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1.1.1 .3 (2)


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1.1.1 .3 (2)

  1. 1. 1.1.1-.3 Systems 5/12/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 1
  2. 2. Environmental Systems and Societies Interrelationships among climate, geology, soil, vegetation, and animals. 5/12/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 2
  3. 3. A System Is an organized collection of interdependent components that perform a function and which are connected through the transfer of energy and/or matter All the parts are linked together and affect each other. 5/12/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 3
  4. 4. Why use Systems Concept Why do we use Systems? • Useful for understanding and explaining phenomena • A holistic approach that can lead to a deeper understanding and possibly to further discoveries 5/12/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 4
  5. 5. Characteristics of Systems What are the characteristics? • Component parts (reservoirs, storages, stocks, accumulations) • Processes (flows, transformations, transfers, reactions, photosynthesis, respiration) • Negative feedback mechanism for maintaining equilibrium Eg, circulatory system – heart, veins, arteries, capillaries, blood cells, plasma etc – pumping of the blood, blood pressure, nutrient exchange, vasodilation etc 5/12/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 5
  6. 6. Why Models Why models? • The real thing is not available or it’s impractical • Too rare, too complex, too big, too expensive 5/12/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 6
  7. 7. What is a Model? What is a model? • A representation or a simulation, could be conceptual, physical, mathematical 5/12/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 7
  8. 8. How to evaluate a model? • Does it explain past observations • Does it agree with other models • Does it predict accurately 5/12/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 8
  9. 9. Models • “You never change things by fighting the existing reality. To change something, build a new model that makes the existing model obsolete.” R Buckminster Fuller 5/12/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 9
  10. 10. A system has properties and functions NOT present in the individual components. The whole (system) is greater than the sum of the parts. Properties of the whole (system) CANNOT be predicted with the study of the parts on their own. This is called “Synergy” 5/12/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 10
  11. 11. Synergy and Systems • Synergy is the only word in our language that means behavior of whole systems unpredicted by the separately observed behaviors of any of the system’s separate parts or any subassembly of the system’s parts. There is nothing in the chemistry of a toenail that predicts the existence of a human being. Buckminster Fuller 5/12/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 11
  12. 12. System according to Buckminster Fuller (a good example of the use of language) • A system is the first subdivision of Universe. It divides all the Universe into six parts: first, all the universal events occurring geometrically outside the system; second, all the universal events occurring geometrically inside the system; third, all the universal events occurring nonsimultaneously, remotely, and unrelatedly prior to the system events; fourth, the Universe events occurring nonsimultaneously, remotely, and unrelatedly subsequent to the system events; fifth, all the geometrically arrayed set of events constituting the system itself; and sixth, all the Universe events occurring synchronously and or coincidentally to and with the systematic set of events uniquely 5/12/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 12
  13. 13. Fuller’s Comprehensive Anticipatory Design Science Model 5/12/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 13
  14. 14. Systems are defined by the source and ultimate destination of their matter and/or energy. 1. OPEN SYSTEM: a system in which both matter and energy are exchanged across boundaries of the system. 5/12/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 14
  15. 15. 2. CLOSED SYSTEM: a system in which energy is exchanged across boundaries of the system, but matter is not. 5/12/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 15
  16. 16. 3. ISOLATED SYSTEM: a system in which neither energy nor matter is exchanged across boundaries of the system. NO SUCH SYSTEM EXISTS!!! Most natural living systems are OPEN systems. 5/12/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 16
  17. 17. Two basic processes must occur in an ecosystem: 1. A cycling of chemical elements. 2. Flow of energy. TRANSFERS: normally flow through a system and involve a change in location. TRANSFORMATIONS: lead to an interaction within a system in the formation of a new end product, or involve a change of state. 5/12/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 17
  18. 18. Components of a system: 1. Inputs such as energy or matter. Calorie s Protein 5/12/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 18
  19. 19. 2. Flows of matter or energy within the systems at certain rates. Calor ies Prote in 5/12/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 19
  20. 20. 3.Outputs of certain forms of matter or energy that flow out of the system into Calor ies sinks in the environment. Prote in 5/12/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS Was teHe at Was teM atte r 20
  21. 21. 4. Storage areas in which energy or matter can accumulate for Calor ies various lengths of time before being Prote released. in 5/12/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 21
  22. 22. Inputs and Outputs 5/12/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 22
  23. 23. 5/12/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 23
  24. 24. energy input from sun PHOTOSYNTHESIS (plants, other producers) nutrient cycling RESPIRATION (hetero & autos, decomposers) 5/12/2013 energy output (mainly heat) Author-Guru IB/ESS 24
  25. 25. 5/12/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 25
  26. 26. SUSTAINABILITY is the extent to which a given interaction with the environment exploits and utilizes the natural income without causing longterm deterioration to the natural capital. 5/12/2013 Author-Guru IB/ESS 26