2.1.1-2.1.5 Ecosystems

5/11/2013

Author-Guru
IB/ESS

1
ECOLOGY
The study of the
interactions between
organisms and their
environment.

5/11/2013

Author-Guru
IB/ESS

2
ENVIRONMENT = all the factors that affect
an organism.
ABIOTIC FACTOR =

non-living factors in
an environment.

5/11/2013
...
Buckminster Fuller on the
Environment
“Environment to each must be
All there is, that isn't me.
Universe in turn must be
A...
NICHE = all of the
ways that the organism
interacts with everything
else in the ecosystem-the
role or job of a species in ...
Biosphere

Ecosystems

Communities

Populations

5/11/2013

Organisms
Author-Guru
IB/ESS

6
ECOSYSTEM includes all the biotic &
abiotic factors in an environment.

5/11/2013

Author-Guru
IB/ESS

7
FOOD CHAIN = used
to show how matter
& energy move
through
an ecosystem.

5/11/2013

Author-Guru
IB/ESS

8
5/11/2013

Author-Guru
IB/ESS

9
FOOD WEB = shows all the possible
food chains in an ecosystem

5/11/2013

Author-Guru
IB/ESS

10
Each organism in food chain represents a
“feeding” or TROPHIC LEVEL
3rd Trophic
Level

2o or 3o consumer

2nd Trophic
Leve...
5/11/2013

Author-Guru
IB/ESS

12
ECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDS
• Are graphical models of the quantitative
differences that exist between the trophic levels
of a sing...
PYRAMID OF NUMBERS represents storages
found at each trophic level.

Units vary

5/11/2013

Author-Guru
IB/ESS

14
Grassland
(summer)

Temperate Forest
(summer)
Tertiary consumers
Secondary consumers
Primary consumers
Producers

A few la...
PYRAMID OF BIOMASS represent the
standing stock at each trophic level.

Units:
J m-2

or
g m-2
5/11/2013

Author-Guru
IB/E...
Abandoned Field

Ocean
Tertiary consumers

Secondary consumers

Primary consumers

Producers

In open waters of aquatic ec...
PYRAMID OF PRODUCTIVITY represents
the flow of energy through each trophic level.

Units:

J m-2 yr-1
or

g m-2 yr-1

5/11...
• As you move up each trophic level, only
10% of the energy is transferred.
• The other 90% is used for everyday life
func...
5/11/2013

Author-Guru
IB/ESS

20
10 J m-2 yr-1

100 J m-2 yr-1

1,000 J m-2 yr-1
10,000 J m-2 yr-1

producers

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Author-Guru
IB/ESS

21
Pyramid structure
affects
the functioning of
an
ecosystem.
Bioaccumulation

5/11/2013

Author-Guru
IB/ESS

22
5/11/2013

Author-Guru
IB/ESS

23
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2.1.1 2.1.5 (4)

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2.1.1 2.1.5 (4)

  1. 1. 2.1.1-2.1.5 Ecosystems 5/11/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 1
  2. 2. ECOLOGY The study of the interactions between organisms and their environment. 5/11/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 2
  3. 3. ENVIRONMENT = all the factors that affect an organism. ABIOTIC FACTOR = non-living factors in an environment. 5/11/2013 BIOTIC FACTORS = living factors in an environment. Author-Guru IB/ESS 3
  4. 4. Buckminster Fuller on the Environment “Environment to each must be All there is, that isn't me. Universe in turn must be All that isn't me AND ME.” 5/11/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 4
  5. 5. NICHE = all of the ways that the organism interacts with everything else in the ecosystem-the role or job of a species in an ecosystem. 5/11/2013 HABITAT = place where an organism or population of organisms live. Author-Guru IB/ESS 5
  6. 6. Biosphere Ecosystems Communities Populations 5/11/2013 Organisms Author-Guru IB/ESS 6
  7. 7. ECOSYSTEM includes all the biotic & abiotic factors in an environment. 5/11/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 7
  8. 8. FOOD CHAIN = used to show how matter & energy move through an ecosystem. 5/11/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 8
  9. 9. 5/11/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 9
  10. 10. FOOD WEB = shows all the possible food chains in an ecosystem 5/11/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 10
  11. 11. Each organism in food chain represents a “feeding” or TROPHIC LEVEL 3rd Trophic Level 2o or 3o consumer 2nd Trophic Level 1o or 2o consumer 1st Trophic Level producers decomposers 5/11/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 11
  12. 12. 5/11/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 12
  13. 13. ECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDS • Are graphical models of the quantitative differences that exist between the trophic levels of a single ecosystem. • In accordance to the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics, there is a tendency for numbers and quantities to biomass and energy to decrease along food chains, therefore the pyramids become narrower toward the top. 5/11/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 13
  14. 14. PYRAMID OF NUMBERS represents storages found at each trophic level. Units vary 5/11/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 14
  15. 15. Grassland (summer) Temperate Forest (summer) Tertiary consumers Secondary consumers Primary consumers Producers A few large producers (the trees) support a much larger number of Small primary consumers (insects) that feed on the trees. 5/11/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 15
  16. 16. PYRAMID OF BIOMASS represent the standing stock at each trophic level. Units: J m-2 or g m-2 5/11/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 16
  17. 17. Abandoned Field Ocean Tertiary consumers Secondary consumers Primary consumers Producers In open waters of aquatic ecosystems, the biomass primary consumers (zooplankton) can exceed that of producers. The zooplankton eat the Producers (phytoplankton) as fast as they reproduce, so their population is never very large. 5/11/2013 Author-Guru 17 IB/ESS
  18. 18. PYRAMID OF PRODUCTIVITY represents the flow of energy through each trophic level. Units: J m-2 yr-1 or g m-2 yr-1 5/11/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 18
  19. 19. • As you move up each trophic level, only 10% of the energy is transferred. • The other 90% is used for everyday life functions, metabolism. 5/11/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 19
  20. 20. 5/11/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 20
  21. 21. 10 J m-2 yr-1 100 J m-2 yr-1 1,000 J m-2 yr-1 10,000 J m-2 yr-1 producers 5/11/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 21
  22. 22. Pyramid structure affects the functioning of an ecosystem. Bioaccumulation 5/11/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 22
  23. 23. 5/11/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 23

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