL ECOSYSTEM 
HOME ECONOMY 
COMMUNITY 
BA...
HOME WORK 
•Research about the GAIA Hypothesis 
•Write an essay about this in one page 
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•1.1.9-Construct and analyse quantitative models involving flows and storages in a system. 
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What is a Model? 
•A model is a simplified description to show the structure and working of a system. 
•Models can be used...
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•The width of arrows can vary in size; wider arrows are used to show larger flows. 
•The size of boxes can also vary large...
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•Shows nutrient flows and storages 
•The biomass storage is larger in the woodland and the litter storage is larger in the...
•1.1.10 Evaluate the strengths and limitations of models. 
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EVALUATION OF MODELS 
STRENGTHS 
•Model allow scientist to predict and simplify complex systems 
•They allow inputs to be ...
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LIMITATION 
•Different models may show different using the same data. For example models that predict the effect of climat...
•Because many assumptions have to made about these complex factors climate models may not accurate 
•Any model is only as ...
•Different people may interpret models in different ways and so come to different conclusion 
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Topic 1 systems & models

  1. 1. 1.1.1 Systems and Synergy Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 1
  2. 2. What do these pictures, have in common? Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 2
  3. 3. They are all Systems Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 3
  4. 4. What is the meaning of the word system? Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 4
  5. 5. A system is something that: 1.Is made up of individual component parts that work together to perform a particular function 2. A bicycle is an example of a system Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 5
  6. 6. But if the parts of the bicycle are piled up in the middle of the room, they cease to work together and thus stop being a system. Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 6
  7. 7. So a system could be...? Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 7
  8. 8. •A building •a flower •an atom •a political party •a car •your body •furniture •an electric circuit Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 8
  9. 9. What is the use of Systems Concept Why do we use Systems? •Useful for understanding and explaining phenomena •A holistic approach that can lead to a deeper understanding and possibly to further discoveries Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 9
  10. 10. k.kumar@pathways.in •gurucharankumar16@gmail.com •9650834269 Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 10
  11. 11. SYNERGY • One of the most fascinating characteristics of any and all structures is the characteristic called SYNERGY Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 11
  12. 12. WHAT IS SYNERGY? •A state in which two or more things work together in a particularly fruitful way that produces an effect greater the sum of their individual effects. Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 12
  13. 13. EXAMPLE OF SYNERGY Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 13
  14. 14. Another example of synergy •Ordinary Table Salt (NaCl, Sodium Chloride) •Synergy: The behaviour of whole systems that is unpredicted by knowing the behaviour of the individual parts taken separately • Na (sodium) is a metal, highly reactive in water, explosive, burns with a yellow flame. •Cl (chlorine) is a deadly greenish gas. •Both of these elements when taken separately are poisonous and deadly BUT Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 14
  15. 15. SALT •When combined, we witness synergy. Two deadly substances combine to produce something that we cannot live without. •Something unique and new and unpredictable happens when two or more things come together and work together Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 15
  16. 16. Atoms combine together to form structural systems 1.The behaviour of the table salt is totally unpredictable by simply knowing the behaviour of the individual parts. 2.All nature, all systems, all structures display synergy. The Universe is the Synergy of Synergies. Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 16
  17. 17. Another way to say this is : •Even if you know all the parts that make up a system you still cannot know or even predict how the whole system is going to behave or work. •Can you give an example of this?? Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 17
  18. 18. The Human Body 1.If you take all the stuff that makes up a person, you would find that we are made up of: 2.Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Carbon, Water, Calcium, Sodium, Magnesium, Sulfur, Iron and many other elements. The total cost of all of these things at the store is about……???? Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 18
  19. 19. Even if you looked at the next level up…the Cell 1.Even if you knew what all the cells in your body do, you still could not describe YOU. 2.Something very unique and new and unpredictable happens when the parts of a system work together. Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 19
  20. 20. Discovery •One great truth about discovery is that, “One discovery often leads to further discoveries” Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 20
  21. 21. Bring different ideas Together •One of the best places to find ideas for structural systems is in NATURE. •Nature always uses the most economical, efficient and reliable structural systems Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 21
  22. 22. What is a Model? What is a model? •A representation or a simulation, could be conceptual, physical, mathematical Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 22
  23. 23. Why Models Why models? •The real thing is not available or it’s impractical •Too rare, too complex, too big, too expensive Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 23
  24. 24. How to evaluate a model? •Does it explain past observations •Does it agree with other models •Does it predict accurately Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 24
  25. 25. RECAP •What is SYSTEM? •Examples of SYSTEM? •Why do we use Systems? •What is SYNERGY? •Examples of SYNERGY? •What is MODEL? Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 25
  26. 26. Ecosystems Ecological Systems •Ecological Systems follow the laws of synergy as well. •It is the interrelationships between the parts that produces the behaviour of the whole. Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 26
  27. 27. Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 27
  28. 28. Environmental Systems and Societies Interrelationships among climate, geology, soil, vegetation, and animals. Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 28
  29. 29. What is ENERGY? •Energy is defined as the ability or the capacity to do work. •Energy causes things to happen around us •Energy lights our cities, powers our vehicles, and runs machinery in factories. It warms and cools our homes, cooks our food, plays our music, and gives us pictures on television. Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 29
  30. 30. What is MATTER? •Matter is generally considered to be anything that has mass and volume •Example: •a car would be said to be made of matter, as it occupies space, and has mass. Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 30
  31. 31. 1.1.1.Outline the concept and characteristic of systems Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 31
  32. 32. Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 32
  33. 33. TYPES OF SYSTEM 1.OPEN SYSTEM 2.CLOSED SYSTEM 3.ISOLATED SYSTEM Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 33
  34. 34. 1. OPEN SYSTEM: a system in which both matter and energy are exchanged across boundaries of the system. Systems are defined by the source and ultimate destination of their matter and/or energy. Most natural living systems are OPEN systems. Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 34
  35. 35. Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 35
  36. 36. Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 36
  37. 37. Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 37
  38. 38. 2. CLOSED SYSTEM: a system in which energy is exchanged across boundaries of the system, but matter is not. Example-Aquarium & Terrarium Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 38
  39. 39. Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 39
  40. 40. A small enclosure or closed container in which selected living plants and sometimes small land animals, such as turtles and lizards, are kept and observed. Terrarium Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 40
  41. 41. 3. ISOLATED SYSTEM: a system in which neither energy nor matter is exchanged with its envioronemt.Do not exist naturally NO SUCH SYSTEM EXISTS!!! Example:Space Station(artifical) Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 41
  42. 42. Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 42
  43. 43. CLOSED SYSTEM CLOSED SYSTEM CLOSED SYSTEM OPEN SYSTEM OPEN SYSTEM Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 43
  44. 44. Components of a system: 1.Inputs such as energy or matter. Calories Protein Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 44
  45. 45. 2. Flows of matter or energy within the systems at certain rates. Calories Protein Calories Protein Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 45
  46. 46. 3.Outputs of certain forms of matter or energy that flow out of the system into sinks in the environment. Calories Protein WasteHeat WasteMatter Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 46
  47. 47. 4. Storage areas in which energy or matter can accumulate for various lengths of time before being released. Calories Protein Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 47
  48. 48. RECAP •What is open system? Example •What is closed system? Example •What is Isolated system? Example •Components of a system Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 48
  49. 49. Two basic processes must occur in an ecosystem: 1.A cycling of chemical elements. 2.Flow of energy. Energy flows through systems while materials circulate around systems. Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 49
  50. 50. 1.1.7 Desccribe transfer and transformation processes Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 50
  51. 51. TRANSFERS OF ENERGY TRANSFORMATTION OF ENERGY Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 51
  52. 52. What are transfer process •A transfer is a process where there is a change in location within the system, but there is no change in state. Example: •Water is falling from clouds to the ground as rain. Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 52
  53. 53. CLOUDS IN THE FORM OF WATER OCEAN CHANGE IN LOCATION STATE Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 53
  54. 54. What are transformation process? •Transformation are process that leads to the formation of new products or change in state Example: •Evaporation of water from a lake into the atmosphere Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 54
  55. 55. •Transfer are process that lead to a change in location but not a change in state •Transformation are process that leads to the formation of new products or c change in state Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 55
  56. 56. Describe Transfer and Transformation •Transfer - just a movement from one place to another ….water mountain to ocean.. •Transformation - actual change of state or material -- liquid water/evaporates… CO2 to sugars/starch in plant . Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 56
  57. 57. Transfer vs. transformation •Transfer involves a change in location –e.g. water falling as rain, running off the land into a river then to the sea •Transformation involves a change in state –e.g. evaporation of water from a lake into the atmosphere Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 57
  58. 58. AUGUST FORMATIVE & SUMMATIVE •FORMATIVE WORKSHEET-20 MARKS •Due date:3.09.2012 •SUMMATIVE-CHART -20 MARKS •Topic-3 types of systems with suitable examples •Due date:31.08.2012 Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 58
  59. 59. TRANSFERS OF ENERGY Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 59
  60. 60. ENERGY TRANSFORMATIONS Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 60
  61. 61. Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 61
  62. 62. 1.1.8 Distinguish between flows and storage in relation to systems •Flows :Flows are movements from one place to another in the system and are shown by arrows •Flows are either inputs or outputs. •Inputs are movements into a storage and outputs are movements out of a storage Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 62
  63. 63. Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 63
  64. 64. •Storages are where something in a system and are shown by boxes Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 64
  65. 65. Inputs and Outputs Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 65
  66. 66. Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 66
  67. 67. 1.1.4. Thermodynamics nutrient cycles Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 67
  68. 68. Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 68
  69. 69. 1.Thermodynamics is the study of the energy transformations that occur in a system. 2.It is the study of the flow of energy through nature. 3.Within a system energy cannot be re-used. What is Thermodynamics? Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 69
  70. 70. Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 70
  71. 71. •The study of thermodynamics is about energy flow in natural systems •The Laws of Thermodynamics describe what is known about energy transformations in our universe Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 71
  72. 72. •Two laws •First Law of Thermodynamics •Second Law of Thermodynamics Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 72
  73. 73. 1st Law of Thermodynamics •States that energy can be transferred and transformed, but it CANNOT be created nor destroyed. •Law of Conservation of Energy. •Energy of the universe is constant. Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 73
  74. 74. Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 74
  75. 75. First Law of Thermodynamics ENERGY 2 PROCESS ENERGY 1 (WORK) ENERGY 3 75 Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS
  76. 76. In Ecosystem where you can apply first law Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 76
  77. 77. Photosynthesis: an example of the First Law of Thermodynamics: Energy Transformation 77 Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS
  78. 78. Photosynthesis is the First Law of Thermodynamics Heat Energy Light Energy Chemical Energy Photosynthesis 78 Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS
  79. 79. Thermal equilibrium = inpuGtsu rue q u a l o u tIBp EuStSs o v e r a long period of time. SYSTEMS & MODELS 79
  80. 80. Sun Producers (rooted plants) Producers (phytoplankton) Primary consumers (zooplankton) Secondary consumers (fish) Dissolved chemicals Tertiary consumers (turtles) Sediment Decomposers (bacteria and fungi) Energy at one level must come from previous level Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 80
  81. 81. Answer this……………….. Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 81
  82. 82. Using the first law of thermodynamics explain why the energy pyramid is always pyramid shaped (bottom bigger than top) Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 82
  83. 83. 2nd Law of Thermodynamics 1.The Second Law is the Law of Entropy(disorder, randomness or chaos). 2.It is essential state that as energy is transformed from one state to another state ,the conversion is never 100% efficient and therefore energy is always lost to that system 3.Every energy transformation or transfer results in an increase in the disorder of the universe Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 83
  84. 84. Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 84
  85. 85. Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 85
  86. 86. •In any spontaneous process the energy transformation is not 100 % efficient, part of it is lost (dissipated) as heat which, can not be used to do work (within the system) to fight against entropy. •In fact, for most ecosystems, processes are on average only 10% efficient (10% Principle), this means that for every energy passage (transformation) 90% is lost in the form of heat energy, only 10% passes to the next element in the system. •Most biological processes are very inefficient in their transformation of energy which is lost as heat. The Second Law of Thermodynamics can also be stated in the following way: 86 Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS
  87. 87. What results from the second law of Thermodynamics? Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 87
  88. 88. The Second Law of Thermodynamics in numbers: The 10% Law For most ecological process, theamount of energy that is passed from one trophic level to the next is on average 10%. Heat Heat Heat 900 J 90 J 9 J Energy 1 Process 1 Process 2 Process 3 1000 J 100 J 10 J 1 J J = Joule SI Unit of Energy 1kJ = 1 Kilo Joule = 1000 Joules 88 Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS
  89. 89. Second Law of Thermodynamics Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 89
  90. 90. •Any conversion is less than 100% efficient and therefore some energy is lost or wasted. •Usually this energy is lost in the form of HEAT (= random energy of molecular movement). We usually summarize it as respiration. Solar energy Waste heat Chemical energy (photosynthesis) Waste heat Waste heat Waste heat Chemical energy (food) Mechanical energy (moving, thinking, living) Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 90
  91. 91. Only 25% of chemical “E” stored in gasoline is transformed in to motion of the car and 75% is lost as heat!! Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 91
  92. 92. Without adding energy to a system, the system will break down . Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 92
  93. 93. Primary Producers and the 2nd law of Thermodynamics (Output) (Output) (Output) 93 Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS
  94. 94. Consumers and the 2nd law of Thermodynamics 10% for growth 2850 kJ.day- 1 Food Intake Respiration 2000 kJ.day-1 565 kJ.day-1 Urine and Faeces How efficient is the cow in the use of the food it takes daily? 94 Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS
  95. 95. The Ecosystem and the 2nd law of Thermodynamics Heat Heat Heat Heat Heat 95 Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS
  96. 96. RECAP •What is First law of thermodynamics? •What is second law of thermodynamics? •Another name of First law •Another name of second law •Tallest flower Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 96
  97. 97. Why both the laws are important in ecosystem or environment? •Both the laws are important because when analyzing the energy transfers in an ecosystem and living organism is general Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 97
  98. 98. •1.One way energy enters an ecosystem is as sunlight. This sunlight energy is then changed into biomass by photosynthesis. •2.That is photosynthesis captures sunlight energy and transforms it into chemical energy. •3.Chemical energy in producers may be passed along food chain as biomass or given off as heat during respiration Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 98
  99. 99. Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 99
  100. 100. Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 100
  101. 101. •4.Available energy is used to do work such as growth, movement and making complex molecules. •5.All the energy leaves the ecosystem as heat. No new energy has been created. •6.It has simply transformed and passed from one form to another. •7.Although matter can be recycled, energy cannot and once it has been lost from the system in the form of heat it cannot made available again. Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 101
  102. 102. Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 102
  103. 103. RECAP •What is First Law of Thermodynamics •What is Second Law of Thermodynamics? •What is EQUILIBRIUM? •Three types of equilibrium Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 103
  104. 104. Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 104
  105. 105. What is Equilibrium •Equilibrium is the tendency of the system to return to an original state following disturbance, a state of balance exists among the components of that system. Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 105
  106. 106. 3 TYPES 1.STEADY –STATE EQUILIBRIUM 2.STATIC EQUILIBRIUM 3.STABLE & UNSTABLE EQUILIBRIUM Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 106
  107. 107. STEADY –STATE EQUILIBRIUM EXAMPLE If these birth & death rates are equal there is no net change In population size birth death Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 107
  108. 108. WHERE YOU CAN SEE STEADY –STATE EQUILIBRIUM IN ECOSYSTEM QUESTION Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 108
  109. 109. Food chain & Food web are the example of Steady –State Equilibrium Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 109
  110. 110. Steady –State Equilibrium •A Steady –state equilibrium is a characteristic of open system where there are continuous inputs and outputs of energy and matter, but the system as a whole remains in a more or less constant state. •Most open systems in nature are in steady- state equilibrium. •This means that even though there are constant inputs and outputs of energy and matter there is overall stability within the system. Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 110
  111. 111. Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 111
  112. 112. Rate of water entering = Rate of water leaving Hence the level of water is constant Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 112
  113. 113. STATIC EQUILIBRIUM •Static Equilibrium in which there is no change over time •The force within the system are in balance, and the components remain unchanged in their relationship. •In Static Equilibrium there are no inputs or outputs of matter or energy and no change in the system over time. •No natural system are in static equilibrium because all natural system have inputs and outputs of energy and matter Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 113
  114. 114. let us consider two children sitting on a see- saw. At balance point (i.e., the equilibrium position) no movement of children on the see- saw occurs. Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 114
  115. 115. QUESTION WHERE YOU CAN SEE STATIC EQUILIBRIUM IN ECOSYSTEM Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 115
  116. 116. •Most non living system are in Static Equilibrium Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 116
  117. 117. STABLE & UNSTABLE EQUILIBRIUM •In a stable equilibrium the system tends to return to the same equilibrium after a disturbance •In an unstable equilibrium the system returns to a new equilibrium after disturbance Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 117
  118. 118. STABLE EQUILIBRIUM UNSTABLE EQUILIBRIUM Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 118
  119. 119. Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 119
  120. 120. FOREST FIRE -DISTURBANCE AFTER DISTURBANCE Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 120
  121. 121. RECAP •What is First Law of Thermodynamics •What is Second Law of Thermodynamics? •What is EQUILIBRIUM? •Three types of equilibrium Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 121
  122. 122. RECAP 1.What is Equilibrium 2.STEADY –STATE EQUILIBRIUM 3.STATIC EQUILIBRIUM 4.STABLE & UNSTABLE EQUILIBRIUM Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 122
  123. 123. SELF ASSESSMENT TEST •What is the difference between a steady state equilibrium and a static equilibrium? •Which type of equilibrium applies to ecological systems and why? Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 123
  124. 124. •1.1.6 Define and explain the principles of positive feedback and negative feedback. Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 124
  125. 125. What is FEEDBACK? •Feedback occurs when part of the output from a system returns as input , in order to influence later outputs. •This is also called FEEDBACK LOOP PROCESS FEEDBACK INPUT OUTPUT Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 125
  126. 126. The sense of cold is the information, putting on clothes or heating up is the reaction cold clothes heating up Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 126
  127. 127. Respond Positively in the class Showing interest Teacher is successful POSTIVE FEEDBACK Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 127
  128. 128. NEGATIVE FEEDBACK Respond negatively in the class Showing distraction Methodology is not appropriate Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 128
  129. 129. 1Positive and Negative Feedback Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 129
  130. 130. Walking in hot sun, temperature rises Body will lose heat ONE ACTION IS INCREASING ONE ACTION IS DECREASING Negative feedback systems Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 130
  131. 131. Negative feedback systems •Negative feedback systems include a sequence of events that will cause an effect that is in the opposite direction to the original stimulus and thereby brings the system back to its equilibrium position. Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 131
  132. 132. Example of Negative Feedback •Predator/prey relationships Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 132
  133. 133. •Predator/prey relationships are usually controlled by negative feedback where: The increase in prey  increase in predator decrease in prey decrease in predator increase in prey---and so on in a cyclical manner. Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 133
  134. 134. The classic study in Northern Canada between the Wild Cat and the hare populations is famous for its regular 11 year cycle of rising and falling populations. Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 134
  135. 135. Negative feedback •Predator Prey is a classic Example –Snowshoe hare population increases –More food for Lynx  Lynx population increases –Increased predation on hares  hare population declines –Less food for Lynx  Lynx population declines –Less predation  Increase in hare population Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 135
  136. 136. Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 136
  137. 137. Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 137
  138. 138. CLOSED CANOPY IN RAINFOREST WIND BLOWS DOWN OLD TREE MORE LIGHT AT THE FOREST FLOOR GROWTH OF YOUNG TREES YOUNG TREES COMPETE FOR LIGHT AND TO REPLACE THE OLD TREE Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 138
  139. 139. ANSWER THIS •IDENTIFY THIS BIRD Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 139
  140. 140. SARUS CRANE at a height of up to 1.8 m (5.9 ft) Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 140
  141. 141. Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 141
  142. 142. POSTIVE FEEDBACK Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 142
  143. 143. Poor standards of education Absence of family planning Positive feedback poverty Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 143
  144. 144. Positive feedback •Positive feedback includes a sequence of events that will cause a change in the same direction as the stimulus and thereby augments the change, moving the state of the system even further from the equilibrium point. Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 144
  145. 145. Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 145
  146. 146. Positive feedback •Change leads to increasing change – it accelerates deviation Example: Global warming 1.Temperature increases  Ice caps melt 2.Less Ice cap surface area  Less sunlight is reflected away from earth (albedo) 3.More light hits dark ocean and heat is trapped 4.Further temperature increase  Further melting of the ice Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 146
  147. 147. Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 147
  148. 148. Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 148
  149. 149. Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 149
  150. 150. Solar radiation Energy in = Energy out Reflected by atmosphere (34%) UV radiation Absorbed by ozone Absorbed by the earth Visible light Lower stratosphere (ozone layer) Troposphere Heat Greenhouse effect Radiated by atmosphere as heat (66%) Earth Heat radiated by the earth Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 150
  151. 151. Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 151
  152. 152. Most systems change by a combination of positive and negative feedback processes Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 152
  153. 153. Which of the populations show positive feedback? Which of the populations show negative feedback? I-POSTIVE FEEDBACK II-NEGATIVE III-NEGATIVE IV-POSTIVE Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 153
  154. 154. WHICH IS POSTIVE & NEGATIVE •If a pond ecosystem became polluted with nitrates, washed off agricultural land by surface runoff, algae would rapidly grow in the pond. •The amount of dissolved oxygen in the water would decrease, killing the fish. •The decomposers that would increase due to the dead fish would further decrease the amount of dissolved oxygen and so on... •A good supply of grass for rabbits to eat will attract more rabbits to the area, which puts pressure on the grass, so it dies back, so the decreased food supply leads to a decrease in population because of death or out migration, which takes away the pressure on the grass, which leads to more growth and a good supply of food which leads to a more rabbits attracted to the area which puts pressure on the grass and so on and on.... Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 154
  155. 155. End result? Equilibrium…Recap •A sort of equalization or end point •Steady state equilibrium  constant changes in all directions maintain a constant state (no net change) – common to most open systems in nature •Static equilibrium  No change at all – condition to which most natural systems can be compared but this does not exist •Long term changes in equilibrium point do occur (evolution, succession) •Equilibrium is stable (systems tend to return to the original equilibrium after disturbances) Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 155
  156. 156. Equilibrium generally maintained by negative feedback – inputs should equal outputs Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 156
  157. 157. Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 157
  158. 158. You should be able to create a system model. Observe the next two society examples and create a model including input, flows, stores and output Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 158
  159. 159. Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 159
  160. 160. High Throughput System Model Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 160
  161. 161. High-quality energy Matter System Throughputs Output (intro environment) Unsustainable high-waste economy Low-quality heat energy Waste matter and pollution Inputs (from environment) Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 161
  162. 162. Low Throughput System Model Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 162
  163. 163. High-quality energy Matter Pollution prevention by reducing matter throughput Sustainable low-waste economy Recycle and reuse Pollution control by cleaning up some pollutants Matter output Low-quality energy (heat) Waste matter and pollution Matter Feedback Energy Feedback Inputs (from environment) System Throughputs Outputs (from environment) Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 163
  164. 164. Easter Island What are the statues and where are the trees? A case Study in unsustainable growth practices. Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 164
  165. 165. Evaluating Models •Used when we can’t accurately measure the real event •Models are hard with the environment because there are so many interacting variables – but nothing else could do better •Allows us to predict likelihood of events •But… •They are approximations •They may yield very different results from each other or actual events •There are always unanticipated possibilities… Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 165
  166. 166. Anticipating Environmental Surprises •Remember any action we take has multiple unforseen consequences •Discontinuities = Abrupt shifts occur in previously stable systems once a threshold is crossed •Synergistic interactions = 2 factors combine to produce greater effects than they do alone •Unpredictable or chaotic events = hurricanes, earthquakes, climate shifts •http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/2008/FAY_graphics.shtml Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 166
  167. 167. What can we do? •Develop more complex models for systems •Increase research on environmental thresholds for better predictive power •Formulate possible scenarios and solutions ahead of time Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 167
  168. 168. Systems Measurement Data Analysis System Modeling System Simulation System Optimization Define objectives Identify and inventory variables Obtain baseline data on variables Make statistical analysis of relationships among variables Determine significant interactions Construct mathematical model describing interactions among variables Run the model on a computer, with values entered for different variables Evaluate best ways to achieve objectives © 2004 Brooks/Cole – Thomson Learning Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 168
  169. 169. Other systems examples Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 169
  170. 170. Uranium 100% Electricity from Nuclear Power Plant 14% Resistance heating (100%) 90% Waste heat Passive Solar Sunlight 100% Waste heat 14% Transmission of electricity (85%) 17% Waste heat Power plant (31%) 54% Waste heat Uranium processing and transportation (57%) 95% Waste heat Uranium mining (95%) Energy Production Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 170
  171. 171. sun EARTH Natural Capital Air; water, land, soil, biodiversity, minerals, raw materials, energy resources, and dilution, degradation, and recycling services Economic Systems Production Consumption Heat Depletion of nonrenewable resources Degradation and depletion of renewable resources used faster than replenished Pollution and waste from overloading nature’s waste disposal and recycling systems Recycling and reuse Economics & Earth Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 171
  172. 172. Energy Inputs System Outputs U.S. economy and lifestyles 84% 8% 4% 4% 9% 7% 41% 43% Nonrenewable fossil fuels Nonrenewable nuclear Hydropower, geothermal, wind, solar Biomass Useful energy Petrochemicals Unavoidable energy waste Unnecessary energy waste Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 172
  173. 173. AUGUST FORMATIVE & SUMMATIVE(11B4) •FORMATIVE WORKSHEET-20 MARKS •Due date:31.08.2012(this Friday) •SUMMATIVE-CHART -20 MARKS •Topic-3 types of systems &Two types of feedback mechanism with suitable examples •Due date:3.09.2012(next Monday) Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 173
  174. 174. Formative •Do formative in the EVM note book •Write page number and question for each activity •Leave proper space for all the answers •Use Google image and map if it is required Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 174
  175. 175. Self Assessment Test •Give two examples of negative feedback and two of positive feedback system. •Explain why most ecosystems such as rainforest are negative feedback system Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 175
  176. 176. •1.1.2 Apply the systems concept on a range of scales Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 176
  177. 177. •Ecosystems provide a good example of how systems can be applied to a range of scales Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 177
  178. 178. •Ecosystem can be any size from small scale to global. •The forest itself can also be seen as an ecosystem. •The same type of forest ecosystem may be found in many different countries with the same climatic conditions. •When an ecosystem is looked at on a global scale is called BIOME Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 178
  179. 179. SCALE ECOSYSTEM ECONOMIC SYSTEM SOCIAL SYSTEM Political System SMALL LOCAL ECOSYSTEM HOME ECONOMY COMMUNITY BAND BIOME MARKET ECONOMY NATIONHOOD TRIBE GLOBAL THE EARTH GLOBAL SOCIETY GLOBAL SOCIETY NATION STATE Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 179
  180. 180. HOME WORK •Research about the GAIA Hypothesis •Write an essay about this in one page Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 180
  181. 181. •1.1.9-Construct and analyse quantitative models involving flows and storages in a system. Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 181
  182. 182. What is a Model? •A model is a simplified description to show the structure and working of a system. •Models can be used to show the flows, storage and linkages within ecosystem. •While they are unable to show much of the complexity of the real system, they help us to understand ecosystem function better Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 182
  183. 183. Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 183
  184. 184. Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 184
  185. 185. •The width of arrows can vary in size; wider arrows are used to show larger flows. •The size of boxes can also vary larger boxes are used to show larger storages Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 185
  186. 186. Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 186
  187. 187. •Shows nutrient flows and storages •The biomass storage is larger in the woodland and the litter storage is larger in the forest •Large output flow in the farming system because of the HARVESTED CROPS & LIVESTOCK •Models that include quantitative descriptions of the system provide more meaningful information Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 187
  188. 188. •1.1.10 Evaluate the strengths and limitations of models. Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 188
  189. 189. EVALUATION OF MODELS STRENGTHS •Model allow scientist to predict and simplify complex systems •They allow inputs to be changed and outcomes examined without having to wait a long time. •Models allow results to be shown to other scientist and to the public and are easier to understand than detailed information about the whole system Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 189
  190. 190. Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 190
  191. 191. LIMITATION •Different models may show different using the same data. For example models that predict the effect of climate change may give very different results •Models are oversimplified they may become less accurate. for example there are many complex factors involved in atmospheric systems Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 191
  192. 192. •Because many assumptions have to made about these complex factors climate models may not accurate •Any model is only as good as the data that are used in them .In addition the data put into the model may not be reliable •Models rely on the expertise of the people making them and this can lead to inaccuracies Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 192
  193. 193. •Different people may interpret models in different ways and so come to different conclusion Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 193
  194. 194. Guru IB ESS SYSTEMS & MODELS 194

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