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K.Guru charan kumar
ESS Teacher
6 FACTS ABOUT ESS ESSAY QUESTIONS
• In the paper ESS 2 section B is the essay question .
• You need to write two structure...
ESS PAPER 1 & 2
ASSESSMENT
SCHEME
Assessment
components
How are the assessment
objectives addressed?
Paper 1 Case study
Paper 2 Section A: answer questions
...
Guru
IB ESS Essay Question
5
ESS PAPER 1 FORMAT
• Duration: 1 hour
• Weighting: 25%
• Marks: 35
• Students will be provided with a range of data in a v...
ESS PAPER 2 FORMAT
• Duration: 2 hours
• Weighting 50%
• Marks: 65
• Paper 2 consists of two sections, A and B.
• Section ...
ESS Assessment objectives
Guru IB ESS Essay Question 8
•There are four different
assessment objectives examined
in ESS
Guru IB ESS
Essay Question
1.Demonstrate knowledge and understanding
This objective relates to the factual
understanding of the course (e.g.
concepts...
2. Apply knowledge and understanding
In this objective, you are expected to be able to
apply the knowledge and understandi...
3. Evaluate, justify and synthesize material
covered by the syllabus
In this objective, you are expected to be able to mak...
4. Engage with investigations of environmental
and societal issues at the local and global level
This objective is fulfill...
Objectives 1 and 2 address simpler skills; objectives 3
and 4 relate to higher-order skills.
Assessment
objectives
Which c...
ESS ESSAY QUESTION TERMS
Guru IB ESS Essay Question 15
Objective 1
•Demonstrate an understanding of
information, terminology, concepts,
methodologies and skills with regard
to e...
1.Define:
• Give the precise meaning of a word,
phrase, concept or physical quantity.
• Don't give your own answer here.
G...
Define the term Biodiversity (2)
• Biodiversity is the variety of forms of life
on earth ; encompasses species, habitat
an...
Define the term point source pollution.
• Point source pollution is waste that
comes from a single, clearly-
identifiable ...
2.State:
Give a specific name, value or other brief
answer without explanation or calculation.
The answer is likely to be ...
State four factors that might increase the
likelihood of a species becoming extinct. (2)
• Specialised habitat
• Specialis...
State two natural factors that might lead
to a loss of biodiversity.(2)
Natural hazard events:
Volcanic eruptions;
Drought...
What you should cover
• The answer is likely to be short as
well as specific.
• You must only use information that
is give...
3.Label
Add labels to a diagram.
Guru
IB ESS Essay Question
24
Figure 2 below shows the structure of the Earth’s
atmosphere. Label the two lowest layers of the atmosphere
on the diagram...
What you should cover?
• Each label is likely to be just a word or
two – you are labelling rather than
annotating (see def...
4.List
• Give a sequence of brief answers
with no explanation.
Guru
IB ESS Essay Question
27
List four possible reasons why not all sunlight
emitted by the sun is used by plants for
photosynthesis. [2 marks]
• Does ...
What you should cover?
• A list is likely to consist of groups of one
or two words.
• No explanation is required and you m...
5.Measure
• Obtain a value for a quantity.
• Measure the decrease in the thickness of the
ice sheet on the south coast of ...
6.Label
• Add labels to a diagram.
Guru
IB ESS Essay Question
31
• Figure 2 below shows the structure
of the Earth’s atmosphere.
• Label the two lowest layers of the
atmosphere on the dia...
What you should cover
• Each label is likely to be just a word or
two – you are labelling rather than
annotating (see defi...
7.Measure
• Obtain a value for a quantity.
• Measure the decrease in the thickness
of the ice sheet on the south coast of
...
Objective 2
•Apply and use information,
terminology, concepts,
methodologies and skills with
regard to environmental issue...
8.Annotate
• Add brief notes to a diagram or
graph.
Guru
IB ESS Essay Question
36
Annotate the systems diagram with two inputs of water
and two outputs of water in the marshland ecosystem.
[2 marks]
Sampl...
• Award [1] for any two inputs:
• River Tigris;
• River Euphrates;
• Precipitation/rainfall/rain;
• Snow melt/river/run-of...
What you should cover
• The notes should aid in the
description or explanation of
the diagram or graph.
Guru
IB ESS Essay ...
9.Apply
• Use an idea, equation, principle, theory
or law in relation to a given problem or
issue.
Guru
IB ESS Essay Quest...
• Apply Simpson’s diversity index to work out the
diversity of species in the woodland ecosystem.
• What you should cover
...
10.Describe
• Give a detailed answer:
Guru
IB ESS Essay Question
42
Describe how the diversity of an
ecosystem (3)
• Might be expected to change throughout ecological
succession. Diversity a...
(a)Describe the major characteristics of a
eutrophic lake. (3)
• Normally shallow;
Low water visibility (generally murky
b...
What you should cover
• Be guided by the number of marks assigned to
the question.
• More marks require a more detailed
de...
11.Calculate
• Obtain a numerical answer
showing the relevant stages of
working.
Guru
IB ESS Essay Question
46
Figure 3 shows the species composition of two areas of forest. There are 100 trees
in each area of forest. The Simpson’s d...
What you should cover
• You should include all the steps involved in
calculating the answer inclusive of any
required form...
12.Distinguish
• Make clear the differences between
two or more concepts or items
Guru
IB ESS Essay Question
49
Distinguish between the terms ecological footprint and carrying
capacity of a human population. (2 marks)
• Carrying capac...
What you should cover
• In this type of question it is essential that
you emphasize the differences between the
two concep...
13.Estimate
• Obtain an approximate value.
Guru
IB ESS Essay Question
52
• Estimate the area covered by national parks
in Borneo.
• What you should cover
• Use the scale on the map and you ruler ...
14.Identify
• Provide an answer from a number of
possibilities
Guru
IB ESS Essay Question
54
The graph below shows the pH and concentrations of lead (Pb) in the water of a lake for
selected years between 1970 and 20...
What you should cover
• Only a very brief answer is needed
here. You just need to select the
correct item.
Guru
IB ESS Ess...
15.Outline
• Give a brief account in points.
• Eg: Outline two special difficulties
found in the preservation of open-
oce...
Outline three characteristics that an area should have
if it is to be designated a nature reserve or similar
protected are...
What you should cover
• Your answer should consist of brief
statements – it is unlikely that there will be
many marks avai...
16.Suggest
• Propose a solution, hypothesis or other possible
answer.
• Eg: Suggest two ways in which the food
production ...
What you should cover
• The term “suggest” is used when
there are several possible answers
and you may have to give reason...
17.Estimate
• Obtain an approximate value.
• Obtain an approximate value.
• Use the scale on the map and you ruler to
work...
18.Distinguish
• Make clear the differences between
two or more concepts or items
Guru
IB ESS Essay Question
63
Distinguish between the terms ecological footprint
and carrying capacity of a human population.
[2 marks]
• Carrying capac...
What you should cover
• In this type of question it is essential
that you emphasize the differences
between the two concep...
Objectives 3, 4 and 5
■ Synthesize, analyse and evaluate research
questions, hypotheses, methods and scientific
explanatio...
19.Analyse
• Break down in order to bring out the
essential elements or structure
Guru
IB ESS Essay Question
67
Analyse the population structure shown in
the population pyramid.
Guru
IB ESS Essay Question
68
What you should cover
• From within the population pyramid,
determine the basic age and gender
demographics of the populat...
20.Comment.
• Give a judgment based on a given
statement or result of a calculation.
Guru
IB ESS Essay Question
70
The following graph shows the increase in total area of two
types of protected habitats in a region of Africa between 1910...
(i) Comment two reasons why there might be a greater area of
grassland protected than rainforest. (3)
• There may be more ...
What you should cover
• You should reach a conclusion whether
you think population growth is
outstripping food resources
G...
21.Compare and contrast
• Give an account of similarities and
differences between two (or more) items or
situations, refer...
Compare and contrast the role and activities of
intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations in
preserving ecosyst...
What you should cover
• For both, you should describe and explain the
similarities (compare)
• describe and explain the di...
22.Construct
• Display information in a diagrammatic
or logical form.
Guru
IB ESS Essay Question
77
• Construct a diagram to show how a
positive feedback process involving
methane may affect the rate of global
warming. [2 ...
What you should cover
• This may involve boxes and arrows of
could be flow diagram. It is very
important that your constru...
23.Deduce
• Reach a conclusion from the
information given
Guru
IB ESS Essay Question
80
• Deduce, giving a reason, whether the figure
below could represent the transfer of energy
in a terrestrial ecosystems. [1...
What you should cover
• Your answer must state why you
reached your conclusion. Your
answer must state the conclusion
reac...
24.Derive
• Manipulate a mathematical
relationship to give a new equation
or relationship.
Guru
IB ESS Essay Question
83
• Using the crude birth rate and crude death
rate, derive the natural increase for the
selected populations.
Guru
IB ESS E...
• What you should cover
• Crude birth and death rates are given in
rates per thousand whereas natural
increase is given in...
• 25.Design
• Produce a plan, simulation or model.
• Design a conservation area for the
protection of a named species.
• D...
26.Determine
• Obtain the only possible answer.
• Eg: Determine which species group has
the highest proportion of endanger...
The table below shows the number of native
species in a European country which are
endangered or extinct.
Guru
IB ESS Essa...
(i)Determine which species group has the highest proportion
of endangered species, expressed as a percentage of the
number...
• (a)(i)Amphibians 16.7 %; (accept 16 to 17 %)
Both required for the mark.
• (ii)Freshwater fish 4.9 %; (accept 4 to 5 %)
...
What you should cover
• You should have a precise figure –
remember to include the units.
Guru
IB ESS Essay Question
91
27.Discuss
• Offer a considered and balanced review that
includes a range of arguments, factors or
hypotheses.
• Opinions ...
Discuss any possible sources of inaccuracy
in these data (3).
Lack of data from many areas;
Data predicted by models;
Need...
• The response should contain
evidenced commentary on a range
of inaccuracy from the data with a
valid evidence.
• You mus...
28.Evaluate
• Make an appraisal by weighing up the
strengths and limitations.
• Eg: Evaluate the significance of the data ...
Evaluate the use of Nuclear energy as an non
renewable source of energy (3)
• Advantage
• Cheap electricity
• No release o...
What you should cover
• The response should mention both the
advantages and disadvantages of the two
energy sources and ar...
29.Explain
• Give a detailed account including reasons or
causes.
• Eg; Give an explanation for your answer
• Explain the ...
(a)Explain why the rainfall in some parts of
the world is unnaturally acidic. (2)
Combustion of fossil fuel; adds sulfur d...
What you should cover
• Assume that you will need to briefly
describe before you explain, unless that
was required in the ...
30.Justify
• Give valid reasons or evidence to support an
answer or conclusion.
Guru
IB ESS Essay Question
101
• Justify why most ecosystems are
negative feedback systems.
• Most ecosystems contain inbuilt
checks and balances;
• With...
What you should cover
• In determining the approximate number of
pieces of evidence required within your
response look to ...
31.Predict
• Given an expected result
Guru
IB ESS Essay Question
104
• Predict the effect on nutrient
cycling of increased precipitation
over many years in a region that is
currently a steppe...
• What you should cover
• There are 3 marks available so you should
refer to stores in the biomass, litter and soil,
as we...
4 THINGS YOU SHOULD DO
BEFORE YOU START THE ESS
ESSAY QUESTION
Guru IB ESS Essay Question 107
1.Understand the question
2.Get the ideas out
3.Get the ideas into order
4.Get the ideas down
Guru
IB ESS Essay Question
1...
1.Understand the question
• Read the question and underline the key words;
ensure that you understand their meaning in the...
Planning
• In this question by underlining the
words like carrying capacity &
ecological footprint will make the
student t...
2.Get the ideas out
• Brainstorm your ideas in rough using some
free flow method such as a mind map.
• Sample:
• In the co...
Planning
• Now the students need to brainstorm the
answer how to present like in the following
ways:
• What is ecological ...
3.Get the ideas into order
• Identify the key ideas in your brainstorm; put
them into order of relevance. Plan the essay i...
Planning
• Now the students need to plan the whole
essay with technical terms and also which
points need to put first and ...
4.Get the ideas down
• Start writing the essay.
• Pay attention to paragraph structures
and avoid repetition of ideas.
• C...
RECAP
• 1.Understand the question
• 2.Get the ideas out
• 3.Get the ideas into order
• 4.Get the ideas down
Guru
IB ESS Es...
GURU IB ESS ESSAY QUESTION 117
Your essay should have four parts.
1.Introduction
2.Body
3.Sentence Structure.
4.Conclusion
Guru IB ESS Essay Question 118
1.Introduction
Guru IB ESS Essay
Question
119
Introduction
• Starting essay question with good
Introduction will impress the examiner.
• Ensure that you understand thei...
• The plan is very important and you must take
enough time to do a very comprehensive outline
of what you plan to write.
•...
• The answer required is very specific
and reading each question carefully is
of utmost importance.
• Give introduction to...
Sample Introduction-Good Answer
• Compare, and give reasons for, the differences in
net primary productivity between any t...
Bad Sample
• Introduction :
Net productivity is the gain in energy.
Guru
IB ESS Essay Question
124
2.Body
Guru IB ESS Essay
Question
125
• In order to write a successful essay, you
must organize your thoughts for the essay.
• The body of your essay argues, ex...
• By taking what’s already in your head and putting
it to paper, you are able to see connections and
links between ideas m...
• Try to give both sides to any argument (advantages
&Disadvantages/Positive & Negative), explaining why
yours is the righ...
• Well-balanced and insightful analysis in
your answer.
• Give evidence/arguments and that
include some critical reflectio...
Sample
Guru
IB ESS Essay Question
130
Sample Introduction-Good Answer
• Compare, and give reasons for, the differences
in net primary productivity between any t...
Good Body of the Paragraph:
• Comparing tropical rainforest with desert
Tropical rainforest has much higher
productivity t...
Bad Sample
Introduction :
Net productivity is the gain in energy.
Body of the Paragraph
• Tropical rainforest has much hig...
3.Sentence Structure
Guru IB ESS Essay
Question
134
• In order to write a successful essay, you must
organize your thoughts for the good sentence
structure.
• Poor sentence s...
• Appropriate use of ESS terminology in your
answer is important.
• A good vocabulary will allow you to express
exactly wh...
• Re-read the question and look at the
mark scheme. For 5 marks need to give
minimum 7 points and for 9 marks
need at leas...
4.Conclusion
Guru IB ESS Essay
Question
138
• If an essay is a question, have you expressed
your answer? .
• Give your opinion clearly and strongly and
express it as ...
• Starting with closing sentence e.g., In
Conclusion.
• Simply review your main points and
provide reinforcement of your t...
5.Finally
Guru IB ESS Essay
Question
141
• Be careful with the use of pronouns such as “it” or
“they”.
• Will the reader know what you are referring to?
• Avoid us...
• Also, make sure that your paragraph
order makes sense.
• If your essay is describing a process, such
as how to make a gr...
Guru
IB ESS Essay Question
144
BURGER CONCEPT
Guru
IB ESS Essay Question
145
Guru
IB ESS Essay Question
146
Sample Essay Question
Guru
IB ESS Essay Question
147
• (a) With reference to a named ecosystem you have
studied, explain how it has been or is being degraded by
“human activit...
• (a) With reference to a named
ecosystem you have studied,
explain how it has been or is being
degraded by “human activit...
• Named Ecosystem :Great Barrier Reef off the coast
of Queensland, Australia;
• Introduction: The Great Barrier Reef is th...
• Conclusion: About 25 percent of the global
reef systems have been destroyed by human
activities and it is still greatly ...
• (b) Outline the relative importance of
tropical rainforests in contributing to global
biodiversity, and explain why they...
Introduction :
• The tropical rainforest biome is an
ecosystem that covers about 7% of the
Earth's surface.
• They are fou...
Body :Tropical Rainforest:
• Tropical rainforests contain a large
proportion of the world’s species;
• High in species div...
1.THEY PROVIDE A HABITAT FOR PLANTS
AND ANIMALS:
• Tropical rainforests took between 60 and
100 million years to evolve an...
• 3.THEY HELP TO PREVENT SOIL
EROSION:
• Surprisingly, soil in the rainforest is very
poor in nutrients.
• This is because...
4.THEY PROVIDE A HOME FOR INDIGENOUS
PEOPLE:
• Many indigenous people have been living in
harmony with the rainforest for ...
5.RAINFOREST PHARMACY:
• It may surprise you to know that more than
25% of our modern medicines originate
from tropical fo...
• Conclusion:
• Preserving tropical rainforests involves
more than just deciding not to cut trees.
Social, political and e...
• (c)Define the term biome; Explain the
distribution, structure, and relative
productivity of tropical rainforests,
deserts...
INTRODUCTION:
• Biome:
• Biome can be defined as a collection of
ecosystems sharing similar climatic
conditions.
• Examples...
Tropical rainforest Biome:
Distribution
• Tropical rainforests are found in areas with high levels of rainfall and
sunligh...
Desert Biome :
• Distribution:
• Desert is found in areas of very low rainfall, strong sunlight, and
temperatures that var...
Fig 2-Above Graph shows the Productivity of different biomes where desert has
lowest one
Guru
IB ESS Essay Question
164
Tundra
Distribution
• Tundra is found in areas with low temperatures throughout most of
the year. Other conditions in tund...
Conclusion
• The lower and less dense canopy than found in
rainforest means that more light reaches the
forest floor, leadi...
Guru
IB ESS Essay Question
167
SOURCE -OCC
20. Recommendations from the
Examiner for Writing the essay
Questions
Guru
IB ESS Essay Question
168
1.Ensure an actual study of an existing ecosystem.
Local level case studies should be used wherever
possible to reinforce ...
4.Candidates should be instructed to leave at least
a line between part questions for clarity.
5.It may be helpful to enco...
7. Candidates should be taught to read the
questions carefully before answering, and to
frame their answers with an eye to...
10.Candidates should be encouraged to write
within the space provided within the exam paper.
11.Encourage candidates to us...
13.Encourage candidates to make annotated
diagrams large and clear if they are using
them.
14. Encourage candidates to giv...
15.Encourage candidates to break up their
answers into the relevant sub sections to make
it easier for the examiner to ide...
17.Practice in developing balanced arguments,
and writing valid conclusions derived from the
argument …as opposed to isola...
19.Instruct candidates to break up their
answers into the relevant sub sections to make
it easier for the examiner to iden...
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 K.GuruCharan kumar, ESS Teacher, India
 MYP Teacher
 IGCSE EVM Teacher
 Graphic Designer
 Photographer
 Qui...
■ My Website : http://gurucharankumar.weebly.com/
■ Wikispace: http://gurumantra.wikispaces.com/
■ YouTube Channel :
https...
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IB ESS Essay Question
179
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How to Write ESS Essay Questions in Paper 2-First Exam 2017

I have uploaded a presentation on Slide Share. The presentation is on ' How to Write essay questions on the IB ESS Paper 2'.

This PPT emphasises the various criterion for the essay questions, along with easy to follow steps and examples.

You can use this PPT for your students who are interested in getting a good grade in ESS especially those who are struggling to get marks when answering essay questions.

I must add the fact that this presentation will be useful to understand the key concepts of the writing good essay questions.

I have given some of my personal points in the presentation based on my ESS Paper 2 examiner experiences and it’s up to you to make use of these points.

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How to Write ESS Essay Questions in Paper 2-First Exam 2017

  1. 1. K.Guru charan kumar ESS Teacher
  2. 2. 6 FACTS ABOUT ESS ESSAY QUESTIONS • In the paper ESS 2 section B is the essay question . • You need to write two structured essay questions from the choice of four in the exam • Each essay question has 20 marks and the total marks for the essay questions is 40. • A single essay question has 3 parts(A,B & C) • The question A has 5 marks has 6 marks (subject to change) and C has 9 marks. • Part C Essay question will be marked based on the mark band. 2
  3. 3. ESS PAPER 1 & 2 ASSESSMENT SCHEME
  4. 4. Assessment components How are the assessment objectives addressed? Paper 1 Case study Paper 2 Section A: answer questions Section B: two essays from a choice of four Internal assessment Individual investigation assessed using mark bands ESS Assessment objectives Guru IB ESS Essay Question 4
  5. 5. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 5
  6. 6. ESS PAPER 1 FORMAT • Duration: 1 hour • Weighting: 25% • Marks: 35 • Students will be provided with a range of data in a variety of forms relating to a specific, previously unseen case study. • Questions will be based on the analysis and evaluation of the data in the case study. • All of the questions are compulsory. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 6
  7. 7. ESS PAPER 2 FORMAT • Duration: 2 hours • Weighting 50% • Marks: 65 • Paper 2 consists of two sections, A and B. • Section A (25 marks) is made up of short-answer and data-based questions. • Section B (40 marks) requires students to answer two structured essay questions from a choice of four. • Each question is worth 20 marks. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 7
  8. 8. ESS Assessment objectives Guru IB ESS Essay Question 8
  9. 9. •There are four different assessment objectives examined in ESS Guru IB ESS Essay Question
  10. 10. 1.Demonstrate knowledge and understanding This objective relates to the factual understanding of the course (e.g. concepts, methodologies and techniques, values and attitudes). Guru IB ESS Essay Question 10
  11. 11. 2. Apply knowledge and understanding In this objective, you are expected to be able to apply the knowledge and understanding gained in Objective 1 in the analysis of different aspects of the course (e.g. explanations, concepts and theories; data and models; case studies in unfamiliar contexts; arguments and value systems). Guru IB ESS Essay Question 11
  12. 12. 3. Evaluate, justify and synthesize material covered by the syllabus In this objective, you are expected to be able to make an appraisal by weighing up the strengths and limitations of specific aspects of the syllabus (i.e. to evaluate). You are also expected to be able to provide evidence to support or defend a choice, decision, strategy or course of action (i.e. to justify), and to synthesize ideas (i.e. make links and draw conclusions). You may be asked to fulfil this objective with regard to: explanations, theories and models; arguments and proposed solutions; methods of fieldwork and investigation; cultural viewpoints and value systems. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 12
  13. 13. 4. Engage with investigations of environmental and societal issues at the local and global level This objective is fulfilled by selecting and applying the appropriate research and practical skills necessary to carry out investigations (i.e. carrying out Internal Investigation work); evaluating the political, economic and social contexts of issues; suggesting collaborative and innovative solutions that demonstrate awareness and respect for the cultural differences and value systems of others. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 13
  14. 14. Objectives 1 and 2 address simpler skills; objectives 3 and 4 relate to higher-order skills. Assessment objectives Which components test these objectives? How is the assessment objective tested? 1–3 Paper 1 (1 hour, 35 marks ) 25% of the total marks Case study 1–3 Paper 2 (2 hours, 65 marks) 50% of the total marks Section A: short-answer and data- response questions Section B: two structured essay questions (from a choice of four) 1–4 Internal assessment (10 hours, 30 marks) 25% of the total marks Individual investigation assessed using mark- bands The following table shows how assessment objectives are applied in practice. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 14
  15. 15. ESS ESSAY QUESTION TERMS Guru IB ESS Essay Question 15
  16. 16. Objective 1 •Demonstrate an understanding of information, terminology, concepts, methodologies and skills with regard to environment issues. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 16
  17. 17. 1.Define: • Give the precise meaning of a word, phrase, concept or physical quantity. • Don't give your own answer here. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 17
  18. 18. Define the term Biodiversity (2) • Biodiversity is the variety of forms of life on earth ; encompasses species, habitat and genetic diversity. • Generic term for the abundance of and number of species on earth. Sample Question Guru IB ESS Essay Question 18
  19. 19. Define the term point source pollution. • Point source pollution is waste that comes from a single, clearly- identifiable site. Sample Question Guru IB ESS Essay Question 19
  20. 20. 2.State: Give a specific name, value or other brief answer without explanation or calculation. The answer is likely to be short as well as specific. You must only use information that is given to you in the resource booklet. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 20
  21. 21. State four factors that might increase the likelihood of a species becoming extinct. (2) • Specialised habitat • Specialised food sources • Low reproduction rate • Large number of predators Sample Question Guru IB ESS Essay Question 21
  22. 22. State two natural factors that might lead to a loss of biodiversity.(2) Natural hazard events: Volcanic eruptions; Droughts; Floods; Global catastrophic events: Glaciation; Meteor impact; Change in climate; Sample Question Guru IB ESS Essay Question 22
  23. 23. What you should cover • The answer is likely to be short as well as specific. • You must only use information that is given to you in the resource booklet. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 23
  24. 24. 3.Label Add labels to a diagram. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 24
  25. 25. Figure 2 below shows the structure of the Earth’s atmosphere. Label the two lowest layers of the atmosphere on the diagram [1]. • I: stratosphere; • II: troposphere; • Both needed in correct order for Sample Question Guru IB ESS Essay Question 25
  26. 26. What you should cover? • Each label is likely to be just a word or two – you are labelling rather than annotating (see definition for annotating within these command terms). Guru IB ESS Essay Question 26
  27. 27. 4.List • Give a sequence of brief answers with no explanation. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 27
  28. 28. List four possible reasons why not all sunlight emitted by the sun is used by plants for photosynthesis. [2 marks] • Does not reach the Earth/emitted into space away from the Earth / reflected by • Atmosphere / reflected by clouds / reflected by Earth’s surface / reflected by • Water/sea / reflected by leaf surfaces / transmitted by leaves / not red or blue • Absorbed by water so does not reach aquatic plants Sample Question Guru IB ESS Essay Question 28
  29. 29. What you should cover? • A list is likely to consist of groups of one or two words. • No explanation is required and you may waste valuable time giving an explanation for which you will not receive any credit or marks. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 29
  30. 30. 5.Measure • Obtain a value for a quantity. • Measure the decrease in the thickness of the ice sheet on the south coast of Greenland between 1950 and 2010. • What you should cover • Use the scale to measure the extent of the decline. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 30
  31. 31. 6.Label • Add labels to a diagram. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 31
  32. 32. • Figure 2 below shows the structure of the Earth’s atmosphere. • Label the two lowest layers of the atmosphere on the diagram. [1 mark] Guru IB ESS Essay Question 32
  33. 33. What you should cover • Each label is likely to be just a word or two – you are labelling rather than annotating (see definition for annotating within these command terms). Guru IB ESS Essay Question 33
  34. 34. 7.Measure • Obtain a value for a quantity. • Measure the decrease in the thickness of the ice sheet on the south coast of Greenland between 1950 and 2010. • Use the scale to measure the extent of the decline. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 34
  35. 35. Objective 2 •Apply and use information, terminology, concepts, methodologies and skills with regard to environmental issues. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 35
  36. 36. 8.Annotate • Add brief notes to a diagram or graph. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 36
  37. 37. Annotate the systems diagram with two inputs of water and two outputs of water in the marshland ecosystem. [2 marks] Sample Question Guru IB ESS Essay Question 37
  38. 38. • Award [1] for any two inputs: • River Tigris; • River Euphrates; • Precipitation/rainfall/rain; • Snow melt/river/run-off; • Groundwater/aquifers; • Award [1] for any two outputs: • Evaporation/evapotranspiration/transpiration; • Run-off/river flow/rivers; • Abstraction/extraction/drains/drainage canals/irrigation/people taking it for crops; • Infiltration; Guru IB ESS Essay Question 38
  39. 39. What you should cover • The notes should aid in the description or explanation of the diagram or graph. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 39
  40. 40. 9.Apply • Use an idea, equation, principle, theory or law in relation to a given problem or issue. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 40
  41. 41. • Apply Simpson’s diversity index to work out the diversity of species in the woodland ecosystem. • What you should cover • Use the application indicated in the questions to the specific problem or issue indicated. Your answer should be focused. The formula for Simpson’s diversity index will be supplied and does not need to be memorized Guru IB ESS Essay Question 41
  42. 42. 10.Describe • Give a detailed answer: Guru IB ESS Essay Question 42
  43. 43. Describe how the diversity of an ecosystem (3) • Might be expected to change throughout ecological succession. Diversity at initial stage is low; • Species diversity increases with colonisation through pioneer stages and later stages of succession; • As plants grow, habitat diversity increases; As habitat diversity increases, species diversity increases; Sample Question Guru IB ESS Essay Question 43
  44. 44. (a)Describe the major characteristics of a eutrophic lake. (3) • Normally shallow; Low water visibility (generally murky brown or green);high net primary productivity; • High levels of nutrients; dense vegetation on lakes shores/by lake shores; Guru IB ESS Essay Question 44
  45. 45. What you should cover • Be guided by the number of marks assigned to the question. • More marks require a more detailed description; in this example, 2 marks were available for the description of the Gaia concept and 2 marks for linking the Gaia concept to pollution. • There is no need to give reasons unless this is also indicated in the question. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 45
  46. 46. 11.Calculate • Obtain a numerical answer showing the relevant stages of working. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 46
  47. 47. Figure 3 shows the species composition of two areas of forest. There are 100 trees in each area of forest. The Simpson’s diversity index for Ecosystem A is 1.38. Calculate simpson’s diversity index for Ecosystem B. [2 marks] 100!99 / 4900 ; 2.02 ; Sample Question Guru IB ESS Essay Question 47
  48. 48. What you should cover • You should include all the steps involved in calculating the answer inclusive of any required formula and substitution of values. • The final response should be made clear and have appropriate units. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 48
  49. 49. 12.Distinguish • Make clear the differences between two or more concepts or items Guru IB ESS Essay Question 49
  50. 50. Distinguish between the terms ecological footprint and carrying capacity of a human population. (2 marks) • Carrying capacity is the maximum population/number of humans/“load” that can • Be sustainably supported by a given environment/area; • Ecological footprint is the area (of land and water) required to support a (defined) • Human population (at a given standard of living) Sample Question Guru IB ESS Essay Question 50
  51. 51. What you should cover • In this type of question it is essential that you emphasize the differences between the two concepts. • It is not acceptable to just define the two terms or give two separate descriptions. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 51
  52. 52. 13.Estimate • Obtain an approximate value. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 52
  53. 53. • Estimate the area covered by national parks in Borneo. • What you should cover • Use the scale on the map and you ruler to work out an approximate value. You do not need to spend a lot of time measuring round curves. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 53
  54. 54. 14.Identify • Provide an answer from a number of possibilities Guru IB ESS Essay Question 54
  55. 55. The graph below shows the pH and concentrations of lead (Pb) in the water of a lake for selected years between 1970 and 2000. (a) Identify the year in which (i) the concentration of lead in the water was highest. .......................................... (ii) the water was most acidic. ................................................................................ (1) Both must be correct for [1]. (i) 1970 (ii) 1970 The graph below shows the pH and concentrations of lead (Pb) in the water of a lake for selected years between 1970 and 2000.(1) Sample Question Guru IB ESS Essay Question 55
  56. 56. What you should cover • Only a very brief answer is needed here. You just need to select the correct item. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 56
  57. 57. 15.Outline • Give a brief account in points. • Eg: Outline two special difficulties found in the preservation of open- ocean species Guru IB ESS Essay Question 57
  58. 58. Outline three characteristics that an area should have if it is to be designated a nature reserve or similar protected area. (3) • Large enough area for a viable population of top carnivores in one block of land/ • Water that is not spread out but compact in shape minimise edge: • Legislation/purchase of land to protect it • Agreement of humans living in or around the area minimise harmful edge effects Sample Question Guru IB ESS Essay Question 58
  59. 59. What you should cover • Your answer should consist of brief statements – it is unlikely that there will be many marks available. • In these questions relationship means you need to identify the link between the two. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 59
  60. 60. 16.Suggest • Propose a solution, hypothesis or other possible answer. • Eg: Suggest two ways in which the food production of the two populations might differ. • Suggest and evaluate a strategy that might reduce the impact of pesticides in the environment. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 60
  61. 61. What you should cover • The term “suggest” is used when there are several possible answers and you may have to give reasons or a judgement. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 61
  62. 62. 17.Estimate • Obtain an approximate value. • Obtain an approximate value. • Use the scale on the map and you ruler to work out an approximate value. You do not need to spend a lot of time measuring round curves. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 62
  63. 63. 18.Distinguish • Make clear the differences between two or more concepts or items Guru IB ESS Essay Question 63
  64. 64. Distinguish between the terms ecological footprint and carrying capacity of a human population. [2 marks] • Carrying capacity is the maximum population/number of humans/“load” that can be sustainably supported by a given environment/area; • Ecological footprint is the area (of land and water) required to support a (defined) human population (at a given standard of living); carrying capacity and ecological footprint are the inverse of each other Sample Question Guru IB ESS Essay Question 64
  65. 65. What you should cover • In this type of question it is essential that you emphasize the differences between the two concepts. It is not acceptable to just define the two terms or give two separate descriptions. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 65
  66. 66. Objectives 3, 4 and 5 ■ Synthesize, analyse and evaluate research questions, hypotheses, methods and scientific explanations with regard to environmental issues ■ Using a holistic approach, make reasoned and balanced judgements using appropriate economic, historical, cultural, sociopolitical and scientific sources. ■ Articulate and justify a personal viewpoint on environmental issues with reasoned argument while appreciating alternative viewpoints, including the perceptions of different cultures. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 66
  67. 67. 19.Analyse • Break down in order to bring out the essential elements or structure Guru IB ESS Essay Question 67
  68. 68. Analyse the population structure shown in the population pyramid. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 68
  69. 69. What you should cover • From within the population pyramid, determine the basic age and gender demographics of the population and highlight them within your response Guru IB ESS Essay Question 69
  70. 70. 20.Comment. • Give a judgment based on a given statement or result of a calculation. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 70
  71. 71. The following graph shows the increase in total area of two types of protected habitats in a region of Africa between 1910 and 1990. (3) Sample Question Guru IB ESS Essay Question 71
  72. 72. (i) Comment two reasons why there might be a greater area of grassland protected than rainforest. (3) • There may be more grassland habitat in total in the region; commercial value of rainforests may be a disincentive for protecting them; • Grasslands may be easier to police than forests (e.g. against poachers); • Greater areas of forest may have already been destroyed before protection programmes began; Guru IB ESS Essay Question 72
  73. 73. What you should cover • You should reach a conclusion whether you think population growth is outstripping food resources Guru IB ESS Essay Question 73
  74. 74. 21.Compare and contrast • Give an account of similarities and differences between two (or more) items or situations, referring to both (all) of them throughout. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 74
  75. 75. Compare and contrast the role and activities of intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations in preserving ecosystems and biodiversity. [4 marks] Guru IB ESS Essay Question 75
  76. 76. What you should cover • For both, you should describe and explain the similarities (compare) • describe and explain the differences (contrast) • conclude by reviewing the relative total impact of both in preserving ecosystems and biodiversity. • Creating a table for your “compare and contrast” response may ensure that you answer all components of the question Guru IB ESS Essay Question 76
  77. 77. 22.Construct • Display information in a diagrammatic or logical form. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 77
  78. 78. • Construct a diagram to show how a positive feedback process involving methane may affect the rate of global warming. [2 marks] Guru IB ESS Essay Question 78
  79. 79. What you should cover • This may involve boxes and arrows of could be flow diagram. It is very important that your constructions is clear. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 79
  80. 80. 23.Deduce • Reach a conclusion from the information given Guru IB ESS Essay Question 80
  81. 81. • Deduce, giving a reason, whether the figure below could represent the transfer of energy in a terrestrial ecosystems. [1 mark] Sample Question Guru IB ESS Essay Question 81
  82. 82. What you should cover • Your answer must state why you reached your conclusion. Your answer must state the conclusion reached. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 82
  83. 83. 24.Derive • Manipulate a mathematical relationship to give a new equation or relationship. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 83
  84. 84. • Using the crude birth rate and crude death rate, derive the natural increase for the selected populations. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 84
  85. 85. • What you should cover • Crude birth and death rates are given in rates per thousand whereas natural increase is given in rates per hundred (per cent) so a conversion / manipulation of the data must be conducted to derive the answer. Watch the units that are used – be careful to read them properly. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 85
  86. 86. • 25.Design • Produce a plan, simulation or model. • Design a conservation area for the protection of a named species. • Design a reserve using appropriate criteria such as size, shape, edge effects, corridors and proximity to other reserves Guru IB ESS Essay Question 86
  87. 87. 26.Determine • Obtain the only possible answer. • Eg: Determine which species group has the highest proportion of endangered species, expressed as a percentage of the number of native species. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 87
  88. 88. The table below shows the number of native species in a European country which are endangered or extinct. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 88
  89. 89. (i)Determine which species group has the highest proportion of endangered species, expressed as a percentage of the number of native species. (1) Species group: ............................................................. %:...................................................................................... (ii) Determine which species group has the highest proportion of extinct species, expressed as a percentage of the number of native species (1) Species group: ................................................................................................... %:............................................................................................ Guru IB ESS Essay Question 89
  90. 90. • (a)(i)Amphibians 16.7 %; (accept 16 to 17 %) Both required for the mark. • (ii)Freshwater fish 4.9 %; (accept 4 to 5 %) Guru IB ESS Essay Question 90
  91. 91. What you should cover • You should have a precise figure – remember to include the units. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 91
  92. 92. 27.Discuss • Offer a considered and balanced review that includes a range of arguments, factors or hypotheses. • Opinions or conclusions should be presented clearly and supported by appropriate evidence. • Eg: Discuss the significance of two differences, other than the number of people under the age of 15, between the two age/sex pyramids above. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 92
  93. 93. Discuss any possible sources of inaccuracy in these data (3). Lack of data from many areas; Data predicted by models; Need for long time to observe changes/need to observe changes over prolonged period; Birds are difficult to monitor because they are very mobile; Difficulties in taxonomy/identification Sample Question Guru IB ESS Essay Question 93
  94. 94. • The response should contain evidenced commentary on a range of inaccuracy from the data with a valid evidence. • You must make sure that you consider both/all sides of the issues. What you should cover Guru IB ESS Essay Question 94
  95. 95. 28.Evaluate • Make an appraisal by weighing up the strengths and limitations. • Eg: Evaluate the significance of the data in this table for biodiversity. • Describe and evaluate a method for the estimation of the changes in plant biomass in an ecosystem over a period of a year Guru IB ESS Essay Question 95
  96. 96. Evaluate the use of Nuclear energy as an non renewable source of energy (3) • Advantage • Cheap electricity • No release of carbon dioxide • Disadvantage • Possibility of radioactivity release [1]; expensive to build nuclear power stations [1]; danger of acquisition of nuclear material by terrorist groups [1]; problems of waste disposal [1]; expense of eventual decommissioning [1] Sample Question Guru IB ESS Essay Question 96
  97. 97. What you should cover • The response should mention both the advantages and disadvantages of the two energy sources and arrive at a conclusion that address both viewpoints but favours one more than the other. • You must name the sources being discussed. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 97
  98. 98. 29.Explain • Give a detailed account including reasons or causes. • Eg; Give an explanation for your answer • Explain the term biodiversity. • Is the spraying of pesticides on a field an example of point or non-point source pollution? Explain your answer. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 98
  99. 99. (a)Explain why the rainfall in some parts of the world is unnaturally acidic. (2) Combustion of fossil fuel; adds sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide to atmosphere; these become dilute sulfuric and nitric acid on reaction with water in atmosphere; pollutants may be carried by prevailing wind some distance; Example: pollutants from northern England, Scotland and Germany cause acid rain in Scandinavia; Sample Question Guru IB ESS Essay Question 99
  100. 100. What you should cover • Assume that you will need to briefly describe before you explain, unless that was required in the preceding part of the question. • Your response should have an appropriate level of detail that would go beyond more than just a few words. Clearly indicate the example within your response. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 100
  101. 101. 30.Justify • Give valid reasons or evidence to support an answer or conclusion. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 101
  102. 102. • Justify why most ecosystems are negative feedback systems. • Most ecosystems contain inbuilt checks and balances; • Without internal balance an ecosystem would spiral out of control; • Without negative feedback no ecosystem could be self-sustaining; Guru IB ESS Essay Question 102
  103. 103. What you should cover • In determining the approximate number of pieces of evidence required within your response look to the point value assigned to the question. • Be specific. • You will need to describe link between negative feedback and ecosystem. • You must give a balanced discussion – Guru IB ESS Essay Question 103
  104. 104. 31.Predict • Given an expected result Guru IB ESS Essay Question 104
  105. 105. • Predict the effect on nutrient cycling of increased precipitation over many years in a region that is currently a steppe. [3 marks] Guru IB ESS Essay Question 105
  106. 106. • What you should cover • There are 3 marks available so you should refer to stores in the biomass, litter and soil, as well as the flows between them and the inputs and outputs to the system. • When you are asked to make a prediction, you will be provided with information to assist you – be sure to use it. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 106
  107. 107. 4 THINGS YOU SHOULD DO BEFORE YOU START THE ESS ESSAY QUESTION Guru IB ESS Essay Question 107
  108. 108. 1.Understand the question 2.Get the ideas out 3.Get the ideas into order 4.Get the ideas down Guru IB ESS Essay Question 108
  109. 109. 1.Understand the question • Read the question and underline the key words; ensure that you understand their meaning in the context of the question. SAMPLE: • In the context of human population growth, define the terms carrying capacity and ecological footprint. Suggest how the ecological footprints might differ between an economically more developed country and an economically less developed country. (9) Guru IB ESS Essay Question 109
  110. 110. Planning • In this question by underlining the words like carrying capacity & ecological footprint will make the student to understand the question better and to focus the question to give the specific answers. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 110
  111. 111. 2.Get the ideas out • Brainstorm your ideas in rough using some free flow method such as a mind map. • Sample: • In the context of human population growth, define the terms carrying capacity and ecological footprint. Suggest how the ecological footprints might differ between an economically more developed country and an economically less developed country. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 111
  112. 112. Planning • Now the students need to brainstorm the answer how to present like in the following ways: • What is ecological foot print?—2 points • What is carting capacity----2 points • How EF differ in LEDC & MEDC----11 points • Like this student need to map the particular answer before to start Guru IB ESS Essay Question 112
  113. 113. 3.Get the ideas into order • Identify the key ideas in your brainstorm; put them into order of relevance. Plan the essay in bullet point or essay format • Re-read the question and look at the mark scheme. Are you planning the right essay? Guru IB ESS Essay Question 113
  114. 114. Planning • Now the students need to plan the whole essay with technical terms and also which points need to put first and second. • By reading the marks students should know the number of points or para they are going to present. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 114
  115. 115. 4.Get the ideas down • Start writing the essay. • Pay attention to paragraph structures and avoid repetition of ideas. • Check with your plan as you write. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 115
  116. 116. RECAP • 1.Understand the question • 2.Get the ideas out • 3.Get the ideas into order • 4.Get the ideas down Guru IB ESS Essay Question 116
  117. 117. GURU IB ESS ESSAY QUESTION 117
  118. 118. Your essay should have four parts. 1.Introduction 2.Body 3.Sentence Structure. 4.Conclusion Guru IB ESS Essay Question 118
  119. 119. 1.Introduction Guru IB ESS Essay Question 119
  120. 120. Introduction • Starting essay question with good Introduction will impress the examiner. • Ensure that you understand their meaning in the context of the essay question. • Underline the key parts of the question in the Introduction. • An essay plan can be quickly scribbled in a margin, or the first page of an exam book that isn’t marked. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 120
  121. 121. • The plan is very important and you must take enough time to do a very comprehensive outline of what you plan to write. • In the Introduction you can define some terms or concepts by giving the definition of particular term. • In the introduction define the essay and give introduction of each essay question. • The introduction should attract the reader’s attention and show the focus of your essay.Guru IB ESS Essay Question 121
  122. 122. • The answer required is very specific and reading each question carefully is of utmost importance. • Give introduction to all the 3 parts of the essay questions especially the question which has 9 marks. • Selection of your essay question is important in the paper 2Guru IB ESS Essay Question 122
  123. 123. Sample Introduction-Good Answer • Compare, and give reasons for, the differences in net primary productivity between any two biomes. Introduction : Net productivity is the gain in energy or biomass per unit area per unit time remaining after the respiratory losses Guru IB ESS Essay Question 123
  124. 124. Bad Sample • Introduction : Net productivity is the gain in energy. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 124
  125. 125. 2.Body Guru IB ESS Essay Question 125
  126. 126. • In order to write a successful essay, you must organize your thoughts for the essay. • The body of your essay argues, explains or describes your topic. • Prepare an outline or diagram of your ideas before you start. • Use either an outline or a diagram to jot down your ideas and organize them Guru IB ESS Essay Question 126
  127. 127. • By taking what’s already in your head and putting it to paper, you are able to see connections and links between ideas more clearly. • In the body of the essay deal with structured argument to support any opinions you want to give. • Effectively linked to the context of the question. Link your answer to the question. • Always use well-explained examples in your answers Guru IB ESS Essay Question 127
  128. 128. • Try to give both sides to any argument (advantages &Disadvantages/Positive & Negative), explaining why yours is the right opinion. • Good essays will give the opposing point of view and then explain why it is wrong, replacing it with the opinion of the essay writer. • Give detailed evidence and examples of facts, figures and places where possible. Avoid repetition of ideas and definitions. • Gather facts and put them under headings they belong. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 128
  129. 129. • Well-balanced and insightful analysis in your answer. • Give evidence/arguments and that include some critical reflection in your answer. • In the body PLAN your timing. For one essay the maximum you can give 35 minutes • Avoid weak expressions (Maybe…, It could be true… etc.) and indecision even if you are not sure. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 129
  130. 130. Sample Guru IB ESS Essay Question 130
  131. 131. Sample Introduction-Good Answer • Compare, and give reasons for, the differences in net primary productivity between any two biomes. Introduction : Net productivity is the gain in energy or biomass per unit area per unit time remaining after the respiratory losses Guru IB ESS Essay Question 131
  132. 132. Good Body of the Paragraph: • Comparing tropical rainforest with desert Tropical rainforest has much higher productivity than desert; • Year-round growing season in tropical rainforest; • Desert – low precipitation, Tropical rainforest – high precipitation; • Periodicity/unevenness of rainfall; Resulting in lower photosynthesis in desert; Guru IB ESS Essay Question 132
  133. 133. Bad Sample Introduction : Net productivity is the gain in energy. Body of the Paragraph • Tropical rainforest has much higher than desert; • Year-round growing season • Low precipitation & high precipitation; • Resulting in lower photosynthesis in desert Guru IB ESS Essay Question 133
  134. 134. 3.Sentence Structure Guru IB ESS Essay Question 134
  135. 135. • In order to write a successful essay, you must organize your thoughts for the good sentence structure. • Poor sentence structure gives a bad impression to the examiner, at least subconsciously; he or she will then mark you down. • Make sure that you start sentences with a capital letter and your sentence is a completed with a full stop. Avoid using “and” more than once in any sentence. • Express your idea in the form of subheadingGuru IB ESS Essay Question 135
  136. 136. • Appropriate use of ESS terminology in your answer is important. • A good vocabulary will allow you to express exactly what you mean, as clearly and concisely as possible. • Breaking down an essay into different sections is what allows it to flow in a logical manner and that will be easy for the IB examiner to read. • Read the marking criteria 3. Identify the event or experience on which you will reflect.Guru IB ESS Essay Question 136
  137. 137. • Re-read the question and look at the mark scheme. For 5 marks need to give minimum 7 points and for 9 marks need at least 16 points Guru IB ESS Essay Question 137
  138. 138. 4.Conclusion Guru IB ESS Essay Question 138
  139. 139. • If an essay is a question, have you expressed your answer? . • Give your opinion clearly and strongly and express it as your opinion. • You should introduce no new materials or ideas in this stage. • The conclusion brings closure of the topic and sums up your overall ideas while providing a final perspective on your topic. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 139
  140. 140. • Starting with closing sentence e.g., In Conclusion. • Simply review your main points and provide reinforcement of your thesis. • Your conclusion should consist of three to five strong sentences for 9 marks question and two to three sentence for other essay questions. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 140
  141. 141. 5.Finally Guru IB ESS Essay Question 141
  142. 142. • Be careful with the use of pronouns such as “it” or “they”. • Will the reader know what you are referring to? • Avoid using words when you are unsure of the meaning. • Check the order of your paragraphs. Your strongest points should be the first and last paragraphs within the body, with the others falling in the middle. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 142
  143. 143. • Also, make sure that your paragraph order makes sense. • If your essay is describing a process, such as how to make a great chocolate cake, make sure that your paragraphs fall in the correct order. • Allow 10 minutes in the last to check your answer and paragraph structure. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 143
  144. 144. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 144
  145. 145. BURGER CONCEPT Guru IB ESS Essay Question 145
  146. 146. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 146
  147. 147. Sample Essay Question Guru IB ESS Essay Question 147
  148. 148. • (a) With reference to a named ecosystem you have studied, explain how it has been or is being degraded by “human activities”. (5) • • (b) Outline the relative importance of tropical rainforests in contributing to global biodiversity, and explain why they have developed such high rates of biodiversity (6) • • (c) Define the term biome; Explain the distribution, structure, and relative productivity of tropical rainforests, deserts, tundra. (9) (Total 20 marks) Guru IB ESS Essay Question 148
  149. 149. • (a) With reference to a named ecosystem you have studied, explain how it has been or is being degraded by “human activities”. (5) Guru IB ESS Essay Question 149
  150. 150. • Named Ecosystem :Great Barrier Reef off the coast of Queensland, Australia; • Introduction: The Great Barrier Reef is the world's largest coral reef system composed of over 2,900 individual reefs and 900 islands stretching for over 2,300 kilometres. • Human activities such as tourism, coral very fragile and easily damaged by divers’ fins or touching coral; or breaking bits off for souvenirs; • Overfishing can disrupt the balance of species in the food chain; • Inadvertent damage from anchors and pollution from boats; • Runoff of fertilizers from sugar plantations on the coast; • Sewage and pollution from coastal settlements (such as Cairns)can lead to excessive nutrients and algal blooms;Guru IB ESS Essay Question 150
  151. 151. • Conclusion: About 25 percent of the global reef systems have been destroyed by human activities and it is still greatly impacted by the human environment Guru IB ESS Essay Question 151
  152. 152. • (b) Outline the relative importance of tropical rainforests in contributing to global biodiversity, and explain why they have developed such high rates of biodiversity (6) Guru IB ESS Essay Question 152
  153. 153. Introduction : • The tropical rainforest biome is an ecosystem that covers about 7% of the Earth's surface. • They are found all over the world but the majority of the tropical rainforest lies in South America in Brazil. The weather in the tropical rainforest is rainy yet pleasant all year round, day or night. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 153
  154. 154. Body :Tropical Rainforest: • Tropical rainforests contain a large proportion of the world’s species; • High in species diversity because they are ancient ecosystems – diversity has had a chance to build up over millions of years; • Ideal growing conditions – hot and wet all year round; so wide diversity of plants which support rest of the food chain; Guru IB ESS Essay Question 154
  155. 155. 1.THEY PROVIDE A HABITAT FOR PLANTS AND ANIMALS: • Tropical rainforests took between 60 and 100 million years to evolve and are believed to be the oldest and most complex land- based ecosystem on earth, containing over 30 million species of plants and animals. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 155
  156. 156. • 3.THEY HELP TO PREVENT SOIL EROSION: • Surprisingly, soil in the rainforest is very poor in nutrients. • This is because the nutrients are stored in the vast numbers of trees and plants rather than in the soil. Tree roots bind the soil together, while the canopy protects the soil from heavy rains. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 156
  157. 157. 4.THEY PROVIDE A HOME FOR INDIGENOUS PEOPLE: • Many indigenous people have been living in harmony with the rainforest for thousands of years, depending on it for their food, shelter and medicines. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 157
  158. 158. 5.RAINFOREST PHARMACY: • It may surprise you to know that more than 25% of our modern medicines originate from tropical forest plants. Even so, we have only learned how to use 1% of these amazing plants, so imagine the possibilities if we could experiment with the other 99%! Guru IB ESS Essay Question 158
  159. 159. • Conclusion: • Preserving tropical rainforests involves more than just deciding not to cut trees. Social, political and economic factors all need to be taken into consideration Guru IB ESS Essay Question 159
  160. 160. • (c)Define the term biome; Explain the distribution, structure, and relative productivity of tropical rainforests, deserts, tundra. (9) Guru IB ESS Essay Question 160
  161. 161. INTRODUCTION: • Biome: • Biome can be defined as a collection of ecosystems sharing similar climatic conditions. • Examples of biomes include tundra, tropical rainforest, and desert. Biome distribution depends on levels of sunlight, temperature, and rainfall Guru IB ESS Essay Question 161
  162. 162. Tropical rainforest Biome: Distribution • Tropical rainforests are found in areas with high levels of rainfall and sunlight, with warm temperatures throughout the year. • Rainfall is on average over 2500 mm yr−1. Tropical rainforests are found between the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. Structure: • Tropical rainforests have a complex structure with a number of layers from ground level to canopy. • They can have trees up to 50 m in height and lower layers of shrubs and vines. The thick canopy means that only 1 per cent of sunlight may reach the floor, which means the shrub layer is often sparse. Productivity: • Productivity in tropical rainforests is very high. • This is because of the high levels of rainfall and sunlight, and year- round warm Guru IB ESS Essay Question 162
  163. 163. Desert Biome : • Distribution: • Desert is found in areas of very low rainfall, strong sunlight, and temperatures that vary from very hot in the daytime and cold at night. • Rainfall is under 250 mm yr−1. • SENTENCE STRUCCTURE Structure: • Vegetation is scarce and there are no tall trees. • Many of the plants, such as cacti, are adapted to dry or desert conditions. The soil has low water-holding capacity and low fertility. Productivity: • Productivity in deserts is very low due to lack of water and hot daytime conditions. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 163
  164. 164. Fig 2-Above Graph shows the Productivity of different biomes where desert has lowest one Guru IB ESS Essay Question 164
  165. 165. Tundra Distribution • Tundra is found in areas with low temperatures throughout most of the year. Other conditions in tundra are low rainfall, seasonal sunlight, and short day length. They are found in high latitudes next to areas of ice • Structure • Tundra has a simple structure. The vegetation of tundra is low scrub and grasses. Vegetation forms a single layer and there are no tall trees. • SENTENCE STRUCCTURE • Productivity • Productivity in tundra is low. This is because tundra has frozen permafrost and soil that limits productivity. • Low temperatures and low rainfall, with much waterpresent as ice, also limits productivity. Short day length year-round also leads to low productivity, although productivity can be higher for short periods in the summer. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 165
  166. 166. Conclusion • The lower and less dense canopy than found in rainforest means that more light reaches the forest floor, leading to the growth of a rich shrub layer (for example brambles, bracken and ferns). • The productivity of temperate forest is moderate: lower than rainforest, but higher than desert and tundra. Medium productivity is due to varying temperatures and light intensity, which vary with the seasons Guru IB ESS Essay Question 166
  167. 167. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 167
  168. 168. SOURCE -OCC 20. Recommendations from the Examiner for Writing the essay Questions Guru IB ESS Essay Question 168
  169. 169. 1.Ensure an actual study of an existing ecosystem. Local level case studies should be used wherever possible to reinforce and illustrate concepts. 2.Encourage candidates to go for precision in their answers rather than vague statements. Exemplar material could be used to illustrate this. 3.Advise candidates to break answers into sections rather than write as continuous prose. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 169
  170. 170. 4.Candidates should be instructed to leave at least a line between part questions for clarity. 5.It may be helpful to encourage candidates to move away from pictorial flow diagrams to simple boxes and arrows. 6.Encourage candidates to draw diagrams when appropriate. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 170
  171. 171. 7. Candidates should be taught to read the questions carefully before answering, and to frame their answers with an eye to the mark scheme. 8. Evaluation requires both sides of an argument to be explored. 9. Encourage students to break up their answers into the relevant sub sections to make it easier for the examiner to identify which part of the question they are answering. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 171
  172. 172. 10.Candidates should be encouraged to write within the space provided within the exam paper. 11.Encourage candidates to use and apply their own case studies to questions, and not to use the resource booklet case study to answer Section B questions. 12. Purely descriptive responses will not score highly. The command terms are more likely to involve discussion or evaluation in order for candidates to demonstrate their analytical skills. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 172
  173. 173. 13.Encourage candidates to make annotated diagrams large and clear if they are using them. 14. Encourage candidates to give clear, diverse and discreet marking points, rather than a single vague, limited, and repetitive discourse. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 173
  174. 174. 15.Encourage candidates to break up their answers into the relevant sub sections to make it easier for the examiner to identify which part of the question they are answering. The answers are not expected to be one long essay. 16.Reinforce the importance of learning key definitions and terminology. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 174
  175. 175. 17.Practice in developing balanced arguments, and writing valid conclusions derived from the argument …as opposed to isolated, unjustified statements of opinion. 18. Practice the links between the topics, the course is designed to be holistic. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 175
  176. 176. 19.Instruct candidates to break up their answers into the relevant sub sections to make it easier for the examiner to identify which part of the question they are answering. The answers are not expected to be one long essay. 20. Please encourage candidates to print specific examples as these are often hard to interpret when the handwriting is bad. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 176
  177. 177. Made by  K.GuruCharan kumar, ESS Teacher, India  MYP Teacher  IGCSE EVM Teacher  Graphic Designer  Photographer  Quiz Master  Blogger  Web Designer  Adobe Specialist  Snake Lover  IAYP School In charge  Round Square School Member  School Clicking Club Head  Graphic Designer and Field Trip Organiser Guru IB ESS Essay Question
  178. 178. ■ My Website : http://gurucharankumar.weebly.com/ ■ Wikispace: http://gurumantra.wikispaces.com/ ■ YouTube Channel : https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCsDy4JIHFQ1SMIUcQMXx FFg ■ Instagram : gurumantra007 ■ Slidesharelink : http://www.slideshare.net/kingcobra2012 ■ Twitter : @Greenguru2013 ■ Linkedin: https://in.linkedin.com/in/guru-charan-kumar- 306a0058 ■ Google + :google.com/+Gurucharankumar ■ Symbaloo : https://edu.symbaloo.com/mix/edutools297 ■ Pinterest : gurucharan90834 ■ Gmail-gurucharankumar16gmail.com Follow me Guru IB ESS Essay Question 178
  179. 179. Guru IB ESS Essay Question 179

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