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Ecosystem powerpoint 2

  1. 1. 2.4.1-.2 Biomes 5/1/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 1
  2. 2. BIOME is the collection of ecosystems sharing similar climatic conditions. 5/1/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 2
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  4. 4. Uneven Solar Heating and Latitude Earth as a whole is in thermal equilibrium, but different latitudes are not. Moving masses of air and ocean currents transport energy from 5/1/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 4 locations with a surplus to those with a deficit.
  5. 5. Cell 3 North Cold, dry air falls Model of global air circulation and biomes. The direction of air flow and the ascent and descent of air masses in convection cells determine the earth’s climatic zones. Moist air rises — rain Polar cap Arctic tundra Evergreen coniferous forest 60° Temperate deciduous forest and grassland Desert 30° Cell 2 North Cool, dry air falls Cell 1 North Moist air rises, cools, and releases moisture as rain Tropical deciduous forest 0° Equator Tropical rain forest Tropical deciduous forest 30° 60° Desert Temperate deciduous forest and grassland Cell 1 South Cool, dry air falls Cell 2 South Polar cap 5/1/2013 Cold, Moist air rises — rain dry air Author-Guru IB/ESS falls Cell 3 South 5
  6. 6. Generalized effects of altitude and latitude on climate and biomes. Parallel changes in vegetation occur when moving from the Equator to the poles or from the lowlands to mountaintops. Altitude Mountain Ice and snow Tundra (herbs, lichens, mosses) Coniferous Forest Latitude Deciduous Forest Tropical Forest Tropical Forest 5/1/2013 Deciduous Forest Author-Guru Coniferous Forest IB/ESS Tundra (herbs, lichens, mosses) Polar ice and snow 6
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  8. 8. DESERT BIOMES Polar desert (northwest China) 5/1/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS Tropical desert (Saudi Arabia) 8
  9. 9. GRASSLAND BIOMES Polar grassland (arctic tundra) 5/1/2013 (Fort Yukon, Alaska) Author-Guru IB/ESS Tropical grassland (savanna) (Harare, Zimbabwe) 9
  10. 10. FOREST BIOMES Tropical rain forest (Manaus, Brazil) 5/1/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS Temperate deciduous forest (Nashville, Tennessee) 10
  11. 11. AQUATIC BIOMES Ocean Coral reefs Lakes 5/1/2013 Mangroves Author-Guru IB/ESS Rivers 11
  12. 12. High tide Low tide Sun Sea level 0 Photosynthesis Open Sea 50 Euphotic Zone Estuarine Zone 100 Continental shelf 200 500 Bathyal Zone 1,000 Twilight Coastal Zone Depth in meters 1,500 Abyssal Zone 2,000 4,000 5,000 10,000 5/1/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 12 Darkness 3,000
  13. 13. DIVERSITY is a generic term for heterogeneity. If may refer to: 1. Genetic diversity is the total number of genetic characteristics of a specific species. 2. Habitat diversity is the diversity of habitats in a given unit area. 3. Species diversity a. Species richness – total number of species. b. Species evenness – relative abundance of each species. c. Species dominance – the most abundant species. 5/1/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 13
  14. 14. A Figure A and B have the same species richness, but different species evenness. B 5/1/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 14
  15. 15. What is Biome? A biome is a specific area characterized by the animals and plants that live within it, the climate conditions, the amount of water available, the soil conditions, and the location of the area. 5/1/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 15
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  17. 17. • The seven main biomes that can be found all over the world. • The Desert, Grasslands, Temperate Deciduous Forests, Rainforests, Taiga, and the Tundra 5/1/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 17
  18. 18. CLASSIFICATION OF BIOMES A fundamental classification of biomes is into: • Terrestrial (land) biomes • Freshwater biomes • Marine biomes 5/1/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 18
  19. 19. Freshwater biomes Marine biomes Terrestrial (land) biomes 5/1/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 19
  20. 20. What is tropical rainforest ? A tropical rainforest is an ecosystem usually found around the equator, They are common in Asia, Australia, Africa, South America, Central America, Mexico and on many of the Pacific Islands. 5/1/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 20
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  22. 22. Rainforests are home to half of all the living animal and plant species on the planet. Tropical rain forests are called the "world's largest pharmacy" because over one-quarter of modern medicines originate from its plants. 5/1/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 22
  23. 23. DISTRIBUTION  The tropical forests are restricted to the small land area between the latitudes 22.5 North and 22.5 South of the equator, or in other words between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Tropic of Cancer.  Since the majority of Earth's land is located north of the tropics, rainforests are naturally limited to a relatively small area. 5/1/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 23
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  25. 25. Major Tropical rain Forest Area  CENTRAL AMERICA  THE AMAZON  AFRICA  SOUTHERN ASIA  AUSTRALASIA 5/1/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 25
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  27. 27. CENTRAL AMERICA Central America is famous for its large number of tropical birds, including many kinds of parrots This region was once entirely covered with rainforest, but large areas have been cleared for cattle ranching and for sugar cane plantations. 5/1/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 27
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  29. 29. The photograph below shows a particular ecosystem. 1.State and briefly describe the ecosystem shown in the photograph 2. State whether you would expect ecosystems of the type shown in the photograph to have a low, medium or high level of abiotic factors. 5/1/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 29
  30. 30. THE AMAZON  The Amazon is the world's largest and most famous rainforest.  The Amazon is home to more species of plants and animals than any other ecosystem on the planet and perhaps 30% of the world's species are found there.  American rainforests are most threatened today with large-scale agriculture (especially soybeans), clearing for cattle pasture, subsistence agriculture by poor farmers, and logging. 5/1/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 30
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  35. 35. AFRICA  Central Africa holds the world's second largest rainforest.  To the south east, the large island of Madagascar was once intensively forested, but now much of it is gone.  Africa contains areas of high cloud forest, mangrove swamps and flooded forests.  The island of Madagascar is home to many unique plants and animals not found anywhere else. 5/1/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 35
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  38. 38. SOUTHERN ASIA • The rainforests of Asia stretch from India and Burma in the west to Malaysia and the islands of Java and Borneo in the east. • • In Southeast Asia the climate is hot and humid all year round. In the mainland Asia it has a subtropical climate with torrential monsoon rains followed by a drier period. 5/1/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 38
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  45. 45. What is Freshwater Biome?  The freshwater biome is a low-saline, or sweet water, aquatic biome that covers one fifth of the earth's surface.  Streams, rivers, swamps, bogs, ponds, lakes, ditches, puddles, and canals comprise the tributaries of the freshwater biome.  Animals and plants in this biome might reside along the bank, beneath open water, on the surface of the water, or move between water and an adjacent biome. 5/1/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 45
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  47. 47. TYPES OF FRESHWATER • There are 3 different types of freshwater regions: Ponds and Lakes Streams and Rivers Wetlands 5/1/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 47
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  49. 49. These regions range in size from just a few square meters to thousands of square kilometers. Scattered throughout the earth. Many ponds are seasonal, lasting just a couple of months. Ponds and lakes may have limited species diversity since they are often isolated from one another and from other water sources like rivers and oceans. 5/1/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 49
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  56. 56. For the organism you have chosen, describe and evaluate a method for estimating its abundance. 5/1/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 56
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  58. 58. STREAMS & RIVERS 5/1/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 58
  59. 59. Streams and rivers These are bodies of flowing water moving in one direction. Streams and rivers can be found everywhere — they get their starts at headwaters, which may be springs, snowmelt or even lakes, and then travel all the way to their mouths, usually another water channel or the ocean. 5/1/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 59
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  65. 65. Numerous aquatic green plants and algae can be found in these bodies. Since there is less light, there is less diversity of flora, and because of the lower oxygen levels, fish that require less oxygen, such as catfish and carp, can be found. 5/1/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 65
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  67. 67. 1.Name an organism in an ecosystem that you have studied and state one abiotic factor that might affect this organism. Organism: ......................................................................................................... Factor: ............................................................................................................... 5/1/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 67
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  69. 69. Wetlands Wetlands are areas of standing water that support aquatic plants.  Marshes, swamps, and bogs are all considered wetlands. Plant species adapted to the very moist and humid conditions are called Hydrophytes. These include pond lilies, cattails, sedges, tamarack, and black spruce. Marsh flora also include such species as cypress and gum. These support different species of animals, such as shrimp, shellfish, and various grasses. 5/1/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 69
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  77. 77. What is Marine Biome?  The marine biome includes all the water that is on the earth's surface.  The marine biome covers three fourths of the earth. There are thousands of animals and plants in the biome. or  Marine regions cover about three-fourths of the Earth's surface and include oceans, coral reefs, and estuaries 5/1/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 77
  78. 78. Marine Biomes are classified into three types. • Coral reefs • Estuaries • Oceans 5/1/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 78
  79. 79. Oceans The largest of all the ecosystems, oceans are very large bodies of water that dominate the Earth's surface. The ocean regions are separated into separate zones: intertidal, pelagic, abyssal, and benthic. All four zones have a great diversity of species. 5/1/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 79
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  81. 81.  The intertidal zone is where the ocean meets the land — sometimes it is submerged and at other times exposed, as waves and tides come in and out.  The pelagic zone includes those waters further from the land, basically the open ocean.  The pelagic zone is generally cold though it is hard to give a general temperature range since, just like ponds and lakes 5/1/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 81
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  85. 85. The benthic zone is the area below the pelagic zone, but does not include the very deepest parts of the ocean The bottom of the zone consists of sand, slit, and/or dead organisms. The deep ocean is the abyssal zone. The water in this region is very cold (around 3 C), highly pressured, high in oxygen content, but low in nutritional content. 5/1/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 85
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  104. 104. TUNDRA • Tundra is the coldest of all the biomes. Tundra comes from the Finnish word tunturi, meaning treeless plain. • It is noted for its frost-molded landscapes, extremely low temperatures, little precipitation, poor nutrients, and short growing seasons. • Dead organic material functions as a nutrient pool. The two major nutrients are nitrogen and phosphorus. Nitrogen is created by biological fixation, and phosphorus is created by precipitation. 5/1/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 104
  105. 105. Biomes of the World 1. The Tundra 1. Extremely cold climate 2. Low biotic diversity 3. Simple vegetation structure 4. Permafrost  limited drainage 5. Short growing season 6. Energy and nutrients in the form of dead organic material 7. Large population oscillations 5/1/2013 alpine vs arctic tundra Author-Guru IB/ESS 105
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  109. 109. Characteristics of tundra include: • Extremely cold climate • Low biotic diversity • Simple vegetation structure • Limitation of drainage • Short season of growth and reproduction • Energy and nutrients in the form of dead organic material • Large population oscillations 5/1/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 109
  110. 110. • Tundra is separated into two types: • Arctic tundra • Alpine tundra 5/1/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 110
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  112. 112. Arctic tundra • Arctic tundra is located in the northern hemisphere, encircling the north pole and extending south to the coniferous forests of the taiga. • The growing season ranges from 50 to 60 days. • The average winter temperature is -34 C, but the average summer temperature is 3-12 C (37-54 F) which enables this biome to sustain life. 5/1/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 112
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  116. 116. • There are no deep root systems in the vegetation of the arctic tundra, however, there are still a wide variety of plants that are able to resist the cold climate. • There are about 1,700 kinds of plants in the arctic and subarctic, and these include: • Low shrubs, sedges, reindeer mosses, liverworts, and grasses 5/1/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 116
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  118. 118. • Animals are adapted to handle long, cold winters and to breed and raise young quickly in the summer. • Animals such as mammals and birds also have additional insulation from fat. • Many animals hibernate during the winter because food is not abundant. 5/1/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 118
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  123. 123. Alpine tundra • Alpine tundra is located on mountains throughout the world at high altitude where trees cannot grow. • The growing season is approximately 180 days. • The nighttime temperature is usually below freezing. Unlike the arctic tundra, the soil in the alpine is well drained. 5/1/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 123
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  126. 126. • The plants are very similar to those of the arctic ones and include: • tussock grasses, dwarf trees, small-leafed shrubs, and heaths • Animals living in the alpine tundra are also well adapted: • Mammals: pikas, marmots, mountain goats, sheep, elk • Birds: grouselike birds • Insects: springtails, beetles, grasshoppers, butterflies 5/1/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 126
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  131. 131. The desert biome • Deserts cover about one fifth of the Earth's surface and occur where rainfall is less than 50 cm/year. • Most deserts have a considerable amount of specialized vegetation, as well as specialized vertebrate and invertebrate animals. 5/1/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 131
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  133. 133. • Desert biomes can be classified according to several characteristics. There are four major types of deserts: • • • • Hot and dry Desert Semiarid Desert Coastal Desert Cold Desert 5/1/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 133
  134. 134. Hot and dry desert • Hot and dry desert present in North American countries. • The seasons are generally warm throughout the year and very hot in the summer. • The winters usually bring little rainfall. 5/1/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 134
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  137. 137. • Desert surfaces receive a little more than twice the solar radiation received by humid regions . • The animals include small nocturnal (active at night) carnivores. • The dominant animals are burrowers and kangaroo rats. There are also insects, arachnids, reptiles and birds. 5/1/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 137
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  140. 140. Semiarid Desert • • • • The major deserts of this type include the Sagebrush of Utah, Montana and Great Basin. They also include the North America, Newfoundland, Greenland, Russia, Europe and northern Asia. 5/1/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 140
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  144. 144. Coastal desert • These deserts occur in moderately cool to warm areas is the coastal desert. A good example is the Atacama of Chile. • The soil is fine-textured with a moderate salt content. 5/1/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 144
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  146. 146. Salt bush Buckwheat bush Little leaf horse brush 5/1/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 146
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  151. 151. Cold desert • These deserts are characterized by cold winters with snowfall and high overall rainfall throughout the winter and occasionally over the summer. • They occur in the Antarctic, Greenland and the Nearctic realm. They have short, moist, and moderately warm summers with fairly long, cold winters. 5/1/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 151
  152. 152. The Atacama desert is, according to NASA, National Geographic and many other publications, the driest desert in the world 5/1/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 152
  153. 153. • The heaviest rainfall of the spring is usually in April or May. In some areas, rainfall can be heavy in autumn. • The burrowing habit also applies to carnivores like the badger, kit fox, and coyote. 5/1/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 153
  154. 154. The 10 largest deserts Rank Desert Area (km²) Area (mi²) 1 Antarctic Desert (Antarctica) 13,829,430 5,339,573 2 Arctic 13,700,000+ 5,300,000+ 3 Sahara (Africa) 9,100,000+ 3,320,000+ 4 Arabian Desert (Middle 2,330,000 East) 900,000 5 Gobi Desert (Asia) 500,000 6 Kalahari Desert (Africa) 900,000 360,000 7 Patagonian Desert (South America) 670,000 260,000 8 Great Victoria Desert (Australia) 647,000 250,000 9 Syrian Desert (Middle East) 520,000 200,000 10 Great Basin Desert (North America) 492,000 190,000 5/1/2013 1,300,000 Author-Guru IB/ESS 154
  155. 155. Which is the biggest cold desert in India siachen glacier 5/1/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 155
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  164. 164. The Sahara is the world's largest hot desert 5/1/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 164
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  170. 170. The Thar Desert, also known as the Great Indian Desert, is a large, arid region in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent. 5/1/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 170
  171. 171. The region surrounding Aravalli hills near Ranthambore, Rajasthan 5/1/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 171
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