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THE TARTUMAN A L - Q U R  ~
This English Translation     copy right @ 1967 by Dr. S y d Abdul Latifs Trust fo.Quranic and other Cultural Studies      ...
The     Tarj urn511 al-Qur gn                     br    MAWLANA ABUL KALAM AZAD                 EDITED AND          RENDER...
CONTENTS1 . Preface to the English Translation of tlze Cumm      of Al-Baaarah to Al-Anfad by Dr. Sved Abdzil      Latzy2....
vi                        CONTENTS     Part Seven            V. Ax.-MAIDA (Conld.)           VI. THECATTI.E     Part E g t...
I     PREFACE T O T H E TRrZNSLATIONVhilc issuing thc prcscnt volumc of the T u ~ i i r n i t nl-Qor~11                   ...
ILATION O F EXTRACTS F R O M PREFACE             I E FJRST EDITION OF T H E TARJUMAN                       AL-OURAN. 1930,...
X                PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITIONlook back into the history of the commentaries of the Qj~rcinfrom the earlics...
ACE TO THE FIRST EDITIt3No the Prop  f                                e recited to then:1, they fcwthwithcaught its signih...
#ii             PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION  philosophic speculation among Muslims. That was the time  when Imam Fakhrudd...
PREFACE! TO THE     FIRST EDITION               xiiiinto disuse. The idea came to be entertainec              he earliegen...
xiv             PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITIONcollected indifferently in later times. This created furtherdifficultiesin the...
THE FIRST EDITION               XVthe @~rcin, it is obvious, is not the philosophy of the Greeks,nor was the Arabic langua...
-1XV~             PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITIONAllah is tied up" (554). What a rambling, do we not findin the explanations ...
-xvi             PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITIONAllah is tied up" (5:64). What a rambling, do we not findin the explanations ...
PREFACE T O THE FIRST EDITIONa moment paused to scrutinize the statement or questionT h e result was that gradually few co...
xviii            PREFAC            rE FLRST "TaO ;ir-bir-ra               at form of commlcntary which docs not           ...
PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION                    xix thought, as if the gt~ilrinwas delivered over 1,300 years agojust to e...
XX                PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITIONI venture to hope, may be favoured by the thoughtful amongus. T h e aim is t...
TRANSLATION OF PREFACE TO THE SECOND                             EDITION, 1945  THE ~ C I ~ ~ L ( ~ S Sof~ rn;t~l noiiceab...
xxii            PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITIONthcmselves. The historic conflict between the Traditionists(Ashnb-td-Hadith) ...
PREFACE TO THE SECOXD EDITION                   xxiiimattcr of the volume only under certain leading heads. Inthe second e...
C H A P T E R I1               T H E C O W-AL-BAQARAH-                  REVEALED A T MADINA         I n the name o j Allah...
4                   P$$T                     11                                               3  to reject its guidance. A...
THE COW-AL-BAQARAH                                                        5           because of the           false asser...
"We hold to your faith";and when they are apart       > , I3                                    wj d                      ...
THE COW-AL-RAQARAH                                      7                  [I81 So, deaf, dumb,       /   9 ~ / . l g f ~ ...
1) a c k . 11 (1;ocl will i t , thcvv i l l   rrrnz in thrre I,cl.c.rt of    ..>:.. I .-....i.." , > " At l i r i i ~ i t ...
wllicl~ Mc. 1iar.c. srnt down through our servant,   (~hr    mc.isc.ngc.r), then you can casily   dt.citle l i ~ r) ~ o u ...
10                           r   PA!                         -                                                            ...
SHE COW-AL-BAQrZRAH                                  11once again, and eventually shall you be                            ...
4ye know thc truth about them, as yefancy you do".                             @&&/q;J,y$4rl                              ...
THE   COW-AL-BAP_ARIIH                                   13every o t h r r . You will have to livehcrcaftcr (instead of in...
5I          E will ac cept 1Zy guidancean, , , , ,r t ..-an it faithfully. I        ,, , ,             ,                 ,...
THE COW-:lL-BAQAR.4I1                                         15task whichis very hard to perform exceptfor those who humb...
thr m e m l ~ c r sof tl pastv. 11nd in t l l i 5ordcal for you.                                                          ...
you have forgotten your promisc! Vcril y, yoii kavr ivrongcd yo1 it--                                         5,j ,       ...
~ ~ r e n d you,. and M:e sent do1i.n             ovrr . upon you Mcni7cr and S(tl;iln s;?ying, " E ~ i tlieely oS ~ h goo...
The d           of springs of fre:;h water in the d.esert of  a n d tk       ecine qu arrels anlong the Israelite,s over t...
"Ah! jThat desires do yo11 entertain! Vill you cxchangc the sapcri~ foror the inferior, the high state of fi-ecdom for the...
THE COI,V-.4L-B.4QARAH                            21and Sabians-whoever believeth in God and theday to come when the life ...
[(,GI :inti Vc made this scrvc as awarning to thosc of thcir time, andalso to tliosc ~ v h ocame aftcr them.I t lsas n cnr...
THE COW-AL-BAQARAH                                     23to us what colour it is?" H eanswered, "God says: She is aheifer,...
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Tarjuman al-Qur'an Vol-2
Tarjuman al-Qur'an Vol-2
Tarjuman al-Qur'an Vol-2
Tarjuman al-Qur'an Vol-2
Tarjuman al-Qur'an Vol-2
Tarjuman al-Qur'an Vol-2
Tarjuman al-Qur'an Vol-2
Tarjuman al-Qur'an Vol-2
Tarjuman al-Qur'an Vol-2
Tarjuman al-Qur'an Vol-2
Tarjuman al-Qur'an Vol-2
Tarjuman al-Qur'an Vol-2
Tarjuman al-Qur'an Vol-2
Tarjuman al-Qur'an Vol-2
Tarjuman al-Qur'an Vol-2
Tarjuman al-Qur'an Vol-2
Tarjuman al-Qur'an Vol-2
Tarjuman al-Qur'an Vol-2
Tarjuman al-Qur'an Vol-2
Tarjuman al-Qur'an Vol-2
Tarjuman al-Qur'an Vol-2
Tarjuman al-Qur'an Vol-2
Tarjuman al-Qur'an Vol-2
Tarjuman al-Qur'an Vol-2
Tarjuman al-Qur'an Vol-2
Tarjuman al-Qur'an Vol-2
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Tarjuman al-Qur'an Vol-2

  1. 1. nmusba.wordpress.com
  2. 2. THE TARTUMAN A L - Q U R ~
  3. 3. This English Translation copy right @ 1967 by Dr. S y d Abdul Latifs Trust fo.Quranic and other Cultural Studies , Reprinted 1982, Second Edition. Printed in India by : MIS GOLDEN PRESS, Hyderabad. Under Supervision of : MIS HUSAMI BOOK DEPOT HYDERABAD 500 002.
  4. 4. The Tarj urn511 al-Qur gn br MAWLANA ABUL KALAM AZAD EDITED AND RENDERED INTO ENGLISH BY DR. SYED ABDUL LATIF VOLUME TWO AL-BAQARAH TO AL-ANFAAL DR. SYED ABDUL L A T I ~ STRUST FORQURANIC & OTHER CULTURAL STUDIES SHAD1 KHANA, KING KOTHl ROAD. HYDERABAD-500 001 /
  5. 5. CONTENTS1 . Preface to the English Translation of tlze Cumm of Al-Baaarah to Al-Anfad by Dr. Sved Abdzil Latzy2. Translnliolz of Extra ctsfromPreface to 1 Idit ion o The Tarjumltn u l - @ d i n b lwawlana f y *I AOUl . Kalam AzadY. 1-ranslation of Preface to the Second Edition izf T h e Tarjumin 01- Q u 1 Abul 2 AsadPart One 11. THECOW-AL-BAQARAHPart Two 11. %RAT AL-BAQARAH (Contd.) 57Part Three 11. AL-BAQARAH (Conid.) 111. AL IMRANPart Four 111. AL-I-IMRAN(Contd.) IV. WOMAN-XL-NISAPart Five IV. Ar.-NISA (Contd.jPart Six IV. AL-NISA (Contd.) V. THE FOOD-AL-MAIDA
  6. 6. vi CONTENTS Part Seven V. Ax.-MAIDA (Conld.) VI. THECATTI.E Part E g t ih VI. THE CATTLE (Conid.) VII. AL-ARAF-THEHEIGHTS Part JVine VII. AL-ARAF (Contd.; VIII. SPOILS WAR OF Ptr rt Ten VIII. SPOILS WAR (Co~ztd.) 01: Index
  7. 7. I PREFACE T O T H E TRrZNSLATIONVhilc issuing thc prcscnt volumc of the T u ~ i i r n i t nl-Qor~11 iin its English rendering covcring Chaptcrs I1 to V I I I oftllc@irdn,it has been thought desisnblcto rcproducchcrcin ctrtninextracts from Mawlann Azads prcfaccs to the first ;ul~cl secondcdition of his work, given in full in volumc I, which cxplail~ ~11cplan he has followed, Loth original and revised, in his inter-pretation of the @ ~ r i n . I express my sincere thanks to Mr. Ali hlusa Razn hluhajir,a retired Edycational oflicrr of Hydcrabad, for having assistcclme in the preparation of the matter of this volumc for the press,and to Dr. M. Yusuruddin, Head of the Department of Rcligiolland Culture, Osmai~iaUniversity, for preparing its indcx.
  8. 8. ILATION O F EXTRACTS F R O M PREFACE I E FJRST EDITION OF T H E TARJUMAN AL-OURAN. 1930, 1 C WHILE p this w 3rk, The c n al-@lr Zn, for study one may D cilsposeci to know tne lines which I have aaopted e in the presentation therein of the content s and o)c! jectivz of the Qurzn. Indeed, anticipzlting suc:h a wish on tht: part 01 my . . .. readers, I had contemplated to statc the liries ioliowed in a brief preface to the volume. B u t T hen I sc:t out ro deal wit11 the subject, I soon realised that it wz1 not po ssible to do justic:e t o s -. . it within the brief compass of a nrPc-#.P lhe lssucs involved yrLlubL. were so many and so complicated that a satisfactory discurjsion of them would have necessitated a detailed survey of a very wide and intricate background. T h e idea was therefore given up. Instead, I have attempted here t o draw just a par;sing attention to the dificultics or obstacles which usually clog; the way of a satisfactorv study of the &urYZnso that the reader mav incident ally obt: tin a rou gh idea of a t least the pur poses un der- lying thc:attempt made h ere to present the Qurtz to the w,odd of today As for the exposition of the prin lllowed in the pre sen- tation of the commentary, one willIhave t o , await the publica of my Prolegomena to the C o m ~ ~ e n. r rne rewriting of W-11: :I . in 1 ~ r ~ ~ I a m a t present engaged For v:arious reasons irito whic h one may not go here, the .- exact message of the Qur,an 1 for ccnturies been stea dilv nas ~ kept out of view; so much so, that a very low standarlI approach to it has come into vogue. This is noticeable not merely in the approach to the Qurgnic content but to alr everything connected with it-its language an( phrasc structure, and its style. I n every age, the author of a work is normally the proauct a1 his intell[ectual e:nvironrrlent. I t :is only Ihose who are gifted with visjion and insight who for1n the e:cception. JVb~lii
  9. 9. X PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITIONlook back into the history of the commentaries of the Qj~rcinfrom the earlicst centuries of Islam right u p to theclose of thelast century, we find that the standard of approach to themeaning of the Grcin had steadil y detcriorated. This was the .yuullLYresult of a gradual decadcncc in thc m.,,,l:i.r of the Muslim minditself. J4rhen the commcrttators found that they could not riseto the heights of the Qur 5nic tholught, th :to bring itdown to the level of thei r own mlind. If we a re to see the QtlrEn in its true light, it will be necessaryfor us to lift all those veils which have, from age to age, been1aid ther,con under the stress of influences alien to the spiritof the Qt ~rcinand then sea.rch for the reality about it in its ownpages. TV(v o Right Appre~intion f fluences are by I10 mean s few. They are numerc 1and have pervaaed every corner of Islamic thought. I t is not,therefore, easy to set them out on a brief canvas. I have,however, tried in my Prolegomena tothe commentary of theQurzn to sum them u p under certain broad heads.The foll~wingare the leading aspects which call for con-sideration : (1) T h e Qurcin is not bound by any conventionality in itsform of presentation or style or in its manfier of address orargument, but follows a way of expression such as is germaneto the character of its content or is natural to it. I t is this dis-tinctive peculiarity observed by all scriptures which distin-guishes them from the conventional forms of litcrary expressionemployed in learned discussions. T h e first generation of people among whom the Cur& was delivered were not a sophisticated race. Thcir mind was not cast in, any artificial or conventio~al mould furnished by civilization. I t was content to rtccivc a simple thought in its plain simplicity. That was why il?c Quriinic thought, simple as it was, sank easily into thcir hearts. KO onc at thc time felt it difficult to catch its meaning. T h e moincnt thc conlpanions
  10. 10. ACE TO THE FIRST EDITIt3No the Prop f e recited to then:1, they fcwthwithcaught its signihcal But hardly had the first generation of Muslims passed awaywhen the influences of the Roman and Iranian civilizationsbegan to sweep over the new Arab empire. Translations fromthe Greek literature gave them new literary tastes and initiatedt hern into the art of dialectics. Zest for novelty and inventivc-nP O C in approach to everything came to be ever on the increase,wit1I the result that the simplicity of the Quriinic mannergracgually lost its charm for them. Slowly, step by step, a stagewas reached when everything Quriinic was attempted to begivt:n an artificial mould. Since the Qury5n ht couldnot fit into any such mould, serious complic: thought?.-,, with every attempt a t resolvicg them GliUlllt: in moreintr icate complications. vdhenever distanc:e is assc~ m e dfrom natur alness, aind arti-ficiz~lity resorted to, w b alr; ,-l:":..,.l:.r u u..-Ac u +mu 1 *.IF a L Lhingsin -. .e .a - .. . uloll r L -4. lvvh 4.theiJ- natural simplicity. We cannot visualize beauty orgraindeur in its simplicity. Whenever we choose to endow athirtg with splendour, we invariably try to f x it in a network iof cbrnamentation. This is what exactly happened with theQir i n . The dispositions of the first generation of Muslims werenot cast in any conventional or artificial moulds. That was whythe: 1 instantly caught the meaning oft rl. But thc:genera-tion1 which followed would not let tl s z presenit itself in UL .-its s~implicity. Their love for invent~~cllc;s> L ~ U V 1C4 L Lwould ~not allow this. They began to dress everything in the c~~rcinin n,ovel costumes; and since the QurZn could not fit into suchCOS t urnes, the effort to force on it things which did not suit :pressed its genius and forced its Imeaning to assurne forms no means natural to it. he first period of the Quriinic interpretatiorr w a s ~ l ~which at :eded the codification of Islamic learning. The second an with this codification and has continued, in its different ses, through the succeeding centuries. The second periodhad hardly opened when the urge to cloak the QurYZn new ingarbs took its rise reachixg its climax during the heyday of
  11. 11. #ii PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION philosophic speculation among Muslims. That was the time when Imam Fakhruddin Razi wrote his Commentary to invest the Quriinic word withan absolutely novel import. Had Imam Razi chosen to represe nt what exactly the Qurdn stood for, a t least two-thirds o f 7what he wrote would have beer left unwritten. Be that as it may, one thing stands out clearly, and it is that to the extent the @~rrin freed from the unnatural moulds into is which it is pressed, to that extent will it disclose its own reality. The difficultieswhich we feel today in appreciating the manner of presentation observed by the @~rZn,or the arrangement of its parts and verses, or t%e phraseology employed therein are all due to the inclination inherited from our mediaeval past not to appreciate a simple thing for its simplicity. The Ql~ran is so simple to understand and yet we do not feel happy until we evaluate its worth by fanciful standardsof our own making, standards so distasteful to the purposes of the Qrrrr5n. That is the. picture which today confronts us at every turn. f2) Whenever we are to know what meaning a particular piece of wfiting bears, we naturally prefer to accept themeaning given to it by those who have had theopportunityof ascertaining it from one who originally published it. The@r76n, be it remembered, was delivered piecemeal during thecourse of 23 years. Whatever portion of it was delivered waswraptly listened to by the companions of the Prophzt and wasrepeatedly recited in their prayers; and whatever clarificationthey needed of anything therein, they obtained it directly from, Prophet hi1mself. (I f these companions, some were dis-thetinguished for th.e firm g~ they had of the Quriinic meaning, .asp ~-and this is endorsea I.-. the Prophet himself. I t should have - -1 wybeen in the fitness of things to have given preference to theirinterpretation over the interpretation of those who came afterthem who had not the advantage of close association with theProphet. I t is a matter f )r regret that those who came after the cfirst generation chiefly inspired by external influences, beganto invent for themselves new and newer forms of approach t othe J2frrGn and caused the original interpretation of it to fall
  12. 12. PREFACE! TO THE FIRST EDITION xiiiinto disuse. The idea came to be entertainec he earliegeneration was strong in faith, and the lat~ ation wastrong in knowledge," although the earlier generation wareputed to be sound both in heart and mind, in faith as wea s in knowledge. All the same, the real meaning of the Qrirciwas gradually relegated to the limbo of oblivion, and its simp1message ca me to ra.ise, in almost every sphere of life, issues todifficult to solve. To make matters worse, an unwarranted attitude was assumewhich hardened as time went. This led to complications whici n their turn necessitated the employment in their support ca variety of methods of argument. And then came into voguethe habit of textual criticism, the writing of foot-notes, andindices. This again gave rise to further complications in the - Inapproach to the meaning of the QgryinZn. certain cases,laid layers above 1iyers of veils ovt : 3 thicker than th other. T o understand the situation, take any passage of the c ~ ~ r r ifor illustration. First, look into the interpretation of it whicthe companions of the Prophet and the first generation <Muslims gave to it. Then turn to the commentaries of thoswho came after, and compare the two. The earliest commertaries present the Quriinic meaning in its natural sjmplicitjwhereas the later commentaries gave to it a strange visage bmaking it the subject of subtle disquisitions (3) From the very beginning, stories and a s from thlore of new converts to Islam steadily received currency iMuslim circles. A great body of them were of Jewish origirand exerted a powerful infiuence on the Muslim mind. Thearly commentators avoided to malie use of them. But thanecdotes nevertheless succeeded in forcing themselves intthe very texture of the commentaries of the QurGn written aftethem. (4) The traditions of the Prophet were usually employed toclarify the meaning of the QyrGn. But the tendency among thelater commentators ace to refer not so much to the traditions known to tl- inions of the Prophet, but to thos
  13. 13. xiv PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITIONcollected indifferently in later times. This created furtherdifficultiesin the understanding ofthe.QurZnicword. (5) The sad result of all this was that the manner of pre-sentation adopted by tF was 10st in a ma:ze of far-fetch-ed conceits. The stren ,e Qur51nic mearling lies in themanner of its presefitat s that which lends clarity to itsstatements and observatior,~, and makes significant the importof its stories and parables, its appeals and admonitions, andits purposes. Once the significance of this manner was missed,the true pictur QurEn was lost to sight. In the wordsof a poet: "Tl;at very page was blackened Whereon had been noted what was desi~The manner of argument observed by the Prophets was not toassume logical poses and confuse the hearer. They adopted thenatural way of direct appeal, such as might reach every type ofmind, and touch every heart. But the commentators, obsessedby the philosophy and logic of Greece could hardly bringthemselves to look a t reality in its naturalness and appreciateit. They thought that they were honouring their Prophets byturning them into dialecticians. They sought to demonstratethe greatness of t.he Qt~rEnby pressing it into the framework ofAristotelian logic, hardly realizing that it was never its primaryobject. The result was that the beauty and attraction of theQuriinic method of argument and of demonstrating its truthwas lost in a network of dialectical disquisitions. I n fact, thetruth had already been lost. The tragedy was that our com-mentators could not achieve even what they aimed at. Theysimply let the door wide open to doubt and endless specula-tion. Imam Razi showed the greatest Blacrity and ingenuityin promoting this consummation. (6) The trouble did not end here. The applicationof philosophy to the QurBnic thought gave rise to numerousdialectical terms, with the result that the simple words ofArabiccame to be invested with new connotations. The subject of
  14. 14. THE FIRST EDITION XVthe @~rcin, it is obvious, is not the philosophy of the Greeks,nor was the Arabic language a t the advent of the Qurinfamiliar with its philosophic terms. The words employed inthe @1rYZndid not originally bear the meaning which wasassigned to them in the light of Greek concepts. The transfor- mation led to a vaiicry of speculations; so much so, that wordssuch as Khuliid, Ahdiyat, Mithliyat, T f i , o s l Hujjat, Burhin and Tiwil came to bear meanings which the earliest listeners ofthe @rYinwould never have thought could bear. (7) As a corollary to this attitude, the idea came to thefore that the Qdrin shodd support and endorse every newdiscovery in scientific knowledge. An attempt, therefore,was made to read therein an argument in favour of the Ptolemic system even as the present-day dispensers of intelli-gence who write commentaries of the @L?& try to interpretit in terms of every new development in the Science of the Cosmos. (8) Every book or every system of teaching has somethingor other for its central theme; so much so that everythingpertaining to it revolves ?ound it; and unless this centraltheme or its primary objective is understood, its significanceor anything that is subsidiary to it is not possible properlyto comprehend. The @1ry5n certain fundamental objectives hasto present. Unless these are appreciated in their properperspective, nothing pertaining to them is possible to catcharight. When under the circumstances explained above, theessential objectives of the QiuCn were missed, it was but in-evitable that everything pertaining to them could not beviewed in proper perspective-the statements of the Qyrin,its teaching, its method of argument and of address, and itsremarks and observations. Space does not allow citation ofillustrations here. Still, to catch a fleeting glimpse of whathas been wrought by our commentators, attention maybe drawn to but one or two examples. Take verse 160 ofchapter 3 : "It is not meet for a prophet to act dishonestly,"and read the far-fetched commentaries thereon. Take anotherverse which reproduces the Jewish assertion-"The hand of
  15. 15. -1XV~ PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITIONAllah is tied up" (554). What a rambling, do we not findin the explanations given thereof in utter disregard of thecontext in which the verse occurs! (9) A- primary condition of proper appreciation of theQurgnic meaning is the presence in the cornmeritator of aright taste for literature. Bui for various reasons this tastesteadily grew weaker among our commentators, resulting ininept approaches to the QurHnic word or to the idiomand usage of the language in which the QurZa had beendelivered. (10) The field of interpretation of the Qurgnic word hesalways been affected, even as the fields of arts and sciences,by the atmospheric inflcence of every preceding age. I t is nodoubt a matter for pride that in the course of Muslim history,scholars possessed of upright character never yielded topolitical influences or tolerated compromises-in the doctrinal iefs of Islax. But the atmospheric influence of an age does . penetrate through the door of politics alone. In its ~chological aspects, it finds for itself many a door to come in.Once such doors are thrown open, they scarcely close there-after, however much one might try. The doctrinal beliefsmight escape contamination, and thanks to our uprightscholars they indeed were not seriously touched. But thegeneral character of the minds of men could not remain unaffected. (1 1) The period of enquiry and research in Islamic learning came to an end after the close of the 4th century of theHijra, and thereafter, barring certain exceptions, the ten- dency to lean on the past for every idea took hold of themind of the learned. Every one who ever attempted to writea commentary of the Qt~rZnchose as a matter of course to havebef bre him the work of some predecessbr and to follow it-
  16. 16. -xvi PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITIONAllah is tied up" (5:64). What a rambling, do we not findin the explanations given thereof in utter disregard of theconrext in which the verse occurs! (9) A primary condition of proper appreciation of the 1QurBnic meaning is the presence in the cornmeritator of aright taste for literature. Blli for various reasons this tastesteadily grew weaker among our commentators, resulting ininept approaches to the QurY8nicword or to the idiomand usage of the language in which the Q71rln had beendelivered. (10) The field of interpretation of the Qurgnic word. hzsalways been affected, even as the fields of arts and sciences,by the atmospheric influence of every preceding age. I t is nodoubt a matter for pride that in the course of Muslim history,scholars possessed of upright character never yielded topolitical inflaences or tolerated compromises.in the doctrinalbeliefs of Islax. But the atmospheric influence of an age doesnot penetrate through the door of politics alone. In itspsychological aspects, it finds for itself many a door to come in.Once such doors are thrown open, they scarcely close there-after, however much one might try. The doctrinal beliefsmight escape contamination, and thanks to our uprightscholars they indeed were not seriously touched. But thegeneral character of the minds of men could not remain unaffected. (1 1) The period ol earch in Islamic learning came to an end after the clust. aL the 4th century of the Hijra, and thereafter, barring certain exceptions, the ten- dency to lean on the past for every idea took hold of themind of the learned. Every one who ever attempted to write a commentary of the QiirY6n chose as a matter of course to have before him the work of some predecessbr and to follow it blindly in every detail. If, for instance, a conmewtator ofthe third century had committed a serious blunder in the understanding of any particular passage in the @lrZn, it be- came the bounden duty of those who came after him to re-produce word by word whatever he had written. No one for
  17. 17. PREFACE T O THE FIRST EDITIONa moment paused to scrutinize the statement or questionT h e result was that gradually few could develop the urge -- -write fresh. cornmentaries. Every one contented hirrlself there-after to wr,ite only marginal notes to the cornmentar ies alreacl~in existenc:e. Read. the marginal notes of Baidavi anid Jalala in td see what energy was wasted by them to give mere coatings the walls already raised by others. (12) The prevailing ineptitude of scholars in the succeedingperiods of Muslim history let every form of idiosyncrasy "-prosper; so much s3, that only those commentaries came infashion and were read with zest which bore no trace whatevof the touch given to the interpre~ tation o the Qurzn by the fearliest band of commentators. Th.e tender~ c grew universal. yIt was felt in every sphere of iearning. he period of time I iich could prefer Sakkaki to Juq jani or I>refer T:iftazani rkkaki was indeed a period when only wr iters o f t:he type ridavi and Jalalain could shine. (13) Take the case of compilations wherein matter wasgathered from commentarip already in existence. Wherevera variety of interpretations had been offered by previous com- entators, the compiler would invariably choose the feeblest. ~t that his eyes did not rest on appropriate or valid in- rpretations; but with a view to pandering to the prevailing ste, he would aeliberately overlook then (14) To make matters worse, the typ mmenta: .. l ~ .own as "Tafsir-bir-rai" or commentary wnicn lets tne te .~ bserve ones own personal opinion on any subject, came ~w freely to be written-a form of commentary strongly scountenanced by the companions of the Prophet. Not at reason and insight were tabooed in Islam. Were it so, all ldy of the QurBnic thought would seem futile ; for the rrciir openly invites its readers to exercise reason in their ~proach:o it, anc1 ponder on whait it states. At ev~ corn1 i ery its presetntation, it exclaims : "Do th ey medi tate on the g t ~ r ~ n ? are there: locks or their m~inds (0 :2 ?" :47
  18. 18. xviii PREFAC rE FLRST "TaO ;ir-bir-ra at form of commlcntary which docs not LI-. , - . , ..-. - -. n l n l to rcprc!cnt wnar rrlc p. .7 an actually states. O n the . L " hand, th nntator 1]as somc view to advance and he ,s thc Q ext to le:nd suppfort to it. - - .. - . l n i s stylc 01 commentary camc lnto vogue in the days ~ lvhcn cvcry doctrinal bclicf of Islam came to be seriously cxamincd and a number of schools of theology took their rise, cnch intent 011 exploiting thc Ql~rA17 to uphold its own point of Comn~cntarics with this purpose are styled ,ir-bis-rai". A ~.~ l l r t ~wncn, zealous tollowers of thc diffcrent juristic ~cr schoo ; lfuslim pcd thc passion for sectarianism, thc v thc Qiirc .xploitcd to uphold, by hook or oy crooK, tncir own particular schisnlatic obsessions. Fcw carccl to bc guidccl by the pl;lin m c aning of the plain word ~ of thc Gircin,or by thc clear p urposcs I lndcrlying thc Qurznic mcthocl of prcscntntio~.of its contents, or by straight-forvard onc atte mptcd t I forcc the QurSnic mcaning to c lc vicws sponsor cd by thc Imam or founder of nls own sctus~natlc . school. of... , thought. T o crcatc furthcr complica~ions,c:ertain scctions of the Sufi stchool of thought in their search f or thc h iddcn meaning ". . . o thc Qurcn, went so far as to press cvcrythlng ~ u r ~ a ninto f .- i cthe moulds of their own formulas. Thus every Qurznic in-junction and every basic belief came to bear somc sort of eso-tcric c onnotation. This form of approach is also "Tafsir-bir-rai". O r takc another instance of this "Tafsir-bir-rai". Attemptswcrc madc during the period undcr rcfcrence to give the .- -Qura nic mcthod of argument the ga.rb of Greek logic. Infact, whcncvcr any rcfercnce was made to the sky, or theconste llaryordcr, attempt was made to square it with thc Greeksystcm of astronomy. O r take the latest examples of interpretatior lted bya certain type of commentators both in India ana agypt inthe name ofreorientation of the Quriinic thought. Attempt ismade to invoke the @(r&z to lend its support to the achieve-ments of modern research in the different spheres of scientific
  19. 19. PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION xix thought, as if the gt~ilrinwas delivered over 1,300 years agojust to endorse in advance, in the form of riddlcs, what cen- / turics after, men like Copcrnicus, Ncwton, Darwin, H. G .Wells, could find out for themsclvcs without the aid of any revealed scripture-riddlcs reserved to be noticed and unravell-ed only by the present-day Aiuslirn comnlentators of thc &!ir1En. Such commentaries arc also to be classed as "Tafsir-bir-rai". Such in brief is the story of the QurLnic interpretation attempted in the past. But howcvcr bricf this survey, it isenough to show .tvhat obstacles one has to overconle to reachthe Q~~rfiz, what thick veils to lift to catch a clear vision of it. or The effort will involve a simultaneous survey of cvery nook and corner of the Q11r~n and thc cxcrcise of deep insight intothe meaning of things. It is only thcn that the forsakcn realityof the Qurin may put in its appearance. I have tricd to thebest of my ability to negotiatc with these obstacles. I cannotsay to what extent I have succecdcd in my attempt. But1 maysay this with confidence that 1 have opencd a new avenuefor an intclligcnt approach to the QurEn, and hope that men ofunderstanding will noticc that the method adopted by mc issomething fun( lly differ-ent fronn the mcin the past. 1, P- .. . Three distinct necas call ror attenuon In connecaon wu11the study of the Qurcn. These have been attended to severallyin Mzqaddam-i-Tafsir, Tc~J:rir-cll-Bfiyinand The Tarjum6n al-QurEn. The first prcscnts thc o-bjects orpurposes of the Qiirinand discusses the principles underlying them and enunciatcsthe leading ideas advaiiced by the Q,urin. The second is meantfor a detailed study of the Q?irJin,and the last aims to presentwhat is universal in the Qurznic teaching. The last of the series is published first ibr the reason that inits purposes, it can claim priority of importance, and in fact,i t forms the basis on which the other two works rest. I n thepreparation of this work, the object kept in view is to presentnot a detailed commentary on the traditional lines, but togive out all that is essential t o an easy grasp of the Quriinicmeaning. T h e method of presentation adopted for this purpose,
  20. 20. XX PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITIONI venture to hope, may be favoured by the thoughtful amongus. T h e aim is to furnish a self-explanatory translation of the(LflrEn in Urdu, explicit enough to convey the scnsc ofthe ori-ginal in full, supported here and there, by appropriate foot-notes. These foot-notes offer commcnts on thc textual content,furnish details for the Qurgnic gcrtcralisations, disclose thevarious purposcs undcrl>.ing them, furnish argumcnt or cvi-dencc in thcir support, introducc cohcrcncc and orclcr in thediffcrcnt QurZnic i~junctions,anc! clarify thc ~ncaning the ofQuriinic tcxt with the utmost brevity. In short, thcy scrvc asa beacon light to thc thoughtliil- "a light glcaining bcforethem and on their right hand"-to usc the Quriinic phrasco-logy (Q:57: 12), a light that kccps thc rcacler company anddocs not dcscrt hjw. The arrangement of notes lvas no less an casy task than thetranslation of the original tcxt. One could not givc to thcmmorc than a limitcd space; but thc need was always tl~erc lct tothcm be as fi~lly comprchcnsive in their scope as possiblc. Carcwas thercforc taken to sce that thcy bctraycd no lacunae. T h cutrnost brevity has had to be rcsorted to in thcir coinposition;but i t may be made clear that every word of these notes issuggestive in import, and opens out vast vistas of possibleelaboration.District Jail, LVKCI ul16 &oeember,
  21. 21. TRANSLATION OF PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION, 1945 THE ~ C I ~ ~ L ( ~ S Sof~ rn;t~l noiiceable in the fact that tlic plans I I ( ~ S S is 1i(. 1;tys o u t sca :ti11 prrL roclay he scarts a piccc o f lvork a~itl t Iic 1i;is .I1 that ,as ncccssary. FVlie~l lie 11c:xt( 1 ; ~ ) . CI;LM.IIS ancl h e rev~elvs t what vas clone by him tlic: cl;~!; bclore , he real izcs that thc vo1 e had thought wns donc well begins .to disclo Evcsy lvriter - . wlio has had rnc occnslon 10 rcvisc 111s own writings, will 1 cndorsc thc truth of thc stntcmcnt that I have j ust madl L a TVhcn I lookccl into the first cdition of The Tarjk m t n nl-1Ql~riitt after the Inpsc of scveral years, I felt just this experlencc. Thc rcsult was that I had to rcvisc the cntirc matter both of thc translation and the commentary which havc now put 011 a ncw bearing altogcthcr. T h c following are the alterations that need special mention: (1) Fscsh items of ir,terest have been incorporated into thetext of thc commentary of the Surat-ul-Fatika which had pre-viously been overlooked. T h e bulk of the volume has con-scquently been enlarged. T h e enlargement is particularlyduc to a further elucidation of t h e issues arising out of thesubjcct of the "Conccpt of God". T h c attributes of God have always formed a vcry delicateand complicated subjcct to handle. I t touches the frontiersof metaphysics 011 thc onc hand, and of religion on the other,since both havc an equal intcrcst therein. Philosophers morethan rcligious divincs havc taken a kcen interest in it. T h ephilosophic speculations of carly timcs, particularly in India,Grccce, and Alexandria, and of thc middle agcs havc givenrisc to alarge body of literature on the subject. IYhenscholars turned their attention to thc question of divine unity,and began to indulge in dialcctics, they fought among them-selves over the issues raised in consequence and opened the wayto a variety of divergent schools of religious thought among
  22. 22. xxii PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITIONthcmselves. The historic conflict between the Traditionists(Ashnb-td-Hadith) and Free Thinkers ( A s h i i r ~ ) may be citedas but an instance. This was one of the questiorls which for lon~perplexed mein my student days. IYhen thc truth dawned on me ultimately,I realized that the way of the dialectician took one nowhcrc.The more I pursued it. thc more distant did I find rnysclffrom the truth. I ily after a vcry scrious and painfulrcflcction that I ri .hat the way to mental satisfaction ~ .. L - n.. .was thc V ; L ~m;~rkc.u u uy .LIIL x ~ ~ r d n u itself, thc way followedta tlic first ;gcneratic~n of interpreters of the Qrtrin. I t isth )d ~.liichI have followed in my approach to it. I "The more I da!shed my hands and feet agtiinst the wavt:s, The more woef~ perplexed did I fgel. , llly But when I ceasect to struggle and lay motionl~,, PCP The way ieir own free will, drifteci me acr le shore."The subject of the "Concept of God" seemed to me hedgedin an intricate network of dialectic disquisitions and philoso- phic terminology, and I felt that it should bc rescucd. This I have attempted; and I feel that cven those who are not con-vcrsant with the phraseology of Islamic learning will be able to follow my line of thought without difliculty. IYherevernecessary, I have given English cquivalcnts to such Arabicterms of philosophy and clialectics as had necessarily to beused in the course of my discussion, so that those whose educa-tion has been conducted on modern lines mayeasilyfollow whathas been stated on the subject. (2) In the course of the discussion on the "Concept of God"I had, in the first edition, incidentally to refer to the views heldon the subject by the followers of other faiths. The referencewas but cursory. But after its publication, it was realized thatthis needed some elaboration. The matter has therefore beenentirely recast for this edition and set in appropriate detail. (3) I n the first edition, I was content to distribute the
  23. 23. PREFACE TO THE SECOXD EDITION xxiiimattcr of the volume only under certain leading heads. Inthe second edition, however, I have supplied sub-headingsas well to enable the rcadcr to catch at a glance the scope ofthemnttcr covcrccl undrr cnch main llcad. (4) T h c el~tirc mnttcr of tllr tsai~slationhas bccn revisedso n$ to sct ill c1casc.r 1~cssprctivc meaning of thc original theancl thic, as l"tr ;I$ possible in utmost conformity to thc dictionof tllc. Asabic tcxt. Tliosc -]lo hnvc hacl the opportunity ofrcntling thc mnttcr or thc first cclition will not miss to noticethat cvcry scco~l.cl third line in evcry paragraph has, in one orfor 111 or anotllcr, bceil modified. (5) T h e explanatory notes attached to the translation havein most cases bccn cnlargcd. O n the wholc, thc prcscrlt cdition is, in view of its specialnew kntures, so differe~t from thc prcvious cdition that, I daresxy, those who have read thc earlier edition will by no means lye1 indifferent to it.Ahrnacl~lagnrFort Jail7 fibrrtcly, 191.5 .
  24. 24. C H A P T E R I1 T H E C O W-AL-BAQARAH- REVEALED A T MADINA I n the name o j Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful. This chapter begins with a statement that the object of the Qurzn is to direct mankind to the path of goodness, and that success in life is for those who care to live aright. Section I opens with a description of this category of people. [2] This is the Book whereinthere is nothing to doubt-a guidance to those who livearight- [3] To those who believe inthe Unseen, who observe prayer,and give (to others) out ofwhat We have given them, [4] And who have full faith -4 ~ 9 7 99 49. /in that which hath been sent kd3%?e&b H down to thee (the Prophet of Islam) and in thatwhich hath been sent downbefore thee and who firmly believe in the life to follow. [5] These are they who have 5hJ2 < ~,. 9 b /99*9~99 9 ~ taken to the path laid down by their Lord, and these are 0 u+?+ they with whom it shall be well. As agrainst thc3se who care to live aright and have full faith in the Qurln, there stands a body of people who have chosen 3
  25. 25. 4 P$$T 11 3 to reject its guidance. A description of them also is given here. [6] As for those who ha..?? 9 ~ 7 M d s M/ e , Orefused to believe, alike i t $,+$&b69$?2$~&~ /,e .. @- 99 99 / .7~,,/is to them whether thou warnthem or warn them not; they oc;,Y4?Y+~p?d;~will not believe. [7] God hath set a seal ontheir hearts, and on theirhearing, and a veil licthover their eyes; and forfhenl a~vaiteth grc achastisement. SE Iiclway 1 the twc) sets of people rncn tion " .., stand those who profess to believe in the iaitn presenreu r the Qurcn but who actually arc not believers. 181 And there arc someamong tllc who say:"We believe in God andin the Day to follow".I n truth, believersthey are not ! [9] They seek to aecclve 994 i / 9God and those who believe. , ~p /~ c %~ / S P / G . W L + I 97 @ ~ / ~ .In fact, they deceive &YJU$&Lthemselves, though they are )f LXVJ A here is a disease (of disbelief) in their he arts; so God ha th incre ascd thcir , . , T:" disL,roL. ~r them, there is a grievous chastisement,
  26. 26. THE COW-AL-BAQARAH 5 because of the false assertion they make. While pretending to be working for peace and order,they spread d i s ~ r d e r . [ l l ] And when it is y 9 l p J b. bV!,*&y / ,p ,?- , 9.7 said to them: "Do not 4 kf~ 3 L. ~ ./ 2 P P(c ,/ - &%&idlfl$ 7 spread disorder in the @ r land," they say, "We are the people who promote order". [I21 hfark! I t is $ 3 u 3 ?9 bp A9 ~ t F 4 9 4 / 9 J +e they who are the / 9 93Z" promoters of disorder! @d>L.id But this they d o not realise. They regard upright behaviour as fol the crcationof disaffection and strife as ~visdom. [13] Then it is said 3 da$,,a~, 5; 1 to them: "Believe as others have believed," thcy say: "Shall we believe in the manner of 4 -J<" 9 I fools?" Tnkc it! OU+$?~&J they arc thenlsclvcs veritable fools, although (in their arrogance) they do not realisc it. -1 hey 7 mock a t believers. [I41 When they meet r4:j9$(3j3$jJ3; %rg( the Faithful, they say: , ,
  27. 27. "We hold to your faith";and when they are apart > , I3 wj d 4 9 <r~<s g l F J g ,/-.r*with the mischievous f L*;, 7 lamong them, they say 99 - 0 . ~ @A &.+ $+ to them: "MTe rcallyare with you; we wrrc cking t h ] God v ly 99 4rnrow [lack a t thcnn 4 ~ 2 - ; 3 ~ 3thrir mockery and lct / , 9 4 ~ 7 @~ , 9 & 4 4 3 , q / -them loose to eddy aboutin their perfidy. [16] These arc theywho have purchasedmis-pidance a t thecost of guidance. So,neither their trafichas brought them gain, @ ; $gt; a .. /nor could they takkto the right path.mile: [17] They are like onewho was groping in thedark a n d kindled a fire &$&to have light, but whenthe fire flamed a n d its aFlUGL&G 9 15~ / 9 / 4 ,9/ / c / 7 9 9 9 /< / 0light spread around, it &o~YJ&!!$,~~ 3 eso happened, through @u>&. A ~ ~ 7 9 + 2 Pdivine power, t h a tsuddenly the flame gotextinguished, a n d thelight vhnished. T h eresult was t h a t darknessoverspread again a n d theycould see nothing.
  28. 28. THE COW-AL-RAQARAH 7 [I81 So, deaf, dumb, / 9 ~ / . l g f ~ Prk 9 blind, as ther arc, they 11 A ~ r u f h f l / 79 ?/ cannot, in their state @ U% * & of pcrfidy, be reclaimed. The Truth of God manifests itself cvcn in natural calamities. T h r y are blessings in disguise, bringing home to those who disregard the 1x1~s life the painful consequcnces of tllcir of actions. [:9] Or tbcy are like those14 ho when thc earth is in nccd ofrain and God, through His grace, clouds the skies and causesn cloud-burst nccon~panicdby darkness, thunder, and lightning, , , , 5zl$s & -4" Ainstead of rvelcon~ing,as theirsharc, the bcncfits of the rain,mind only its disturbingaccompanirncnts. The)- arestruck with fear OC cleath, andsince they cannot stop thethundering roar, thrust thcirfingers into thcir cars againstthc thunder-claps, althoughthey cannot ward off thelightning by this device; andGod encircleth thc disbelievers. [20] Whenever the lightn-ing flashes powerfully, theirterror increases; so much sothat they feel that the !i_~htn-ing bath wcii-iiigh snatched 2 Y ? Vtheir sight. So, ivhen~veritflashes to t h r o ~ vlight aroundthem, they go a fev pacesforward and when darltnesscloses upon them, they hold
  29. 29. 1) a c k . 11 (1;ocl will i t , thcvv i l l rrrnz in thrre I,cl.c.rt of ..>:.. I .-....i.." , > " At l i r i i ~ i t - ~ l l a L I utlirir siglit. - 97 , 7 f :5"ii <&> pl.c.rily Gocl 1iatl-1 vcra l l things. llir Unity of Go:,. T h e Divinc attributes of c r e a t l ~ ~ ~ ullu SUE tcnnncc arc a tldi~ccd support o r bclicf in Divine Unity, a in I~clit~f wllicli i.; iilgl-ainccl in human nature. [ ? I ] 0 y c ~ n a n k i n d Scrve !your Lord who created you cba- A $; ; 4 ~ 7 ~ ~ 9 : ; ;&&JyJ-J+."- (2: -.and ~ v h ocrcatccl also thosethat liavc gone I>c.forcyou,that you niay liverighteously.place for you niicI thehcavcn a coverinIS, the 9 5 /L2"3* > $heaven 11..on1 whilch l i e /,9 /< $,E,b : ;,:.!!, , 7 f<4 /-pours do~n rain to ~ v a t e A P L q > *f " + G :$ r - b ?<,f.v/ 5 d9-, %the earth from .I- ~ i c h grol dpui3~,~dJi&s , /fruits o r c livcrsc sort foryour sustcnancc. So, ~ v h c nthepower of creation is,only His, a n dthe poivcr o f sustenanic is only His, andt h a t therc is no God other ii1a.n He ! ~ r o ~ h c t l t o o and Kcv elation: d qd note that if you be in doubt -tlth of tile .:<b.delation
  30. 30. wllicl~ Mc. 1iar.c. srnt down through our servant, (~hr mc.isc.ngc.r), then you can casily dt.citle l i ~ r) ~ o u r s r l v ~ s ct.hethc.r it is a n y procluc~ion01 t1ic Ilurnan inti.llect; &&lJ+ 01. il y o u pt.rsLst in >.our doubt, then $3 7 L?>LTP *, d//J. 7 /d , ? w f product :it lcast a chapter, onc like it, . d%;~&l~;; A // , a n d invite bcsidc God all thosc tr.honn you regard as j.our liclpers so help you d o i t . [24] And if you d o i t not-ancl ih? trutli is that you shall ncver do it-thrn, fear the Ficc of which, 9 /~P/,z/ i ~ ~ s t e aof wood, men and stoner ibsrn 0 d ~k!b>~~& the fuel, a n d which is prep;ired for those ~ c h o rrjcct the Truth. QsG . : . /0 5 I/- & .~ ,u~+ i k $ i r [25] T o thosc ~ v h ohave follc the p a t h of hclief and .hose works also are rigliteous, to them annour- that tllcy shall have gardcns of rtcrnal bliss, instrad of a place . 9.. .9-/9 p i ~ / 4.,c., cf fist, grcen gardcns in which Lkb-&9&d& I, S) ( kflow cut-rents of ri;lter. .Vhensoever [hey will bc providccl therefrom >$ ~ % g > . i ? & ~ 9 / ivith fruit for sustenance or any a " -9- 7 9 7otller form of heavenly sustenance, ~ b ~ l wNb&r>- #/9t h e v shall cjaculate: "This was the & A i.*cvery sustenance which was provided ~~~~,bg,A~d / 79 1 /9* 7 G;B/4to 11s bcfore. I t is a recompense forgoodly dccds of ~ v h i c hrvc had beenpromised in o u r earthly life."T h e recompense will correspond to thetleecl thcy had wrought. Apart fromthis thcy shall have virtuous a n dchaste female companions a n d theirbliss will be a n unfailingbliss with n o diminishing.
  31. 31. 10 r PA! - I&, 7, T h e way of God is to express thc T r u t h a t times by inc,anr: of iilustratinn~. [26] God (rhose messnsc is intcndedto cxprcss a thing in a manner intelligi-ble to the pcoplc addressed) docs not ror /,,,../,r , ,/.+"/ , J / T / + / /tllc sake of cimrnrss ]leiitate to e n ~ p l o y bLbw9ba4*G~bthc iltuslration o f cvcn ;I gnat or of &,A , , .,,, ,, ,9 ,, ,anything morc insignificant. As for Js$jy4&$those who bclicvp, thcy catch thesignificance of rhat is adv:nccd by 7 d., ; J u 3 L, 9 J9 i c 7 " ; / ,r/ , A& + their Lord; but as for thosc. i.i.110 dis-bclievc, they cannot, clue to ignorance w? ;>> : t $;,y>b ug+ ,//+,/ P 9 +/, *,f.,/4a n d inciiffcrc.r.c:., :cac:i the i y i i i i i . &CS@J!~=&%&P! 3 I?They will ask: "What mc.nncth Goc!by such a n il!ustration?" Mail>-therlc are lvl-lo arc tiicrcby togo a stray, arl d many thcrc arc vhoarc causeu to go aright and (thcDivine tra)7 is) to let nonc go , y / ,*9J R.// 7 astray cxccpt the transgressors. &3d+&+.~$ [ 2 7 ] Mho a r c thc t r n n s ~ r c s s o r s .., ;transgressors arc they who brcak tliccovcnant of God having once admittedit, a n d sundrr what God had biddcnto bc kept unitcd an rl a c t di sorclcrly & ~ ~ w ~ / 7 9 / ? a ! 7 99 7 9I / 7 v b 9, ? /in thc land. SO c011f irmed a r c t l I c J , i n @~>&J&&JJ& , F.~ -/their ~vickcdnessand perverseness that theyare bound to sufEr loss in consequence. T h e Life Hereafter-the first creation, a n ai-gunlent for thc sccond. - r281 0 Sfankind! How can you deny G,, - -;hen you know that you were once without 53 7P;g lik ar:d h c p:~;.:. :-c?i.l lift, ;.qc? :rill ther, bb1d3$Lu3&&,$ 9 ~ 9 J j :-"iv. J p ~ - "$ < ,, ; :d/y .f#cnucr you io dic a n d c!iiicken you t o life .. + f j . . 2) U $aG43 ;S ,
  32. 32. SHE COW-AL-BAQrZRAH 11once again, and eventually shall you be /,JAYRbrought back to Him. @~ ~ - & j . TI, . superiority of man over the rest of the rings earth is emphasized. / 1291 H e it is rho created for you allthat is on earth; then turned H e to the skirs J,kfl&Gd$ / , Tf,and formed them into seven spheres, every 22.11of which offers you a variety of benefits; band H e knoivcth all things. 11 d..&JJ) 9~- ~ Y H $9 // 6 Thc a p p o i n t ~ : ~ c n t man as the vicegerent of God on earth of -the perfection of human species-the advent of Adam and the starting of Divine Revelation. [30] And 0 Prophet! Ponder on thisfact that when thv Lord addressed theanqels: "Verily I a m about to place onez icegcrcnt", they said: "Wilt 3~&{/JE &/=,1 3 $.J >3 9;/, 71 ,T :e thrrcin as vicrgercnt a being / && #bb;ikji&y~ ../ /who will cause disorder in the earth and , 9 1? , , ~&@&w / 1 3 . 3 9 4shed blood therein, while we hymn T h ypraise and extol T h y holiness, in the trust thatthy purpose is free from evil and T h y movement is free from flaw?" H e said:"Verily that which I have in view, youknow not". [3!] T h e n the process was set inmotion even as was the Divinc purpose, 9 ~ ~ ~so much so, that Adam made so marked aprogress intellectually7 that he acquaint- , ,,,, f 994 d 0ed himself with the narnrs of things. ~ o d ~ $ & J @ f l & ~set these things before the angels a n d asked: "Tell me the names of thes
  33. 33. 4ye know thc truth about them, as yefancy you do". @&&/q;J,y$4rl -/ [32] T h e angcls said: "Glorybe to Thee! We have no kno~vledge cxccpt . , ,what Thou hast causcd us to know. Thou, dl&[Thou alone art the Knowing, thc Tivise!" ,, - bw -. c @T %I [33] When the angels admitted thus - - -" / ir ignorance, He 0 Adarr : them their na94 when he gave out their names, . ~J$%~EL,saic1: "Did I nottell you tha t I know what is hidden . . -J -g $ p[ . .- / / / .the heavens and in the earth, and what ye . .sho.r r forth and whz~t ye cor Angels bow before Adam-Satan refuses-the heav, existence of Adam-the forbidden tree. - L r341 ILhen 7iVe said to the angels: "Row -1to Adam," they bowed accordingly save 0,: $%(a >l,Iblis (Satan) who woilld not, and stood F 24 / I / b / 7 / -+ / 7 p1 / 4 // /, % 4 /stiff -necked. T h e fact is that he was &bd~&~y~f9wof tlle ungrateful. [35] And Ye said : "0 Adam! ., 1 p 9</#77P 9 P / / / t0thou and thy male in the garaen anc ?>J>&I&,Q>~&~cat together freely thcrefrorye like, but approach not yf ye twain be of the transgressors. Ihe 1apse of Adam- -his con f ~ s ~ . i n n - - f.ess, and~the~ ~~gi ~ hrginnirig of a nlew phas;e of life ~ d b1 7.en Satan caused the twain to 1 ~fall i nto a la] and be deprived of ?se . . .pdd7 / 49 1 7 4 /ythe 2jtate (the state of peace and -comfort) they were in. And 11:e said L j &r U ; 5 ps l f klu6L Get ye out, everyone a n ene:my untc /../ $ . d ~ [
  34. 34. THE COW-AL-BAP_ARIIH 13every o t h r r . You will have to livehcrcaftcr (instead of in the garden) I 9 ~/6<?9on earth a n d profit (a5 is indivinr kno~vlcctge)by the good things (3 G- &jFL3of life for a pcriocl." [37] T h r n did Adam rccrive fromHis Lorcl certain directions, and Md qb&-j+9 c 4 0 / / !>then Gocl tiirned H e to him) in relent- 9, , 6 ,p /6,h , ,n-~ent.For, verily, H e it is .vho @ ? ?! 1j-J J s -Yy l p #& 4,lovrtlt to turn a n d 1 lolimitto His mrarcy. l h c guiclancc of Revclation an od ancl c,vil ;it work 1381 Adam forgiven, We issuc~command, "Grt yc all o11t Iro~nher8for tllc ncw lilt. that you I~avt, now --7 c~&~&G@to nclopt. Hut rc.rncml)cr that .vlicncver amcss;~gcof [ r u t h comcs to you, H .A". 5.you lvill havc two ways bcfore you. F.z6: / p v / / -/e /pWliosnrvcr S I ~ ; I I I follow M Y way, *J;Wai$cslMthcrr s!iall collie upon him no fear, # 9 H ~ M ~nor shall he grieve. O~ i , . Yh. r791 "Ant1 as for hiin who shall L dbelicvc not rtnd deny our signs,hc shall be of thc companions ofFire to tlwc.11 thcrcin." I l~cginning of I)i.inr Revelation-atldrcss to the c~l~ilclren 1sr;tr.I ~vlio ol .crc- rc.g;trdccI as the chosen peoj~lc. [4(] O h cliildrcn of Isr:tc.l! Ca , 3,9J$7 j& ! 2 1 && 7 d. I ~ >,~ ~. & $tnincl the 1)lcssings ~vhcrcwith I I ~ l ~ s s e ~ l " ~ , 9 ?A9ye and b r [roc to the promisr ye gave
  35. 35. 5I E will ac cept 1Zy guidancean, , , , ,r t ..-an it faithfully. I ,, , , , ,,wB~shall fulfil the prornise I gave ye thfor those M :ho act f kithfucy on-the guidarILL, +hP. shall be re~vnrded ,"P cLLLjrwith prosperity; and of Me alone, beve mindful. [41] And believe in what I have / I/j$wd9L,P> /7/ sent down, confirming that which :with you already, and do not take $gJj@g$j"the lead in rejecting it, and donot for petty gains exploit My j9Le&b+ ,/&/A,-! -/ JJ~% 79<9cAdwords, and of Me be mindful. 0 u$g~& [42] And clothe not what is true ,PAW,with what is u n t rie and r aise not ~ -/ g&?gsuspicion about it, or knovv.inglysupress the truth. [43] And o b s e ~ e pdyer, the vsignificance of which is lost on =?$r$@$J;you, and pay the poor-rate inrespect of IU are nolonger sin( 1 bow downwith those y v l i w ,aw down. 199 [44] Itrill ye enjoin righteous-ness upon others, and neglect &~;~CCT~~u,y~ / / / c7 9 / 9 5 ? F /9 9to practise it yourselves, althoughthe Rook of God is with you and b $ 3 ah 1you are accustomed to read it. @ GggjslC a n ye not understand this much? Implicit trust in God in moments of trial and prayer is the one spiritual force which promotes purity of mind and brings about a change for the better in ones cc [45] PLILuA,..?. upon the forces of s t e ; ~ ,"A UL,Nfast patience and of prayer to bette our condition; but this is a
  36. 36. THE COW-:lL-BAQAR.4I1 15task whichis very hard to perform exceptfor those who humble themselves P/ /> . 791 9 9 4 0 A &before God,will have to meet their Lord, as ~ ~ _ o ~ ~ I o & C & , 1461 A n d who think that they L ,,p I /; 7 s 4 @ ~ J ~ ~ P . . r, B S 0 r T k> ~ I oeventually indeed they will have to return t o H i m . Rt.rcrence to the times a n d doings of the Israelites-and to the causes of the rise s( fz!! of nations. ;! ; [47] O h children of Israel ! , , , .. $!@yJjIJJ~>!&. 9 9 / 7 w / , A / Call to mind the blessingswith which I blessed you a n dlifted you abovc all others. [48] And bcwarc of the Daywhen n o effort o n the part ofa n y one will protect you fromthe consequence of an evil drcd, " J / ~ W 3 "when n o intercession of onc foranother be considered, o r any 95 9 19 % wb / 7 P/?Pcompensation be accepted, and when 0WEnone shall succour a n o ~ h c r . T h c delivcrunce of the Israelites from the captivity of thePharaohs of Egypt a n d thc grant to them of the Hook a n d t h eCriterion. Idolatry a n d t h c worship of the cow among t h e1~r:lrlitt~s. r491 And call t o mind the occasion L .lvllcn We rescued you from the .Us ? / / 9 /bondage imposed upon you by ~ $J J ? 2 ,S .,$3thc Ihnrnolls lvho had lncrcdo u t to you n c r u d trcntmcnt, ,f&&zes . - +y&+ @ 7 9 79,slain your rnalc children, a n d
  37. 37. thr m e m l ~ c r sof tl pastv. 11nd in t l l i 5ordcal for you. 4 7 ~ pp .I * /. . I&;!J ~ j j I Y/, / (501 And call t 11eocc;lsion u ~ h c n y( as -om- 0. " - . ,/ , ,. - ,,;Y,~,.,,, ,ing out of Egypt n l l a L I I C r - h a r a o l l & ! 3 i ; ~ ~ , zr.~kfollo~vingyou, v(: p a r ~ c t lthc sc;t PI:,< @ G &?A~in such a mnnncr thal you camcout safcly a n d thc people of P11araa- got drov~?cd before your vcry cycs :itlcre wrttching(the sccnc horn t h c [51] A n d call to 111in1 tllc ,P,+ /forty nights of O L - Iengage ~1 ., T.~ ,,,,? 3d-J~ ~ ~ L S " Y I . ~ W ~ J , ~ , ~ mcnts with X,Ioscs ~ v h c n ,d i hi:s abscncc:, ye took. t o thc calf n, w&,r , :a+;p&k.s . 9I .+,5 id turnecj away fi-om the path T r u t h I :hich w:1s indeed agreat lapse on your part. [52] iYcverthelcss, IVc in 7 / ~ * 9y7/ -4 . ~our graciousness forgave you $>p. 7 G5 & . 9 y& Q G / 9that you nnight prove grate-ful. C531 i n d call to mind the occasion & ji3 / 3 .~w l ywhen We, having fulfilled the eng age- 9~ Ilnent of forty nights with Moscs, gxveto Moscs the Book (the Torah) a n d 9 > .4H.d 9 ,the Criterion ed3&$that you might be rightlyguided. . - [54.] And call to mind alsowhen Moscs, having come d o ~ v nt hhill with the Torah vouchsalrc d - .to him, ant1 finding you ctlgagcd i:the worship of thc calf, cricdout, "Oh my people! How sad that
  38. 38. you have forgotten your promisc! Vcril y, yoii kavr ivrongcd yo1 it-- 5,j , SLI~.~:> 1 5 / -9-p~ 7 9 sclvcs by worshipping a c;;!f; ~.~.licrcfore to your klakcr turn EA.~ 1$7<-.9 57 H ,r/O ti.i77f$& +PA f / / ? I i n repc1it;lncc and, ;is a mark o r J&U~~~~9V9JG -/ expiation, mortify ;.oursclvcs. T h a t ill be the right tliirig e$bjfLt$g) --- . g~ for you in t11c sight of your Maker. T h c n your rcpcntancc Tvas accr:?tr< a n d Hc turned to you; for iuclccd, Hc oft forgives, thc IIerciful. T h e Israclitcs doc~btdivine Rcvclatiorr. [35] .And call to mind when youh a d said, "0 lloses! ye will not ?-% 9/ t 991 7 ~ . ¶ < 7believe until we brhold thcc openly, ; <c, , , ; C/hold converse with God." You know p&tb&&dycj;F&what thc result 1 ~ 3 s your ofimpertinence? T h e result .as that , thereupon a thunderbolt seized youeven ~ v h i l cyou wcrc looking o n ! 1561 T h e n tTe raised you to lifeagain after you icrc dead, thathaply you givc thanks. I n the waterless descrt or Sinai, the good things of lifc .ereprovided to the Israelites. But they provccl to I>c ungratefulto God. [ 7 And when it was found that 5]the lack of water and the heat ofthe sun in the dcscrt or Sinaiwere about to wipe you out ofexistencc,)l,Ve caused the clouds to &c;~$&w;@
  39. 39. ~ ~ r e n d you,. and M:e sent do1i.n ovrr . upon you Mcni7cr and S(tl;iln s;?ying, " E ~ i tlieely oS ~ h gooil tliings we c " 99 /??<? / have proviiled Sor you." Still tlicy @ &* / .U +I $g did not give up thcir evil ways a n d suffered in conscqucncc. Tllcy did not hurt us by tllcir ungratcSu1 bchaviour; but they hurt their own sclvcs. W l ~ c n the Isrnclitcs r c t u r ~ ~ rtu pvwer a n u prosperlry, u illstead of cxprcssing thankfulness to God in all humility, thcy grcw arrogant. I 1 thcn, cannot thc mcmtof that ~nciclcnt bring you thc senseof contrition wlicn you werebefore thc city ancl wc comn~andeclyou: "Entcr this city triumphantlya n d cat thcrcli-o~nfrcely ~vhatcver + < A C;you like a n d ~ ~ l l you enter the cn f&~& GlXgate thereof d o so in humilityseeking forgivcncss, a n d muttering Hitatun,( O h G o d rcmovc from us theimpurities of sin) a n d We willpardon you your faults and @w& 3 3 7 9 9 < A Aincreasc the number or thosewho d o good?" [59] But it so happcncd that / <, <79 9-9the unruly among you changed &urtd&G$sthc phrascology of contrition into other than-hat was givcn them, ~ ~ h c r e u p n n , / / 9 J " FdG ! Z# $ , dk l & tle scnt upon thc unruly a scourge k /,999/79 / , -4from above for thcir clisobedicncc. @ ~r;~jki.,
  40. 40. The d of springs of fre:;h water in the d.esert of a n d tk ecine qu arrels anlong the Israelite,s over th [60] And call to mind when Mosesasked of Us water for his people and Vesaid: "Smite the rock wi;h thy staff I 7 9 .!7< A #&!W.S-U l?&>and you will see that thcre iswater available for you." ThenMoses carried out the behest, somuch so, that from the rock gushed 7 p / A ? . /w 99//7/twelve fountains and all the tribesknew their dricking places. You ~A~$LI$&JSwere told a t the time: "Eat anddrink of what God hath provide ~7 ? P ,/ 4 7and do not go about creating adw&!!dWdisorder in the land." The state of subservience or s1aver.y aemoralizes a people, a n d little stamina is left in them to urge them on to high rcsolves. The Israelites freed themselves from the oppression of the Pharaohs and a bright future was in store for them. But they yearned for the petty comforts they had enjoyed in their state of slavery under the Pharaohs and the denial in the state of freedom of even the smallest comfort of yore was galling to the [GI] And then recollect mar: pnaseof your past I~istorywhi ch hasa lesson for you, when you had (sried ou.to Moses: " 0 hfoscs! we will nolt put , 1 1up with just one sort of!rood. Ca 11 w;u~%&$ $uon Thy Lord to bring foirth for uthat which the earth growern-its. .,herbs, its cucumibers, its garlic, - r -lentils and oniol3s." He answered,
  41. 41. "Ah! jThat desires do yo11 entertain! Vill you cxchangc the sapcri~ foror the inferior, the high state of fi-ecdom for the satisfaction of a petty appetite 3" Wc c.:iclaimed indisgust: "If y~: ha e grown so drLgcneratc, then get ye dowr to sornc city where ye can ha.thc things ye dcsirc." The r(was that the , came tcbc amictcd I liiiationand homcles: tl drewthcm selves th e clisplcasurc of God,ancl Ithis, bec ausc they clisregardedthe cl.ircctionr; of God and sle~vtheir prophcts for no reason,and this bccause, they woulc1 notyield to the way of progress " ,lrebelled agairin ex cesses. T h:e annou t is macie that the way ation lies . . l a-long tne patn or Delier and righteous action. Kate or family 1- P 1 o r any relii~ i o u s :tionalism does not count. When the Jews sec gave u p th e way o. belief and righteous action, neither their f 1 sense of racial- superiority, nor their religious groupism was of any avail. T h e Law of God never turned to ascertain to what race or to what religious group people belonged. I t was con- cernedonly with the nature of the activity they engaged them- sel.ves in; and when it was found that they did not stand the tes t of righteousness, they were condemned and cast away. 321 Verily, they who be!lieve (in the , : of the Prophet Muhaimmad), and C% e -they vvho are Jews a n d Christians 7, / 7 L ;
  42. 42. THE COI,V-.4L-B.4QARAH 21and Sabians-whoever believeth in God and theday to come when the life lived is to be accounted fand doeth thatwhich is right-shall havetheir recompense with theirLord: Fear shall not comeupon them, neither shall they 0996999 / /t 9 $grieve. oY>*+Y!&O~ 7,: T h e Jews had degraded themselves to such a state that they never observed any religious injunction in sincerity, but tried to devise various neTv methods to absolve themselves from the proper dischargc of their duties. Their religious observance was onl:y a merc 1 0 3 ~And call to m ~ n d that chapter of yourhistory also when Je had taken a cove- %~KK?nant from you (on the occasion ~ v h e n ", >>~byou wcrc standing a t the baqe)and, we had raised the (mount of) T u r highabove you. Jc had thus said: "Hold fastto ~ v h a t JVe h a ~ j c delivered to you and z/ mit;g "/ "give heed to that lvhich is therein,that you may g r - 0 ~ ~ righteous." & I ~ L A L , [6$] Yet you turned back thcrcafter.But for the grace 2nd mcrcy ton-ardsyou, you should llnvc, through your $$~a>~7;w;4 ,999 , , 9 ..3d (E/f//Jxvavered behaviour, surcly bcen l o s c r s . f l w J J f i & f G [65] And full ~ ~didl you know lthat to such of you as had committed cxcenses @G>z Non the Sabbath day by clcvising v a r i o u ~ & ~ ; ~ , ~ > 9 ~ ~ ;excuses to absolve thrmsclvcs from thereligious duties prcscrihrcl, .," - ?. 4 9 N 5 >A ~ ~ Y 3 - j 1 / .-Ye had said: "Ye be dcspisecl as E /?apes (or hunted out of human socicty)".So it happened;
  43. 43. [(,GI :inti Vc made this scrvc as awarning to thosc of thcir time, andalso to tliosc ~ v h ocame aftcr them.I t lsas n cnriglitcous. It had bccomc n hatxt rvith the lsrae~ltcs r a ~ s c e n d l r c ~ to an number of unnccessnry qurstions and hair-splitting issuc in respect 01 rcligion instc:id of conSorming to the simple re gious discctions. [67] And call to nlindsaid to his people, "God clesirethYOU tc sacrifice a heifcr".Instead of carrying out this simple /</direction in a straightfor.asd 3~flLww!!k 7 9 ~ 7 / 9 ~9 9 l M 7 ~ j99/ / +go zp.way, they bcg;in to acldrcss him j9~kbJpLw@kvarious sorts of qucsries. Theyasked: "I>oest thou makc a jest of 6 3 O@&;fl&l&jJ~ . . A . C Yus" ? Said Moscs: "God lorbidthat I should (in givingcxposition of religiousinjunctions) bc onc of thetriflers." [68] Thcreupon they said: "If you b>,L;lb+&JuF,(~Li " 7 W / 9 d / / / L p 9 9 9y/are in the right, call upon thy Lordto make clear to us what theheifer is like which 1t.e have to d ga .&blJfi.isJJ1- 4 /~/~//, 54. P,A/lS zsacrifice? We want details." +ruG$h!! / B v4b -/Moses answered: "God says: She ia cow, neither old nor youn g> amiddling between. Now th.at thedetails arc given to you, d oas you are bidden." ~ ~ [69] They raised a further //(V 9 9 9 //$ / 44, , b l J&bJJ[ibbJ!J /question. They said: "Call onyour Lord to make clear
  44. 44. THE COW-AL-BAQARAH 23to us what colour it is?" H eanswered, "God says: She is aheifer, brown in colour, deepbrown-and pleasing to the eye7." [7O] J ~ h e nthe -details aboutcolour also were thus affordedthey raised another issue. Theysaid: "Despite these details,it is not easy for ns torecognize the animal. So callc:r, your Lord for us to make itfurther clear what cow it is-for to us cows seem alike,and verily if God pleases,we shall be guided aright." [7 11 11-l~ereupon Moses said : "Godsays: She is a cow nrver empioyed P ~0 ~4 P ,9 ~ ( 4 ., /in ploughing the earth nor in water- 3 3~~!J&&JJ~ ,,/ GY$&+Y~~;,J&719 ".A@ = :- 9 2 -9-5, /ing thc fields, sound, Tree of anyblemistl." So crestfallen, thev J&said: "No~vhast thou given us the exact picture". Then theysacrificed her, though they 3eemed at heart disinclined to do it. [72] And call to mind the occasionwhen you slew a man and then foisted .,,rthe derd on one another. and God b c; ,, ~ . ~ ~,3 p?%,p, , / ?clisclosrd !.hat you were trying toconceal. [73] JVherefore We said: "Youtouch him (the suspect) with apart of the dead". This was done,n n d t h e iclrntity of the murdcrerl v a s confirn;ed.. T h u s doeth God

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