The study of the
organisms and their
ENVIRONMENT = all the factors that affect
ABIOTIC FACTOR =
non-living factors in
BIOTIC FACTORS =
living factors in an
Buckminster Fuller on the
“Environment to each must be
All there is, that isn't me.
Universe in turn must be
All that isn't me AND ME.”
NICHE = all of the
ways that the organism
interacts with everything
else in the ecosystem-the
role or job of a species in an
HABITAT = place
• Are graphical models of the quantitative
differences that exist between the trophic levels
of a single ecosystem.
• In accordance to the 2nd Law of
Thermodynamics, there is a tendency for
numbers and quantities to biomass and energy
to decrease along food chains, therefore the
pyramids become narrower toward the top.
PYRAMID OF NUMBERS represents storages
found at each trophic level.
A few large producers (the trees) support a much larger number of
Small primary consumers (insects) that feed on the trees.
PYRAMID OF BIOMASS represent the
standing stock at each trophic level.
In open waters of aquatic ecosystems, the biomass primary consumers
(zooplankton) can exceed that of producers. The zooplankton eat the
Producers (phytoplankton) as fast as they reproduce, so their population
is never very large.
PYRAMID OF PRODUCTIVITY represents
the flow of energy through each trophic level.
J m-2 yr-1
g m-2 yr-1
• As you move up each trophic level, only
10% of the energy is transferred.
• The other 90% is used for everyday life