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  1. 1. 2.3.2 Abundance of organisms. 5/11/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 1
  2. 2. Methods for Estimating Population Size 1. Quadrats 2. Capture/Mark/Release/Recapture (Lincoln Index) 5/11/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 2
  3. 3. • Knowing population size is important in making environmental decisions that would affect the population. • Making a decision on an estimate that is too high  extinction. • Making a decision on an estimate that is too low  unnecessarily hurt people that depend on the animals for food & income. 5/11/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 3
  4. 4. • When estimating population size it is important to collect RANDOM SAMPLES. • A sample is a part of a population, part of an area or part of some other whole thing, chosen to illustrate what the whole population, area or other thing is like. • In a random sample every individual in a population has an equal chance of being selected. 5/11/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 4
  5. 5. Using Quadrats 1. Mark out area to be sampled. 2. Place quadrates ( 1 m2, 10 m2) randomly within the area. 3. Count how many individuals are inside each of the quadrates. 4. Calculate the mean number of individuals per quadrate. 5. Pop. Size = mean X total area area of each quadrat 5/11/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 5
  6. 6. SYSTEMATIC QUDRATS RANDOM QUDRATS Quadrat sampling is suitable for plants that do not move around and are easy to find. 5/11/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 6
  7. 7. Quadrat method can be used to determine:  POPULATION DENSITY = number of individuals of each species per area.  PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY = percent of each species found within an area.  PERCENTAGE COVER = percent of plant covering a given area. 5/11/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 7
  8. 8. Capture/Mark/ Release/Recapture Lincoln index 1. Capture as many individuals as possible in the area occupied by the animal population, using netting, trapping or careful searching. 2. Mark each individual, without making them more visible to predators and without harming them. 5/11/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 8
  9. 9. 3. Release all the marked individuals and allow them to settle back into their habitat. 4. Recapture as many individuals as possible and count how many are marked and how many are unmarked. 10 marked 14 unmarked 5/11/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 9
  10. 10. Capture and Marking 5/11/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 10
  11. 11. 5. Calculate the estimated population size by using the Lincoln Index: population size = N1 X N2 N3 N1 = number caught and marked initially N2 = total number caught in 2nd sample N3 = number of marked individuals recaptured Most suitable for animals that move around and are difficult to find. 5/11/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 11
  12. 12. Assumptions: 1. The population of organisms must be closed, with no immigration or emigration. 2. The time between samples must be very small compared to the life span of the organism being sampled. 3. The marked organisms must mix completely with the rest of the population during the time between the two samples. 4. Organisms are not hurt or disadvantaged by being caught and marked and therefore all organisms have na equal opportunity of being recaptured 5/11/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 12
  13. 13. Change in the relative abundance of a species over an area or a distance is referred to as an ECOLOGIAL GRADIENT Also known as Zonation. 5/11/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 13
  14. 14. Changes in the distribution of animals with elevation on a typical mountain in Kenya. Another example of Zonation 5/11/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 14