Food
• The major limiting factor to human population
growth
• Depends on environment and socio-political
issues
• Right no...
Earth as an Apple
http://www.farmland.org/Flash/appleEarth.html

Where does our food come from?
• Land crops and livestock...
How much food do people need?
• 2600 calories/day
• If they don’t get this:
•

undernourishment
If they don’t get specific...
Nutrition
•Undernourishment =
•too few calories
•(especially developing
world)

•Overnutrition =
•too many calories
•(espe...
Percentage of population affected by
undernutrition by country, according to
United Nations statistics

Guru
9/29/2013

IB...
Global food security
•The world still has 800 million hungry people,
largely due to inadequate distribution.

•Global food...
HOW TO FEED THE WORLD
• http://www.youtube.co
m/watch?v=QloMOOGbbE

Guru
9/29/2013

IBESS
Unit 3

7
The best ways
• “Give a man a fish and

•

you feed him for a day.
Teach a man to fish and
you feed him for a
lifetime.” –...
Agriculture

Guru
9/29/2013

IBESS
Unit 3

9
Grain production
(millions of tons)

2,000

1,500

1,000

500

0
1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

2010

Year

Total Wor...
Per capita grain production
(kilograms per person)

400
350
300
250
200
150
1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

2010

Year...
Calories per day per person

3,700

Developed countries

3,500
3,300
3,100
2,900

World
2,700
Developing
countries

2,500
...
Natural Capital

Figure 14-3 Croplands
Page 276
Ecological
Croplands

Economic
Services
Economic Services

Services
Ecolog...
Biodiversity Loss

Soil

Loss and degradation of habitat from
clearing grasslands and forests and
draining wetland

Erosio...
Air Pollution

Water

Greenhouse gas emissions from fossil
Fuel issue
Other air pollutants from fossil fuel use
Pollution ...
4%

2%

6%

5%

Crops

Livestock

Food processing

Food distribution and preparation

17% of total
commercial
energy use

...
Producing and eating meat
• Land use issues
– More land needed
• More land needed for grazing than grain production
• Acre...
Producing and eating meat
• Energy issues
– Eating at a lower trophic level
• More solar energy available to humans, less ...
Eating less meat: Pro and
Con
• Advantages

– Reduced risk of disease
• Cholesterol

• Disadvantages

– Meat an excellent ...
How do we address world hunger?
• Policy and behavioral
•

•
•
•

changes
Eat lower on the food
chain?
Modify food
distrib...
To feed the world….
• Conservation of matter

– Available resources limit agricultural production
– Nutrients used by plan...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Age and human health (good)

367 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
367
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
31
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
3
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Age and human health (good)

  1. 1. Food • The major limiting factor to human population growth • Depends on environment and socio-political issues • Right now distribution is the main problem • If the human population continues to grow, quantity will be the problem Guru 9/29/2013 IBESS Unit 3 1
  2. 2. Earth as an Apple http://www.farmland.org/Flash/appleEarth.html Where does our food come from? • Land crops and livestock! – Only 14 species of plants • Cash crops • Subsistence crops • Top food crops: – Wheat, rice, maize, potatoes Guru 9/29/2013 IBESS Unit 3 2
  3. 3. How much food do people need? • 2600 calories/day • If they don’t get this: • undernourishment If they don’t get specific nutrients: malnourishment – Marasmus, kwashiorkor, chronic hunger • On the flip side of the coin: obesity Guru 9/29/2013 IBESS Unit 3 3
  4. 4. Nutrition •Undernourishment = •too few calories •(especially developing world) •Overnutrition = •too many calories •(especially developed world) •Malnutrition = lack of Guru 9/29/2013 nutritional requirements Unit 3 IBESS 4 Figure 9.2
  5. 5. Percentage of population affected by undernutrition by country, according to United Nations statistics Guru 9/29/2013 IBESS Unit 3 5
  6. 6. Global food security •The world still has 800 million hungry people, largely due to inadequate distribution. •Global food security is a goal of scientists and policymakers worldwide. Guru 9/29/2013 IBESS Unit 3 6
  7. 7. HOW TO FEED THE WORLD • http://www.youtube.co m/watch?v=QloMOOGbbE Guru 9/29/2013 IBESS Unit 3 7
  8. 8. The best ways • “Give a man a fish and • you feed him for a day. Teach a man to fish and you feed him for a lifetime.” –Lao Tzu Create systems where food is grown and distributed locally Guru 9/29/2013 IBESS Unit 3 8
  9. 9. Agriculture Guru 9/29/2013 IBESS Unit 3 9
  10. 10. Grain production (millions of tons) 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 0 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Year Total World Grain Production Guru 9/29/2013 IBESS Unit 3 10
  11. 11. Per capita grain production (kilograms per person) 400 350 300 250 200 150 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Year World Grain Production per Capita Guru 9/29/2013 IBESS Unit 3 11
  12. 12. Calories per day per person 3,700 Developed countries 3,500 3,300 3,100 2,900 World 2,700 Developing countries 2,500 2,300 Guru 9/29/2013 Year3 Unit 2030 2010 2000 1990 1980 1970 1960 2,100 IBESS 12
  13. 13. Natural Capital Figure 14-3 Croplands Page 276 Ecological Croplands Economic Services Economic Services Services Ecological Services •Help maintain water flow and • Helpinfiltration water soil maintain •Food crops • Food crops flow and soil infiltration • •Provide partial erosion protection Provide partial erosion protection •Can build soil organic matter • Can build soil organic matter • Fiber crops •Fiber crops • Crop genetic resources •Crop genetic • Jobs resources •Store atmospheric carbon • Store atmospheric carbon •Provide wildlife habitat for some species • Provide wildlife habitat for some species 9/29/2013 •Jobs Guru IBESS Unit 3 13
  14. 14. Biodiversity Loss Soil Loss and degradation of habitat from clearing grasslands and forests and draining wetland Erosion Loss of fertility Fish kills from pesticide runoff Salinization Killing of wild predators to protect livestock Waterlogging Loss of genetic diversity from replacing thousands of wild crop strains with a few monoculture strains Desertification Guru 9/29/2013 IBESS Unit 3 14
  15. 15. Air Pollution Water Greenhouse gas emissions from fossil Fuel issue Other air pollutants from fossil fuel use Pollution from pesticide sprays Water waste Aquifer depletion Increased runoff and Overfertilization of lakes flooding from land cleared and slow-moving rivers to grow crops from runoff of nitrates and phosphates from Sediment pollution from fertilizers, livestock erosion wastes, and food processing wastes Fish kills from pesticide runoff Guru 9/29/2013 Surface and groundwater pollution from pesticides and fertilizers IBESS Unit 3 15
  16. 16. 4% 2% 6% 5% Crops Livestock Food processing Food distribution and preparation 17% of total commercial energy use Food production Guru 9/29/2013 IBESS Unit 3 16
  17. 17. Producing and eating meat • Land use issues – More land needed • More land needed for grazing than grain production • Acre of grain for human consumption feeds more than an acre used for grazing • Land needed to grow forage AND raise animals: Housing, food storage and waste disposal Guru 9/29/2013 IBESS Unit 3 17
  18. 18. Producing and eating meat • Energy issues – Eating at a lower trophic level • More solar energy available to humans, less lost through trophic transfer – Storage of grain less energetically expensive than processing and storing meat • Transport, slaughter and refrigeration – Energy costs associated with meat production • Producing grain for livestock – Fertilizers, irrigation, pesticides, farm machinery • Animal waste management – Pumping, treatment, transport, disposal • Animal care and round up of free range livestock Guru IBESS 9/29/2013 Unit 3 18
  19. 19. Eating less meat: Pro and Con • Advantages – Reduced risk of disease • Cholesterol • Disadvantages – Meat an excellent source of protein • Essential amino acids – Clogged arteries – Hypertension – Heart disease – Reduced chemical exposure • Hormones • Steroids • Antibiotics • Pesticides (Biomag!) – Reduced exposure to disease Guru • Mad Cow 9/29/2013 – Rice and Beans! • Difficult to get enough protein without meat – Nutritional deficiencies • Kwashikor: Protein • Blindness: Vit. A • Pollegra: Vit. B • Anemia: Iron • Inadequate essential fats balance IBESS Unit 3 19
  20. 20. How do we address world hunger? • Policy and behavioral • • • • changes Eat lower on the food chain? Modify food distribution Improve infrastructure Economic policies – End subsidies Guru 9/29/2013 IBESS Unit 3 20
  21. 21. To feed the world…. • Conservation of matter – Available resources limit agricultural production – Nutrients used by plants • Nitrates: Protein and DNA • Phosphates: DNA, RNA, ATP – Soil degraded as nutrients removed by harvest • Conservation of Energy – Trophic level energy loss • Vegetarian vs Carnivorous diets • Green revolution – – – – Increase yield per acre Monoculture Intensive tillage = soil erosion Requires • Energy: Emissions and oil • Fertilizers and pesticides: Toxic pollution, soil salinization • Irrigation: Water rights and usage Guru 9/29/2013 IBESS Unit 3 21

×