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MUHAMMAD                      The Last Prophet                   A Model For All Time                 Sayed Abul Hasan Ali...
EDITION                        2008Printed atKakori Offset PressDr. B.N. Verma RoadLucknow-226018Ph.: 2629616             ...
ContentsForeword ......................................................................... 5The Age of Ignorance ............
The Battle of Hunayn .................................................. 182The Expedition of Taif ...........................
Foreword      All the Prophets were chosen by Allah to guide mankindto the Divine Path. They faced many difficulties and s...
It is hoped that the reader will appreciate this opportunityto examine Islam from a historical perspective and tounderstan...
PrefacePraise be to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds and peace be upon theexalted Messenger of Allah and the Seal of the Prop...
I have based my work on a summary of as-Sirahan-Nabawiyyah by Ibn Hisham, one of the oldest books on the life ofthe Prophe...
I pray that this book will help the Muslim youth of today to overcomethe thorny thickets which obstruct their path. Allah ...
10
The Age of IgnoranceAncient religionsAfter the Prophet of Allah, Isa ibn Maryam, there was along period without a Prophet....
the unjust separation that exists between its castes,discrimination between the castes being a harsh realityof daily life....
The Arabs were fond of war and did not hesitate toshed blood. A minor incident could stir up a war lastingfor many years i...
arrogant About many sciences, their fine literature andtheir splendid civilization, the Arabs followed onlysimple traditio...
Before ProphethoodMakkah and the Quraysh         After a long journey, Ibrahim approachedMakkah, Which lies in the valley ...
saved him and provided a ram from Paradise as a ransomto be sacrificed instead. Isma‘ils survival meant that hewould be ab...
distinguished chief of the tribe. From Fihrs descendantsQusayy ibn Kilab emerged. He ruled Makkah and heldthe keys to the ...
the worship of Allah alone, until Amr ibn Luhayybecame their chief. He was the first to deviate from thereligion of Ismail...
He intended to divert the Arab pilgrimage to Sana. As aChristian, he was jealous that the Kabah should be theplace where p...
wanted, Abdul-Muttalib replied, I want you to returnmy two hundred camels.     Abrahah was taken by surprise. He asked, ‗D...
turned it to face Yemen it got up immediately andmoved off.    Allah then sent flocks of birds from the sea; eachbird carr...
‘Abdullah and Aminah    Abdul-Muttalib, chief of the Quraysh, had ten sons.Abdullah, the tenth, was the noblest and his fa...
Prophet Ismail, the son of the Prophet Ibrahim (peace beupon both of them).    The Prophets mother sent a message to hisgr...
baby so she returned to fetch him and took him homewith her. Up until this time she had been an unluckyperson but now she ...
The deaths of Aminah and Abdu’l-Muttalib     When the Messenger of Allah was six years old, hismother, Aminah, died: She h...
As he grew up, the Messenger of Allah wasprotected by Allah Almighty. He distanced himself fromthe obscenities and bad hab...
goods to Syria to trade. When she was told About hisoutstanding competence on this journey she expressedher desire to marr...
They prepared to fight. The Banu `Abdu`d-Darbrought a large bowl filled with blood. They and theBanu Adi put their hands i...
arrived in Makkah with some merchandise and `Al-Asibn Wail, one of the Quraysh nobles, bought goods fromhim and then withh...
altering other ideologies. The Quran indicates this whenit says, `Before this you did not recite any Book norwrite it with...
After ProphethoodIntimations of Prophethood     The Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him andgrant him peace) was forty ...
The Messenger of Allah usually went to the Cave ofHira. He would remain there for several nights in a row,having taken alo...
Most Generous, Who taught by the Pen, taught manwhat he did not know." (96: 1-5)   This was the first day of his prophetho...
a man chosen from among His creation, whose life andconduct He was pleased with.    No one with a character like his need ...
always addressed him as the truthful one and thetrustworthy one.     In amazement he asked, Will the people drive meout?  ...
After Khadijah, Ali ibn Abi Talib (may Allah bepleased with him) accepted Islam. He was ten years oldat the time and livin...
Through Abu Bakrs work, some of the powerfulQuraysh noblemen became Muslims. Uthman ibnAffan,    Zubayr ibn al-‗Awwam, ‗Ab...
The Prophet climbed up on to the mountain of Safaand called out as loudly as he could, Ya Sabahah!     This was a well-kno...
When the Messenger of Allah openly proclaimed thecall to Islam and called out the truth as he had beencommanded to do by A...
The division and enmity of his people was a terribleburden for Abu Talib but he did not want to surrenderthe Messenger of ...
Talib. Their anger descended on those of their fellowtribesmen who had become Muslims and weredefenseless.     Every, clan...
They endured their persecution until Ammarsmother was killed because she refused to reject Islam.     Mus‘ab ibn Umayr was...
Your eye would not have suffered like that if you hadbeen well protected.    No, by Allah, Uthman said, my good eye needs ...
The next day the Messenger of Allah appeared againbut quickly they surrounded him and attacked him alltogether. One of the...
His relations rebuked him as he had shown concernfor the man on whose account he had been beaten lefthim alone with his mo...
They had a long discussion with much give and takebut AL-Walid was not pleased with their conclusion andcriticized it. The...
throttle him with his own clothes. Abu Bakr grabbedUqbahs shoulder and pulled him from the Prophet,saying, Would you kill ...
When the Quraysh saw that the Companions of theMessenger of Allah were increasing in number ‗Utbahibn Rabi‘ah suggested th...
‗Then listen to me.    I will, said Utbah.    Then the Messenger of Allah recited some versesfrom Surah Fussilat. Utbah li...
were to go to Abyssinia, you would find a king therewho does not wrong anyone. It is a friendly land and youcould stay the...
know. The nobles of our people – their fathers, unclesand clans -have sent us to ask you to return them to us.They are clo...
and to renounce the stones and idols which we and   our fathers were worshipping. He commanded us to   speak the truth, to...
protection. We hoped that we would be treated fairly    while we were with you, O King!    The Negus listened to all of th...
The Negus took a stick from the ground and said,By Allah, Isa ibn Maryam did not add to what you havesaid by so much as th...
I am going to find Muhammad, he replied, He hasdivided the Quraysh, mocked their traditions, criticizedtheir religion and ...
When he did that, his sister and brother-in-law toldhim, Yes, we have become Muslims and we believe inAllah and His Messen...
At that Umar said, Khabbab, guide me toMuhammad so that I can go to him and become aMuslim.    He is in a house at Safa, K...
The Muslims confidence increased when Umarbecame a Muslim as it had when Hamzah before himhad become a Muslim.    News tha...
For many months the Banu Hashim lived in misery.The boycott was so rigorously applied and food was soscarce that they had ...
while the Banu l-fashim are perishing, unable to buy orsell? By Allah, I will not sit down until this unjustdocument is to...
to the extent that I stuffed my ears with cotton. I went tothe mosque and the Messenger of Allah was standingthere praying...
Thaqif people and to call them to Islam. He hoped theywould be sympathetic to his call.     On arriving in Taif, he went t...
seeking Your forgiveness and Your favour until You    are well-pleased. There is no power nor strength    except by Allah....
through the heavens, witnessed the signs of Allah andmet the earlier Prophets.     His eye swerved not nor swept aside. He...
festivals. He explained the beliefs of Islam to them andasked them to protect him from his enemies, saying,     O people! ...
rent by enmity and evil as they are! Perhaps Allah willjoin us together by means of you. We will go to themand call them t...
Islam began among the people of the Aws and theKhazraj in Madinah. Said ibn Muadh and Usayd ibnHudayr became Muslims. They...
on the basis that you protect me as you would protectyour wives and children.    They pledged their allegiance to him. The...
not want to remain in Makkah. Some, including AbuSalamah, were forced to leave their wives and childrenbehind and to trave...
responsibility for his death would be divided among thetribes and the Banu ‗Abd Manaf would not be able tofight them all. ...
Abu Bakr exclaimed, In company, Messenger ofAllah?    In company, replied the Messenger of Allah, andAbu Bakr wept for joy...
concealed the fact that the Messenger of Allah and AbuBakr had only just gone in. Allah also commanded twowild doves to fl...
Suraqah ibn Malik ibn Ju‘sham was eager to get thereward offered for the Messenger of Allah. He wastracking his footsteps ...
were brought to Umar. He summoned Suraqah ibnMalik and put the royal insignia on him.    Although Suraqah offered the Mess...
In MadinahMadinah receives the Messenger of Allah     The Messenger of Allah and his party continuedtheir journey to Quba ...
stood up to shade him with his cloak from the sun, thusmaking it clear who was the Messenger of Allah.                    ...
MADINAH MUNAWWARAH       77
The Muslims were overjoyed at the arrival of theMessenger of Allah. It was the best thing that had everhappened to them. T...
In Madinah the Messenger of Allah was greeted bypeople, all asking him to stay with them. They grabbedthe halter of his ca...
The Messenger of Allah helped in the building of themosque, carrying bricks alongside the other Muslims.    As he worked h...
was great benevolence as they demonstrated theirgenerosity to their Muslim brothers while the Muhajirunretained their self...
Islam spread throughout Madinah and some of therabbis and Jewish scholars also became Muslims. Theyincluded a learned rabb...
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi
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Muhammad (pbuh) The Last Prophet -A Model For All Time by Shaykh Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi

  1. 1. http://nmusba.wordpress.com/
  2. 2. MUHAMMAD The Last Prophet A Model For All Time Sayed Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi Academy of Islamic Research and Publications P.O. Box 119, Tagore Merg Nadwatul Ulema, Lucknow (India)Published byAcademy Academy ofIslamic Research and PublicationsP.O. Box 119, Tagore MergNadwatul Ulema, Lucknow (India) 1 http://nmusba.wordpress.com/
  3. 3. EDITION 2008Printed atKakori Offset PressDr. B.N. Verma RoadLucknow-226018Ph.: 2629616 2
  4. 4. ContentsForeword ......................................................................... 5The Age of Ignorance ................................................... 11Before Prophethood ...................................................... 15After Prophethood ......................................................... 31In Madinah .................................................................... 75The Decisive Battle of Badr .......................................... 85The Battle of Uhud........................................................ 97The Battle of the Ditch ................................................ 117The Expedition Against the Banu Qurayzah ............... 128The Peace Treaty of Hudaybiyyah .............................. 134Inviting the Kings and Rulers to Islam ....................... 143The Expedition to Khaybar ......................................... 148The Expedition to Mutah............................................ 159The Conquest of Makkah ............................................ 164 3
  5. 5. The Battle of Hunayn .................................................. 182The Expedition of Taif ............................................... 186The Tabuk Expedition................................................. 192The Year of Delegations ............................................. 198The Farewell Hajj ....................................................... 200The Death of the Messenger of Allah ......................... 206The Prophets Character and Qualities ........................ 221WORKBOOK ............................................................. 223TRANSLITERATION ................................................ 236Glossary ...................................................................... 237Names/Kunyahs/Epithets and Titles ........................... 241Communities, Tribes, Clans and Families .................. 248Places .......................................................................... 250 4
  6. 6. Foreword All the Prophets were chosen by Allah to guide mankindto the Divine Path. They faced many difficulties and sufferedsevere hardships in their efforts to call their erring people toobey and worship the One God, Allah. This book is the last in a series of stories About theseProphets. It portrays a vivid picture of the life and times ofMuhammad, the last Prophet (peace and blessings be uponhim). It has been written in a style attractive to young peopleby the renowned Islamic scholar Maulana Sayyed Abul HasanAli Nadwi, one of the greatest living authorities on Islam,whose works provide material for the text books used inschools and colleges throughout the Arab and Muslim world. This translation has been prepared especially for youngEnglish-speaking Muslims who wish to benefit from thescholarship usually found in Arabic or Urdu publications.MUHAMMAD, the Last Prophet is based on the Holy Quranand contemporary accounts of events taking place during thatperiod. It offers an authentic account of the early call to Islam,the impact of which is still reverberating around world. 5
  7. 7. It is hoped that the reader will appreciate this opportunityto examine Islam from a historical perspective and tounderstand why it remains so relevant to life today. My thanks are due to Sis. Aisha Bewley, Sis. UmmAyman, my daughters Suad, Shifa and my other children fortheir help in producing this book. May Allah accept this effortand make it a source of inspiration and guidance for all.Leicester, England IqbalAhmad AzamiRabi al-Awwal 1414 A.H.August 1993 6
  8. 8. PrefacePraise be to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds and peace be upon theexalted Messenger of Allah and the Seal of the Prophets, Muhammad,and upon all his family and Companions and those who follow themwith sincerity until the Day of Judgement. No words can express the praise and gratitude I owe to AllahAlmighty or describe my happiness as I write this preface to the lastbook in the series Stories of the Prophets.Allah has prolonged my life and blessed me with success incompleting this book devoted to the life of the last Prophet (mayAllah bless him and grant him peace). A period of thirty years lapsed between writing the story of theProphet Musa (peace and blessings be upon him) and the sectionwhich begins with the story of the Prophet Shuayb and ends with thestory of the Prophet Isa ibn Maryam (peace and blessings be uponthem). No one can be certain of continued life and it wa5 onlythrough Divine kindness and favour that I was able to write About thelife of the Prophet specifically for children. Having dedicated myselfto the task of writing this book I managed to finish it in a short time.Then I began a definitive work on the life of the Prophet. This smallbook formed the basis for the larger book, completeO at thebeginning of Shawwal 1396 A.H. produced by Dar ash-Shuruq inJeddah under the title, as-Sirah an-Nabawiyyah and published inCairo in Rabial-Awwal, 1398 A.H. (April 1977 CE.). It has also beentranslated into English and published by The Academy of IslamicResearch & Publications, Lucknow, India, entitled Muhammad,Rasulullah). 7
  9. 9. I have based my work on a summary of as-Sirahan-Nabawiyyah by Ibn Hisham, one of the oldest books on the life ofthe Prophet still in existence. It has had a great effect on the heartsand souls of generations of believers. I· have also relied on ancientSirah sources and the celebrated books of as-Sihah in hadith. As I.did not set out to write an academic treatise I have refrained fromconstantly specifying my sources. The book has been written forenthusiastic young people, not for university scholarship, soreferences are confined to texts and variants. My large and compre-hensive book on the Sirah will meet their needs for theologicalarguments and contemporary studies. By the power of Almighty Allah, this present work comes if!between the Sirah written for adults and the books published forchildren. It can be studied by adolescents or read by non-academics,in their madrasahs, libraries and homes. It will also be useful tonon-Muslims and can be translated into other languages. It containsthe core and summary of the Sirah, the wonders and facts of variousevents, the background to the Islamic call, and the conquests andvictories associated with it. Abuve all, this book will provide thestudent with a welcome environment in which he or she will findguidance to last a lifetime. It provides-the light to illuminate thepathway, the spiritual weapons needed for defence against secularismand satanic influences and the message to carry into the future.Finally, I. praise Allah for the successful conclusion of this work. Ithank Him for His gifts and blessings and I ask Him to accept myefforts. 8
  10. 10. I pray that this book will help the Muslim youth of today to overcomethe thorny thickets which obstruct their path. Allah is the One whoguides to the right path whomever He wants.Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi 9
  11. 11. 10
  12. 12. The Age of IgnoranceAncient religionsAfter the Prophet of Allah, Isa ibn Maryam, there was along period without a Prophet. Light and knowledgedisappeared. Christianity fell into disrepute and becamea matter of sport for the corrupt and the hypocrites. Fromthe very beginning, Christianity had been subjected toalterations by extremists and to interpretations by theignorant. The simple teaching of the Messiah was buriedbeneath the transgressors evil behaviour. The Jews had become a society obsessed with ritesand rules lacking all life and spirit. Apart from that,Judaism, a tribal religion, did not carry a message to theworld nor a summons to other nations nor, mercy tohumanity at large. The Magians were devoted to fire-worship. Theybuilt altars and shrines to fire. Outside the shrines theyfollowed their own pursuits. Eventually, no differencewhatever could be discerned between the Magians andthose with no religion or morality. Buddhism, a religion widespread in India andCentral Asia, was transformed into outright paganism.Altars were built and images of the Buddha set upwherever it went. Hinduism, the basic religion of India, isdistinguished by its millions of idols and gods, and-by 11
  13. 13. the unjust separation that exists between its castes,discrimination between the castes being a harsh realityof daily life. The Arabs also suffered from a paganism andidol-worship of the most abhorrent kind that had noparallel, even in pagan Hindu India. They were involvedshirk and adopted gods other than Allah. Every tribe,region or city had a particular idol. Indeed, every househad a private idol. Inside the Kabah, the house whichIbrahim (peace be upon him)1 had built for the worshipof Allah alone, and in its courtyard, stood three hundredand sixty idols.The Arabian Peninsula The morals of the Arabs were corrupted and theywere obsessed with drinking and gambling. Their crueltyand so-called zeal reached the point where they buriedbaby girls alive. Raiding was widespread as well ashighway robbery against trading caravans. The positionof women in society was so low that they could beinherited like property or animals. Children weremurdered because their parents feared the poverty thatwould come from raising them.1 Muslims are required to invoke Allahs blessingsand peace upon the Prophets whenever their name ismentioned. 12
  14. 14. The Arabs were fond of war and did not hesitate toshed blood. A minor incident could stir up a war lastingfor many years in which thousands of people would losetheir lives.Corruption In short, at this time, mankind was on a suicidalcourse. Man had forgotten his Creator and was obliviousof himself" his future, and his destiny. He had lost theability to distinguish between good and evil, and what isbeautiful and what is ugly. Throughout vast regions no one was concernedwith religion at all and no one worshipped his Lordwithout associating something with I-lim. AllahAlmighty spoke the truth when He said: Corruption hasappeared in the land and sea through what the hands ofpeople have earned, that He may let them taste some partof that which they have done, that perhaps they willreturn. (30: 41)The Prophet is sent to the Arabian Peninsula Allah chose the Arabs to receive the call of Islamand to convey it to the furthest corners of the world.These people were simple-hearted with no complicatedideologies which would have been difficult to remove.While the Greeks, Persians and people of India were 13
  15. 15. arrogant About many sciences, their fine literature andtheir splendid civilization, the Arabs followed onlysimple traditions related to their desert existence. It wasnot difficult to sweep these away and replace them witha fresh vision. The Arabs were in a natural state. When it wasdifficult for them to grasp the truth, they fought it.However, the covering was removed from their eyes;they welcomed the new beginning and, having embracedit, would risk their lives for it. They were honest andtrustworthy, hardy, courageous and fine horsemen. Theyalso possessed a will of iron. In Makkah, a city in the Arabian Peninsula, was theKabah which had been built by Ibrahim and Isma‘il(peace be upon them). In it, Allah alone was to beworshipped and it was to be a centre for calling peopleto tawhid for all time. Tawhid meaning the Oneness ofAllah, is in sharp contrast with the worship of idols. The first house established for people was that atBakkah; a blessed place and a guidance for theWorlds.(3: 97) 14
  16. 16. Before ProphethoodMakkah and the Quraysh After a long journey, Ibrahim approachedMakkah, Which lies in the valley between desolatedmountains. As there was no water, crops would not growand human life could not be sustained there.Accompanied by his wife Hajar and his son Ismail,Ibrahim was fleeing from the cult of idol-worship whichhad spread throughout the world. He wanted to establisha centre in which Allah alone would be worshipped andto which people could be called. It would be a beacon ofguidance and sanctuary of peace, radiating true faith andrighteousness. Allah accepted Ibrahims intention and blessedthe spot. After Ibrahim had left the inhospitable territory,water flowed from a spring to provide his small familywith the means to survive. Hajar and Isma‘il dwelt inthis arid place other people. Allah blessed the spring ofZamzam and, to this day, people continue to drink itswater and to take it with them to all corners of the globe.While Isma‘il was growing up, Ibrahim visited hisfamily. He wanted to sacrifice Isma‘il, who was stillonly a child, in order to show that his love of Allah wasgreater than his love for his son, just as Allah hadcommanded him to in a dream. Isma‘il also agreed toAllahs command that he should be sacrificed. But Allah 15
  17. 17. saved him and provided a ram from Paradise as a ransomto be sacrificed instead. Isma‘ils survival meant that hewould be able to help his father in calling people toAllah and to become the ancestor of the last Prophet ofAllah, His exalted Messenger. On a later visit to Makkah, Ibrahim and his sontogether constructed the Ka‘bah, the House of Allah.They prayed to Allah to accept the House and to blesstheir action. They also beseeched Allah to allow them tolive and die in Islam and for Islam to continue after theirdeath. They asked Allah to send a Prophet from amongtheir descendants to renew the call of his ancestorIbrahim and to complete what he had begun. When Ibrahim and Isma‘il raised thefoundations of the House, praying; "Our Lord, acceptthis from us. You are the Hearing; the Knowing. OurLord, and make us surrender to You, and make of ourdescendants a nation that surrenders to You. Show usour rites and turn to us; You are the One who turns, theCompassionate. Our Lord and send among them aMessenger from among them who will recite to themYour signs and teach them the Book and the Wisdomand purify them. You are the Mighty, the Wise.", (2:126-9) Allah blessed their descendants and the familymultiplied in that barren valley. Adnan, a descendant ofIsma‘il (peace be upon him) had many children. AmongAdnans descendants Fihr ibn Malik, in particular, was a 16
  18. 18. distinguished chief of the tribe. From Fihrs descendantsQusayy ibn Kilab emerged. He ruled Makkah and heldthe keys to the Kabah. He inspired obedience, was theguardian of the waters of Zamzam and was responsiblefor feeding the pilgrims. He also presided at theassemblies where the nobles of Makkah gathered forconsultation and he held the banner for war. He alonecontrolled the affairs of Makkah. Among his sons, Abd Manaf was the most illustrious,while his eldest son, Hashim became a great man of thepeople. He provided food and water for the pilgrimscoming to Makkah. He was the father of Abdul-Muttalib,the Messenger of Allahs grandfather, who was also incharge of feeding and giving water to the pilgrims. Hewas honoured and held in high esteem by his people andhis popularity outstripped that of his ancestors. Hispeople loved him. The descendants of Fihr ibn Malik were calledQuraysh. This name came to predominate over all othersand the tribe adopted it. All the Arabs recognized theexcellent lineage and nobility of the Quraysh. Theireloquence, civility, gallantry and high mindedness wereunanimously accepted.Idol-worship in Makkah The Quraysh continued to hold to the religion ofIbrahim and Ismail, glorifying the creed of tawhid and 17
  19. 19. the worship of Allah alone, until Amr ibn Luhayybecame their chief. He was the first to deviate from thereligion of Ismail and to set up idols which heencouraged people to worship. Once he had travelledfrom Makkah to Syria on business where he saw peopleworshipping idols. He was so impressed that he broughtsome idols back to Makkah and set them up,commanding the people there to venerate them. Traditionally some people would take a few stonesfrom the Haram the sanctuary, with them when theytravelled from Makkah as a token of respect for the holyspot. This led to the day when they began to worship anystones they liked. Later generations lost track of thereasons why stones were originally venerated and theQuraysh were happy to worship stone idols just like thepeople were doing in surrounding countries.The event of the elephant During this period a significant event took placewhich portended another happening of even greaterimportance. It meant that Allah desired a better futurefor the Arabs and that the Kabah would take on animportance never before attained by any place ofworship anywhere in the world. Abrahah Al-Ashram, the viceroy of Negus, the Kingof Abyssinia, who ruled over the Yemen, built animposing cathedral in Sana and named it al-Qullays. 18
  20. 20. He intended to divert the Arab pilgrimage to Sana. As aChristian, he was jealous that the Kabah should be theplace where pilgrims gathered and he wanted thisposition for his church. The Arabs were stunned by the news. They couldequate any other place with the love and respect they hadfor the Kabah. They could not contemplate exchangingit for any other house of worship. They werepreoccupied with the news and discussed it endlessly.An Arab daredevil from the Kinanah tribe went so far asto enter the cathedral and defecate in it. Abrahah wasfurious when he heard About it and swore that he wouldnot rest until he had destroyed the Kabah. He set out for Makkah with a strong force thatincluded elephants. The Arabs had heard somefrightening stories About elephants. They were bothdistressed and alarmed. Although they wanted toobstruct the progress of Abrahahs army, they realizedthat they lacked the power to fight him. They couldleave the matter to Allah and trust to the fact that He wasthe Lord of the ka‘bah and would protect it. This trust isamply demonstrated by a conversation between Quraysh,‗Abdu‘l-Muttalib, the grandfather of the prophet.Abrahah had seized two hundred camels of his soAbdul-Muttalib sought permission to see him. Abrahah -treated him with respect, descended from his throne andsat down beside him. When Abrahah asked what he 19
  21. 21. wanted, Abdul-Muttalib replied, I want you to returnmy two hundred camels. Abrahah was taken by surprise. He asked, ‗Do youwish to speak to me About your two hundred camels thatI have taken but say nothing About the House on Whichyour religion and that of your forefathers depends? Ihave come to destroy it, yet you do not speak to meAbout it! ‗Abdul-Muttalib replied, I am the owner of thecamels. The House also has an Owner. He will defendit. ‗It will not be defended against me, retortedAbrahah. That remains to be seen, said ‗Abdu‘l-Muttalib. As Abrahahs force drew near, the Quraysh hid highup in the mountains and down in the ravines. Theyfeared the armys approach and waited to see how Allahwould save the sacred sanctuary. Abdul-Muttalib stoodwith a group of Quraysh and took hold of the door of theKabah, imploring Allah to help them against Abrahahand his army. Abrahah drew up his soldiers to enter Makkah fullyintending to destroy the House. His elephant, whosename was Mahmud, was prepared for the attack.However, the elephant knelt down on the road andrefused to get up in spite of severe beatings. When they 20
  22. 22. turned it to face Yemen it got up immediately andmoved off. Allah then sent flocks of birds from the sea; eachbird carried stones in its claws. Whenever a stone struckone of Abrahahs soldiers it killed him. The Abyssiniansfled in terror, rushing back as the stones hit them.Abrahah was badly hurt. When his soldiers tried to takehim with them, his limbs fell off one by one. They tookhim to Sana where he died a miserable death. The Quran relates: Have you not seen what your Lord did with thepeople of the Elephant? Did He not make their plancome to nothing. He sent birds against them in flocks,stoning them with stones of baked clay. He made themlike eaten stubble. (105: 1-5) When Allah repelled the Abyssinians from Makkah,the Arabs respect for the Quraysh increased. They said,These are the people of Allah. Allah fought on their sideand helped them to defeat their enemy. The Arabs attached great importance to this eventand rightly so. They dated their calendar from it, saying,This occurred in the Year of the Elephant, andSo-and-so was born in the Year of the Elephant or Thisoccurred so many years after the Year of the Elephant.The Year of the Elephant Was 570 in the Christiancalendar. 21
  23. 23. ‘Abdullah and Aminah Abdul-Muttalib, chief of the Quraysh, had ten sons.Abdullah, the tenth, was the noblest and his fathermarried him to Aminah, daughter of Wahb, leader of theBanu Zuhrah. At that time, her lineage and positionmade her the best woman in the Quraysh. However before long Abdullah died, leaving apregnant wife who was to become the mother of theMessenger of Allah. Aminah saw many signs andindications that her son would become an importantfigure in the future.Noble birth and pure lineage The Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him andgrant him peace) was born on Monday, 12 Rabial-Awwal, in the Year of the Elephant (57O C.E.). It wasthe happiest day ever. His ancestry can be traced back tothe Prophet Ibrahim (peace be upon him). His full name is Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibnAbdul-Muttalib ibn Hashim ibn Abd Manaf ibn Qusayyibn Kilab ibn Murrah ibn Kab ibn Luayy ibn Ghalib ibnFihr ibn Malik ibn an-Nadr ibn Kinanah ibn Khuzaymahibn Mudrikah ibn Ilyas ibn Mudar ibn Nizar ibn Maaddibn Adnan. The lineage of Adnan goes back to the 22
  24. 24. Prophet Ismail, the son of the Prophet Ibrahim (peace beupon both of them). The Prophets mother sent a message to hisgrandfather, Abdul-Muttalib, telling him that she hadgiven birth to a boy. He came and looked at the babylovingly. Then he picked him up and took him into theKabah. He praised Allah and prayed for his grandsonwhom he named Muhammad. The Arabs were notfamiliar with this name and were surprised by it.Babyhood It was the custom in Makkah for suckling babies tobe put in the care of a desert tribe where they grew up inthe traditional healthy outdoor environment.Abdul-Muttalib looked for a wet-nurse for his fatherlessgrandson, whom he loved more than all his children.Halimah as-Sadiyah, who received this good fortune hadleft her home to find a suckling child. It was a year ofsevere drought and her people were suffering hardship.They needed some income. The baby (may Allah blesshim and grant him peace) had been offered to manynurses but they had refused him, because they werehoping for a good payment from the childs father. Anorphan! they would exclaim, What can his mother orgrandfather do? Halimah also left him at first but her heart hadwarmed to him. Allah inspired her with love for this 23
  25. 25. baby so she returned to fetch him and took him homewith her. Up until this time she had been an unluckyperson but now she found countless blessings. Heranimals udders and her own breasts overflowed withmilk and her aged camel and lame donkey wererejuvenated. Everyone said, Halimah, you have taken ablessed child. Her friends envied her. She continued to enjoy prosperity from Allah untilthe baby had spent two years with the Banu Sad and wasweaned. He was growing up differently from the otherchildren. Halimah took him to his mother and asked ifshe could keep him for a longer period and Aminahagreed. While the infant, who was to become the Messengerof Allah, was with the Banu Sad two angels came andsplit open his chest. They removed a black clot from hisheart threw it away. Then they cleansed his heart andreplaced it. He tended sheep with his foster, brothers and wasreared in an uncomplicated, natural environment. Helived the healthy life of the desert and spoke the pureArabic for which the Banu Said ibn Bakr were famous.He was sociable and popular. His foster brothers lovedhim and loved them. Eventually he returned to Makkah to live with hismother and grandfather. He thrived under Allahs caregrew up to be healthy and strong. 24
  26. 26. The deaths of Aminah and Abdu’l-Muttalib When the Messenger of Allah was six years old, hismother, Aminah, died: She had taken him to Yathrib tovisit relatives a,nd on the journey back her deathoccurred at al-Abwa between Makkah and Madinah.Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) musthave felt very lonely at this time but he went to stay withhis grandfather who was extremely kind to him. Hewould sit Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him)on his favourite seat in the shade of the Kabah andaffectionately caress him. When the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless himgrant him peace) was eight I Abdul-Muttalib also died.His uncle, Abu Talib The Messenger of Allah then went to live with hisuncle, Abu Talib, the full brother of his father, Abdullah.‗Adul-Muttalib had told Abu Talib to take good care ofthe boy so he was always protective towards him. Hetreated him with more kindness than he showed to hisown sons, Ali, Ja‘far and Aqil.Divine training 25
  27. 27. As he grew up, the Messenger of Allah wasprotected by Allah Almighty. He distanced himself fromthe obscenities and bad habits of the jahiliyyah. Heoutshone everyone in manliness, character, modesty,truthfulness, and trustworthiness. He earned respect andthe name trustworthy. He respected family ties andshared the burdens of others. He honoured his guests anddemonstrated piety and fear of God. He always providedhis own food and was content with simple meals. When he was About fourteen years old, the FijarWar broke out between the tribes of Quraysh and Qays.The Messenger of Allah was at some of the battles,passing arrows for his uncles to fire. He learned Aboutwar and About horsemanship and chivalry during thesetribal encounters.Marriage to Khadijah When the Messenger of Allah was twenty-five, hemarried Khadijah bint Khuwaylid, a Qurayshi woman ofexcellent character who was then forty years of age. Shehad a fine intellect, noble character and great wealth. Shehad been widowed when her husband, Abu Halah, died. Khadijah was a businesswoman who hired men totrade goods for her and gave them a share of her profits.The Quraysh were a merchant people. She tested thetruthfulness of the Messenger of Allah, his noblecharacter and his sincerity when he took some of her 26
  28. 28. goods to Syria to trade. When she was told About hisoutstanding competence on this journey she expressedher desire to marry him although she had refused theoffer of many noblemen of the Quraysh. Messenger of Allah also wished to marry her. Hisuncle Hamzah conveyed the khitbah, the marriageproposal, to Khadijahs family and they all readilyagreed to it. When marriage took place Abu Talibdelivered the khutbah at the ceremony. Khadijah was the first woman that the Messenger ofAllah married and she bore him all his children exceptIbrahim.Rebuilding the Kabah When the Messenger of Allah was thirty-five, theQuraysh decided to rebuild the Ka‘bah. Apart fromneeding a new roof, they found that the stone walls, thatwere higher than a mans head, had no clay to bind thestones together. They had no alternative but to demolishthe building and erect it again. When the rebuilding had reached the point wheretraditional Black Stone had to be put in place, theybegan to argue. Each clan wanted to have the honour ofcarrying out this prestigious task. They began to arguefiercely among themselves. During these pagan daysmore trivial issues than this could spark off a war. 27
  29. 29. They prepared to fight. The Banu `Abdu`d-Darbrought a large bowl filled with blood. They and theBanu Adi put their hands in the blood and took a vow tofight to death. It was a sign of death and evil. The Qurayshremained in that sorry state for several days, beforeagreeing that the first person to enter the door" of themosque should make the decision About placing theBlack Stone. The first to enter was the Messenger ofAllah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace). Whenthey saw him, they said, This is the trustworthy one. Weare pleased. This is Muhammad. The Messenger of Allah called for a piece of cloth.He took the stone and placed it in the centre of the cloth.Then he said that each clan should take a corner of thecloth and lift it together. They did this, bringing it to itsposition.He put the Black Stone in place with his own hands, andthen the building continued. This was how the Messenger of Allah prevented awar from breaking out among the Quraysh by a supremedemonstration of wisdom.Hilf al-fudul Messenger of Allah was present at the Hilf al-Fudul.This was the most renowned alliance ever heard of inArabia. It was formed because a man from Zabid had 28
  30. 30. arrived in Makkah with some merchandise and `Al-Asibn Wail, one of the Quraysh nobles, bought goods fromhim and then withheld payment. The Zabidi asked theQuraysh nobles for help against Al- As ibn Wail, butthey refused to intervene because of his position. TheZabidi then appealed to the people of Makkah as a wholefor support. All the fair-minded young men were full of enthu-siasm to put the matter right. They met in the house ofAbdullah ibn Judan who prepared food for them. Theymade a covenant by Allah that they would unite with thewronged man against the one who had wronged him uthe matter was settled. The Arabs called that pact HilfAl-FuduI, The Alliance of Excellence. They said,These people have entered into a state of excellence.Then they went to al- As ibn Wail and took from himwhat he owed to Zabidi and handed it over. The Messenger of Allah was proud of this alliance.He held it in such high esteem that, after receiving themessage of Islam, he said, In the house of Abdullah ibnJudan, I was present at an alliance which was such thatif I was invited to take pad in it now in Islam, I wouldstill do so. The Quraysh pledged to restore to everyonewhat was their due and not to allow any aggressor to getthe better of those he had wronged. In Allahs wisdom, His Messenger was allowed togrow up unlettered. He could neither read nor write.Thus, he could never be accused by his enemies of 29
  31. 31. altering other ideologies. The Quran indicates this whenit says, `Before this you did not recite any Book norwrite it with your right hand, for then those who followfalsehood would have doubted. (29: 48) The Quran called him unlettered and said, thosewho follow the Messenger, the Unlettered Prophet,whom they find written down with them in the Torahand Evangel. (7: 157) MAKKAH MUKARRAMAH 30
  32. 32. After ProphethoodIntimations of Prophethood The Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him andgrant him peace) was forty when the first glimpses oflight and of his future happiness appeared. The time ofmission approached. It had always been the Divinepractice that whenever the darkness had become toointense and the wickedness widespread, a Messengerappeared. The Messenger of Allahs distaste for what he sawreached a peak. It was as if he was being guided towardsa certain spiritual destination. He loved going into retreat.He was always content when he could be on his own. Heused to walk away from Makkah until he was well out ofsight of the houses. He got to know all the paths, the flatareas and the valleys outside Makkah. From every rockor tree he passed he heard, Peace be upon you,Messenger of Allah. But when he looked around, to hisright, to his left and behind him, he could see nothingbut trees and rocks. The first intimations of the future came in the formof dreams, so vivid that they were as clear as the breakof day.The Cave of Hira 31
  33. 33. The Messenger of Allah usually went to the Cave ofHira. He would remain there for several nights in a row,having taken along with him enough food to last for thattime. He used to worship and pray in the manner of hisancestor, Ibrahim, the hanifiyyah, and followed the purehuman need to turn to Allah.The mission begins The Messenger of Allah was alone in the Cave ofHira on the day destined for the start of his propheticmission. He was forty-one years old and it was theseventeenth day of Ramadan, the sixth of August 610C.E. Suddenly an angel appeared and said to him, Read! I cannot read, he replied. Later, the Messenger of Allah, when recountingwhat had happened, said, He seized me and squeezedme as hard as I could bear and then let me go and said,"Read!" I said, ―I cannot read.‖ Then he squeezed me as hard as I could bear asecond time and let me go. Again he said, "Read." I cannot read. Then he squeezed me a third time and let me go and said: "Read in the name of your Lord Who created,created man of a blood-clot. Read, and your Lord is the 32
  34. 34. Most Generous, Who taught by the Pen, taught manwhat he did not know." (96: 1-5) This was the first day of his prophethood and thesewere the first verses of the Qur‘an to be revealed.Khadijahs reaction Naturally, the Messenger of Allah was alarmed by the experience. He had not known what washappening and he had not heard of anything like thisever happening before. It had been a long time sincethere had been a Prophet. In any case, the Arabs hadonly a remote connection with prophethood. He wasvery frightened and returned to his house trembling. Wrap me up! Wrap me up! he said. I fear formyself! When Khadijah asked why, he told her what hadhappened. She was an intelligent lady and had heard ofprophethood, Prophets and angels. She used to visit hercousin, Waraqah ibn Nawfal, who had become aChristian. He had read many books and had learnedmuch from the people of the Torah and the Evangel. Khadijah knew the character of the Messenger ofAllah better than anyone because she was his wife andclose to his thoughts. She was well aware of his noblecharacter and enviable qualities. She realized that he hadalways been given success and support by Allah, he was 33
  35. 35. a man chosen from among His creation, whose life andconduct He was pleased with. No one with a character like his need ever be in fearof Satan or of being affected by the jinn. That would beincompatible with what Khadijah knew of the wisdomand compassion of Allah and His way of dealing withHis creation. She declared with trust and belief, stronglyand forcefully, No! Allah would never disgrace you! You maintainclose ties with your relations, you bear others burdensand give people what they need. You are hospitable toyour guests and help those with a just claim to get whatis due to them.Waraqah ibn Nawfal Khadijah thought it would be a good idea to consulther cousin, the scholar Waraqah ibn Nawfal, and shetook the Messenger of Allah to see him. When Waraqahheard what he had seen, he said, By the One who holdsmy soul in His hand, you are the Prophet of this people.The same Great Spirit has come to you which came toMusa. Your people will reject you, abuse you C1nddrive you out and fight you. The Messenger of Allah was astonished at whatWaraqah said, especially About the Quraysh driving himout because he knew his position among them. They had 34
  36. 36. always addressed him as the truthful one and thetrustworthy one. In amazement he asked, Will the people drive meout? Yes, Waraqah said, No man has ever broughtanything like what you have brought without his peopleopposing him and fighting him. If I am alive on that day,and I have already lived a long time, I will give youstrong support. After this first revelation there was a long gap beforethe revelations began again. Then the Quran started tocome down at regular intervals over the followingtwenty three years.Khadijahs Islam and her character Khadijah hated the behaviour of the people ofMakkah, as anyone of sound mind would have detestedthe atrocities committed by them. She was the first tobelieve in Allah and His Messenger. She was always ather husbands side helping him through difficult times.She used to lighten his burden and offer him comfortwhile assuring him of her confidence in his Message.‘Ali ibn Abi Talib and Zayd ibn Harithah acceptIslam 35
  37. 37. After Khadijah, Ali ibn Abi Talib (may Allah bepleased with him) accepted Islam. He was ten years oldat the time and living in the house of the Messenger ofAllah. When Abu Talib went through a period ofhardship during a famine, the Messenger of Allah hadtaken his son Ali into his own home and brought himup. Zayd ibn Harithah, the freed slave of the Messengerof Allah, whom he had adopted, also became a Muslim.The Islam of these people reflected the beliefs of thosewho knew the Messenger of Allah best. They hadwitnessed his truthfulness, sincerity and good behaviour.The people who live in a house always knmV best whatis in it.Abu Bakr ibn Abi Quhafah accepts Islam Abu Bakr ibn Abi Quhafah also accepted Islam. Hehad a high position among the Quraysh because of hisintellect, strength and sense of justice. He made hisIslam known. He was a simple, likeable man who knewthe full history of the Quraysh. He was a merchantknown for his good character and fair dealing. He beganto call others to Allah and those of his friends whom hetrusted would come and sit with him to discuss the newideas.Quraysh noblemen accept Islam 36
  38. 38. Through Abu Bakrs work, some of the powerfulQuraysh noblemen became Muslims. Uthman ibnAffan, Zubayr ibn al-‗Awwam, ‗Abdur-Rahman ibn Awf,Sa‘d ibn Abi Waqqas and Talhah ibn Ubaydullah wereamong those he brought to the Messenger of Allah. They were followed by other influential men of theQuraysh, including Abu Ubaydah ibn al-Jarrah,al-Arqam ibn AbiI-Arqam, ‗Uthman ibn Maz‘un,Ubaydah ibn al-Harith ibn al-Muttalib, Said ibn Zayd,Khabbab ibn al-Aratt, Abdullah ibn Masud, Ammar ibnYasir, and Suhayb (may Allah be pleased with them all). Men and women flowed into islam until everyoneMakkah was talking About the new faith.The call to Islam on Mount Safa The Messenger of Allah kept his mission secret forthree years. Then Allah commanded him to display Hisreligion openly, saying, Loudly proclaim what you arecommanded and turn away from the idolworshippers.(15: 94) He also said, Warn your clan, your nearest kin,and lower your wing to those of the believers who followyou‟ (26: 214-15) and Say: I am the clear warner. (15:89) 37
  39. 39. The Prophet climbed up on to the mountain of Safaand called out as loudly as he could, Ya Sabahah! This was a well-known cry used to assemblecommunity in an emergency. When there was anydanger of an enemy attacking a city or a tribe, the call,Ya Sabahah! would ring out. The Quraysh were alwaysquick to respond. They gathered round the Messenger ofAIlah, who said, O Banu Abdu‘l-Muttalib! O BanuFihr! O Banu Kab! If I told you that there were horseson the other side of this mountain About to attack you,would you believe me? The Arabs were practical and realistic. They saw infront of them a man noted for his truthfulness,trustworthiness and sincerity standing on a mountain. Hewas able to see both what was in front of him andbehind while they could only see what was in front ofthem. Their intelligence and sense of justice allowedthem to confirm this statement. Yes, they replied. Then the Messenger of Allah said, I warn you of aterrible punishment. The people were silent, except Abu Lahab who said,May you perish for this! Did you only summon us herefor this?Enmity of the Quraysh and Abu Talibs concern 38
  40. 40. When the Messenger of Allah openly proclaimed thecall to Islam and called out the truth as he had beencommanded to do by Allah, his people did not distancethemselves from him nor reject him. However, whencriticized their gods, they regarded him as a menace andunited in opposition against him His uncle, Abu Talib, concerned About the Mes-senger of Allah, protected him and stood up for him. TheProphet continued in his mission, loudly proclaimingtruth. Nothing deterred him and Abu Talib continued tocare for him and defend him. Eventually, a group of men of the Quraysh went toAbu Talib threatening, Abu Talib! Your nephew hascursed our gods and criticized our religion and ridiculedour customs and called our fathers misguided. Eitherleave him to us or there will be a split between us andyou. You have the same religion and creed as we do. Abu Talib spoke reassuringly to them, and they leftsatisfied. However, the Quraysh constantly discussed theMessenger of Allah and goaded each other on. Theywent to Abu Talib a second time, saying, Abu Talib!You have age, honour and position among us. We hadhoped that you would stop your nephew, but you havenot done so. By Allah, we cannot endure any longer thiscursing of our fathers and ridiculing of our customs andcriticism of our idols. Let us have him or we will puthim and you in such a position that one or other of uswill be destroyed. 39
  41. 41. The division and enmity of his people was a terribleburden for Abu Talib but he did not want to surrenderthe Messenger of Allah to them. He said, Nephew, yourpeople have come to me with threats. Spare me andyourself and do not burden me with more than I canbear.If the sun had been placed in my right hand and themoon in my left . . . The Messenger of Allah saw that Abu Talib wasvery upset by what had happened and was finding it hardto carry on helping him. He said, Uncle, by Allah, ifthey were to place the sun in my right hand and themoon in my left hand on condition that I abandon thisbusiness, I would still not leave it until Allah makes itvictorious or I die doing it.‘ The Messenger of Allah wept, then rose and turnedaway. Abu Talib called out to him, Turn round,nephew! The Messenger of Allah returned. Abu Talib him,Nephew, go and say whatever you like. By Allah, I willnever surrender you to anyone.The Quraysh torture the Muslims The Messenger of Allah continued to call people toAllah and the Quraysh despaired of both him and Abu 40
  42. 42. Talib. Their anger descended on those of their fellowtribesmen who had become Muslims and weredefenseless. Every, clan targeted those who had become Muslims.They began to imprison them and torture them withbeatings, hunger and thirst, even leaving them exposedon the sun-baked ground of Makkah when the heat wasmost intense. Bilal, an Abyssinian, who had become a Muslim,was taken out on to the plain of Makkah by his masterUmayyah ibn Khalaf and left flat on his back in themidday heat. His master ordered that a huge stone beplaced on his chest and declared, By Allah, this stonewill not be removed until you die or reject Muhammadand worship al-Lat and al-Uzza. While he was suffering, Bilal would only say, Godis One! God is One! Abu Bakr as-Siddiq (may Allah be pleased withhim) passed by when he was lying there. He gaveUmayyah a black slave who was stronger and sturdier inexchange for Bilal and he set Bilal free. The Banu Makhzum took out Ammar ibn Yasir andhis mother and father, who were all Muslims, into themidday heat. They tortured them by leaving themexposed to the midday sun of Makkah. The Messengerof Allah passed by them and said reassuringly, Fortitude,family of Yasir! You have the promise of Paradise. 41
  43. 43. They endured their persecution until Ammarsmother was killed because she refused to reject Islam. Mus‘ab ibn Umayr was a handsome young man ofMakkah whose mother was very wealthy and dressedhim well. He heard that the Messenger of Allah waspreaching in the house of Arqam ibn Abi‘l Arqam. Afterhearing About Islam he became a Muslim. He concealedhis religious beliefs because he feared the reaction of hismother and his family and he kept secret his visits to theMessenger of Allah. However, Uthman ibn Talhah saw him praying andreported it to Musabs family. He was seized andimprisoned. He was denied freedom until he was able toleave for Abyssinia in the first Hijrah. When he returnedwith the other Muslim refugees, he was a changed man.His mother refrained from censuring him, once she sawhis piety and destitution. Some of the Muslims were under the protection ofthe Quraysh noblemen who were idolworshippers.Uthman ibn Mazun was protected by al-Walid ibnal-Mughirah until he felt ashamed of what he wasaccepting. He dismissed al-Walids offer of patronage,saying that he wanted the protection of none but AIlah. A heated conversation between him and one of theidolworshippers ended up with Uthrnan getting a blackeye. Al-Walid ibn al-Mughirah, who was nearby sawwhat had happened. He exclaimed, ‗By Allah, nephew. 42
  44. 44. Your eye would not have suffered like that if you hadbeen well protected. No, by Allah, Uthman said, my good eye needs tosuffer the same as happened to its fellow for the sake ofAllah. I am under a protection which is stronger andmore powerful than any you could give me, O Abu AbdShams!The Quraysh attack the Messenger of Allah The Quraysh were unable to divert these youngMuslims from their religion and the Messenger of Allahremained defiant. The Quraysh became so irritated bytheir helplessness that the more foolish among themstarted to attack the Messenger of Allah. They evenaccused him of sorcery, divining and madness. They leftno stone unturned in their efforts to harm him. One day when the Quraysh nobles had met in theHijr, the Messenger of Allah appeared and passed bythem doing tawaf of the Kabah. They called outdisparagingly to him three times. He stopped and spoketo them, Company of Quraysh, are you listening? By theOne who has my soul in His hand, I have brought youslaughter. Shocked by these words, the people fell silent.Realizing that they had been rude, they began to speakmore pleasantly. 43
  45. 45. The next day the Messenger of Allah appeared againbut quickly they surrounded him and attacked him alltogether. One of them took hold of his cloak. Abu Bakr(may Allah be pleased with him) stood, up weeping andcried, Would you kill a man just for saying: My Lord isAllah? When Abu Bakr returned later that day however,they attacked him and tore out some of his hair anddragged along by his beard. On another occasion when the Messenger of AIlahwent out everyone he met, both free men and slaves,ignored him or tried to hurt him. He returned home andwrapped himself up warmly because he was sodistressed by what had happened to him. Allah revealedto him, O you enshrouded, rise up and warn! (74: 1)The Quraysh attack Abu Bakr One day Abu Bakr boldly invited the idol worship-pers to turn towards Allah and His Messenger. Furious,they fell upon him, beating him and trampling on him. Utbah ibn Rabiah beat him on the face with a pairof sandals until his face was so swollen that his cheekscould not be distinguished from his nose. The Banu Taym carried the unconscious Abu Bakrhome. They were certain that he was going to die. In thelate afternoon he woke up and asked, How is theMessenger of Allah? 44
  46. 46. His relations rebuked him as he had shown concernfor the man on whose account he had been beaten lefthim alone with his mother Umm Khayr who had not asyet become a Muslim. Then Umm Jamil, who hadbecome a Muslim, approached him and he asked herAbout the Messenger of Allah. She reported, He is welland safe. By Allah, he said, I will not taste food or drinkuntil I see the Messenger of Allah! When it was dark and everything had calmed down,Umm Jamil and Umm Khayr took him to the Messengerof Allah who showed great tenderness towards him. Hemade supplication for Abu Bakrs mother and called herto Allah. She became a Muslim too.The Quraysh are confused The Quraysh were confused About the Messenger ofAllah. They did not know how to cope with the problemof visitors from afar listening to him in Makkah. Theyasked the advice of al-Walid ibn al-Mughirah, an oldman of some experience. It was at the time of thepilgrimage. Al-Walid said, Men of the Quraysh! It is thetime of the festival and the delegations of the Arabs willbe coming to you. They have already heard About thiscompanion of yours. Therefore agree on one opinionAbout him and do not disagree so that you contradictand refute each other. 45
  47. 47. They had a long discussion with much give and takebut AL-Walid was not pleased with their conclusion andcriticized it. They came back to him to ask, What thendo you say, Abu Abd Shams? The nearest thing to the truth is your saying that heis a magidan who has brought a kind of magic thatseparates a man from his father, a man from his brother,a man from his wife, and a man from his tribe. The gathering then broke up and the Quraysh beganto sit by the paths used by the people coming to thefestival. They warned everyone who passed to keep clearof the Messenger of Allah and gave their reasons.The Quraysh step up their hostilities The Quraysh treated the Messenger of Allah harshly,ignoring the fact that he was a relative and deserved theirrespect. One day while the Prophet was prostrating in themosque surrounded by some of the Quraysh, Uqbah ibnAbi Muayt threw the innards of a slaughtered animal onto the Prophets back but he did not even lift his head.His daughter Fatimah came and removed them, cursingthose who had committed the evil deed and the Prophetcursed them as well. Another time, while the Prophet was praying in theHijr of the Kabah, Uqbah ibn Abi Muayt tried to 46
  48. 48. throttle him with his own clothes. Abu Bakr grabbedUqbahs shoulder and pulled him from the Prophet,saying, Would you kill a man just for saying, ―My Lordis Allah"?Hamzah ibn ‘Abdu’l-Muttalib accepts Islam One day Abu Jahl passed by the Messenger of Allahat Safa hurling insults and cursing him, but when theMessenger of Allah ignored him, he left him alone. Soon afterwards Hamzah ibn Abdu‘l-Muttalibarrived on the scene, returning from the hunt, carryinghis bow. He was the strongest of the Quraysh and themost courageous. A slavewoman of ‗Abdullah ibnJu‘dan told him what had happened to the Messenger ofAllah. Hamzah was filled with rage. He entered themosque and saw Abu jahl sitting with his friends. Hewent towards him until he was standing over him, raisedhis bow and hit him with it giving him a nasty headwound. Then he said, Do you insult him when I followhis religion? I say what he says. Abu jahl was silent and Hamzah became a Muslim.That was a great blow to the Quraysh because Hamzahwas widely respected and his courage was legendary.Utbah and the Messenger of Allah 47
  49. 49. When the Quraysh saw that the Companions of theMessenger of Allah were increasing in number ‗Utbahibn Rabi‘ah suggested that he go to the Messenger ofAllah and to patch up their differences. If the Qurayshmade some concessions, he might agree to leave off hismission. Utbah was given permission to negotiate ontheir behalf. He went to the Messenger of Allah and satdown beside him. Nephew, he said, you know yourstanding among us, but you have brought a matter ofgrave concern to your people. You have divided theircommunity, made fun of their customs, criticized theirgods and their religion and declared some of theirancestors to be unbelievers. Now, listen to me. I willmake some proposals for you to examine and perhapsyou will accept some of them. The Messenger of Allah said, Speak, AbuI-Wahid Iam listening. Nephew, Utbah continued, If you want money bythis business, we will collect some of our property makeyou the wealthiest among us. If you want honour, wewill make you our chief so that every decision is yours.If you want a kingdom, we will make you our king. Ifyou are possessed by a ghost of a jinn that you cannotdrive away yourself, we will find skilful doctors to helpyou. We will spend our wealth on it till you are cured. When Utbah had finished, the Messenger of AIlahasked, Have you finished, Abul-Walid? Yes. 48
  50. 50. ‗Then listen to me. I will, said Utbah. Then the Messenger of Allah recited some versesfrom Surah Fussilat. Utbah listened intently, putting hishands behind his back and leaning on them. When theMessenger of Allah reached the place mentioningprostration, he prostrated and then said, You have heardwhat you have heard, Abul-Walid. It is now up to you. Utbah returned to his companions who commented,Abul-Walid has come back with a different expressionon his face to the one he went with. When he sat down beside them, they asked him whathdd happened. ‗By Allah! he said, I have heard words the like ofwhich I have never heard before. By Allah. it is neitherpoetry nor magic nor soothsaying. O men of Quraysh!Obey me! Leave this man alone with what he has. Beconsiderate towards him and dont interfere. By Aliah, they said, He has bewitched you with histongue, Abul-Walid! This is my opinion About him, he replied. You doas you see fit.The Muslims hijrah to Abyssinia When the Messenger of Allah saw the persecution towhich his Companions were subjected and from whichhe could not protect them, he suggested to them, If you 49
  51. 51. were to go to Abyssinia, you would find a king therewho does not wrong anyone. It is a friendly land and youcould stay there until Allah grants us relief. A group of Muslims left for Abyssinia and it was thefirst hijrah in Islam. Ten men, over whom Uthman ibnMazun was in charge (may Allah be pleased with him),went first. Then Jafar ibn Abi Talib departed and otherMuslims followed them. Some took their families andsome went alone. In all eighty-three made the hijrah toAbyssinia.The Quraysh pursue the Muslims The Quraysh were even more annoyed when theysaw that the Muslims were safe and secure in Abyssinia.They sent Abdullah ibn Abi Rabiah and Amr ibn al-Asibn Wail there bearing gifts collected for the Negus andhis generals. The choicest goods of Makkah were used totry to influence the Abyssinians in their favour. Thedelegation won over the generals who were pleased withtheir gifts and they were able to speak to the king. Theytold him, Some of our foolish fellows have taken refugein your majestys dominions. They have abandoned thereligion of their people, but have not entered your religion. Theyhavebrought an invented religion which neither we nor you 50
  52. 52. know. The nobles of our people – their fathers, unclesand clans -have sent us to ask you to return them to us.They are closest to them and know them best. The generals added, They are speakingthe truth,O King. Hand them over to them. However, the Negusbecame angry and refused to accept what they said. Hewould not surrender anyone had taken refuge with himin his realm. He swore by Allah and summoned theMuslims. He also summoned his bishops. He said to theMuslims, What is it that you have abandoned thereligion of your people for, yet not entered into myreligion nor any other religion?Ja’far ibn Abi Talib defines Islam Jafar ibn Abi Talib, the cousin of the Messenger ofrose to explain: O King! we were a people of ignorance who worshipped idols, ate dead animals, committed Abuminations, broke off ties of kinship, treated our neighbours badly, and the strong among us abused the weak, We were like that until Allah sent a Messenger to us. We knew his noble birth, his honesty, trustworthiness and decency. He called us to proclaim the oneness of Allah and to worship Him 51
  53. 53. and to renounce the stones and idols which we and our fathers were worshipping. He commanded us to speak the truth, to be faithful, to maintain ties of kinship, to be good to neighbours and to refrain from crimes and bloodshed: He has forbidden us Abumi- nations, lies, taking property "from orphans and slandering chaste women. He has commanded us to worship Allah alone and not to associate anything with Him and to pray, give zakat and fast. He enumerated the other commands of Islam. Thenhe continued: So we have affirmed him and believed in him and have followed him in whatever he brought from Allah. We worship Allah alone and do not associate anything with Him. We consider unlawful what he has told us is unlawful and lawful what he has told us is lawful. For this reason alone our people have attacked us, tortured us and forced us from our religion. They intend to make us revert to the worship of idols instead of praising Allah Almighty. They want us to consider lawful the evil actions which we used to consider lawful. When they tortured us and hemmed us in, and came between us and our religion, we left for your kingdom, choosing you because we needed your 52
  54. 54. protection. We hoped that we would be treated fairly while we were with you, O King! The Negus listened to all of this patiently. Then heasked, Do you have with you anything your companionbrought from Allah? Yes, said Jafar. Then recite it to me. Jafar recited the beginning of Surah Maryam. TheNegus wept until his beard was wet and the bishops weptuntil their books were damp with their tears.The Qurayshi mission fails Then the Negus said, This and what Isa broughthave come from the same source. He turned to the deputation of Quraysh, saying, Go!By Allah, I will never hand them over to you. The next morning Amr ibn al-As went to the Neguswith a shrewd plan. O King, they say terrible thingsAbout Isa son of Maryam! The King turned to the Muslims and said, What doyou say About Isa ibn Maryam? We say About him what our Prophet (may Allahbless him and grant him peace) brought, Jafar ibn AbiTalib replied. That he was the servant of Allah, HisMessenger, His Spirit and His word which He cast to theblessed Virgin Maryam. 53
  55. 55. The Negus took a stick from the ground and said,By Allah, Isa ibn Maryam did not add to what you havesaid by so much as the length of this stick! He treated the Muslims with honour and gave themsecurity. The two Qurayshi messengers had to leave indisgrace.Umar ibn al-Khattab accepts Islam Allah then supported the Muslims by the Islam ofUmar ibn al-Khattab al-Adawi al-Qurashi. He was animposing man, broad-shouldered, tall and brave. TheMessenger of Allah wanted him to become a Muslimand prayed for him to be guided that way. His sister, Fatimah bint al-Khattab had become aMuslim together with her husband, Said ibn Zavd. Theywere concealing their Islam from Umar because of hisviolent nature. They knew he was against Islam and theMuslims. Khabbab ibn al-Aratt used to come to Fatimahto read the Quran to her. One day Umar went out angrily swinging his swordto find the Messenger of Allah who was with hisCompanions. He had heard that they were in a house atSafa. On his way he met Nuaym ibn Abdullah, whobelonged to Umars people the Banu Adi, and who wasalready a Muslim. Where are you going, ‗Umar?‘ he asked. 54
  56. 56. I am going to find Muhammad, he replied, He hasdivided the Quraysh, mocked their traditions, criticizedtheir religion and abused their gods. I am going to killhim. You deceive yourself Umar, Nuaym retorted.Shouldnt you go back to your own family and put theiraffairs in order first? What do you mean, my family?, By Allah, your brother-in-law and cousin Said ibnZayd and your sister Fatimah bint al-Khattab havebecome Muslims and are following Muhammad in hisreligion. You had better deal with them first.‘ ‗Umar returned to his sister and brother-in-law.Khabbab ibn al-Aratt was with them, holding a pagefrom Surah Ta Ha which he was reading to them. Whenthey heard Umars footsteps, Khabbab hid in a smallroom in the house while Fatimah took the page andconcealed it beneath her clothing. While he wasapproaching the house, Umar had heard Khabbabreciting, so he demanded, What is this gibberish? Nothing, they answered. What did you hear? By AIlah! he shouted angrily, ‗I have heard thatyou are following Muhammad in his religion! Umar then started to attack his brother-in-law Saidibn Zayd. His sister Fatimah rose to hold him back fromher husband but he hit her and wounded her. 55
  57. 57. When he did that, his sister and brother-in-law toldhim, Yes, we have become Muslims and we believe inAllah and His Messenger, so do what you think best. When Umar saw blood on his sister, he regrettedwhat he had done. He even admired her courage. Showme that page I heard Khabbab reading, he said. Let mesee what Muhammad has brought. Umar was one among a few Quraysh who couldread and write, but when she heard what he wanted, hissister answered, We are afraid to give it to you. Do not be afraid, he said and he promised not todestroy it. When she heard that, she longed for Umar· tobecome a Muslim. She said to him, Brother, you areunclean from your idolworship and only the purifiedmay touch it. Umar got up and washed and then she gave him thepage bearing the passage from Surah Ta Ha. Afterreading only a few lines, he exclaimed, How noble andsublime are these words! . When Khabbab heard that, he came out from hidingto say, Umar! By Allah, I hope that Allah has singledyou out by the prayer of His Prophet. I heard him saylast night, "O Allah, strengthen Islam with AbuI-Hakamibn Hisham (Abu Jahl) or Umar ibn al-Khattab!" Cometo God! Come to God, O Umar! 56
  58. 58. At that Umar said, Khabbab, guide me toMuhammad so that I can go to him and become aMuslim. He is in a house at Safa, Khabbab said, with somehis Companions. Umar put on his sword and went to find theMessenger of Allah. He knocked on the door. When theyheard his voice, one of the Companions of theMessenger of Allah got up and looked through a crack inthe door. He saw Umar wearing his sword. In alarm, hereturned to report, Messenger of Allah, it is Umar ibnal-Khattab with his sword on! Hamzah ibn Abdu‘l-Muttalib said, Let him in. If hisintentions are peaceful, we will treat him well. If not, wewill kill him with his own sword. The Messenger of Allah said, Let him in, and roseto meet Umar as he reached the middle of the room. Heseized his cloak and dragged him along violently, saying,What has brought you here, Ibn al-Khattab? By Allah, Ido not think that you will stop until Allah sends down acalamity upon you. Messenger of Allah, Umar replied, I have come toyou to tell you that I believe in Allah and His Messengerand what has come from Allah. The Messenger of Allah said, „Allahu Akbar soloudly that the Companions in the house knew thatUmar had become a Muslim. 57
  59. 59. The Muslims confidence increased when Umarbecame a Muslim as it had when Hamzah before himhad become a Muslim. News that Umar was a Muslim quickly spreadamong the Quraysh. They were very annoyed. They tookup their swords against him but Umar fought back. TheQuraysh valued their lives too much to pick quarrelswith him so they decided to leave him alone.The Quraysh boycott the Banu Hashim Islam began to spread among the tribes. TheQuraysh were so concerned that they decided to write adocument containing a ban on the Banu Hashim andBanu al-Muttalib. They declared that they would notmarry the women of these clans or give any in marriageto them, or sell them any goods or buy anything fromthem. The Quraysh displayed the parchment announcingthe ban inside the Kabah in order to give it authority.In the Sheb Abi Talib When the Quraysh did that, the Banu Hashim andBanu al-Muttalib gathered round Abu Talib and joinedhim in his quarters in a narrow valley of Makkah. It wasthe seventh year of prophethood. However, Abu Lahabibn ‗Abdul-Muttalib left the Banu Hashim and alignedhimself with the Quraysh. 58
  60. 60. For many months the Banu Hashim lived in misery.The boycott was so rigorously applied and food was soscarce that they had to eat the leaves of trees. Theirhungry childrens cries could be heard all over the valley.The Quraysh told the merchants not to sell any goods tothem. Prices were increased to prevent them frombuying even essentials. They remained in that state for three years. Apartfrom some kind Qurayshi people who secretly sent foodto them they were totally abandoned. The Messenger ofAllah was in the same predicament but he continued tocall his people to Allah night and day, secretly andopenly and the Banu Hashim remained patient.The boycott ends A group of fair-minded Quraysh, led by Hisham ibnAmr ibn Rabiah, hated this unfair boycott. Hisham washighly respected among his people. He contacted somemen of the Quraysh whom he knew to be kind-heartedand considerate. He told them it was shameful to allowsuch tyranny to continue. He asked them to abandon theunjust contract. When he had persuaded five men toagree, they met together to work towards this end. Whenthe Quraysh were assembled the next day, Zuhayr ibnAbi Umayyah, whose mother was Atikah bintAbdu‘l-Muttalib, faced the people and demanded,‗People of Makkah! Do we eat and clothe ourselves 59
  61. 61. while the Banu l-fashim are perishing, unable to buy orsell? By Allah, I will not sit down until this unjustdocument is torn up! Abu Jahl entered the discussion to disagree but noone supported him. AL-Mutim ibnAdi went to theKabah to tear the document down. He found that insectshad eaten it all except for the words, ‗In Your name, OAllah. The , Prophet had already told Abu Talib thatAllah had given white ants power over the document.Now it was declared invalid.The deaths of Abu Talib and Khadijah Soon after the end of the boycott, in the tenth year ofprophethood, Abu Talib and Khadijah died. They hadbeen good companions noted for their loyalty, support,and devotion. Abu Talib, however, never became aMuslim. At this time, troubles fell on the Messenger ofAllah one after another.Islam spreads At-Tufayl ibn Amr ad-Dawsi came to Makkah. Hewas a noble man, a poet, and intelligent. The Qurayshwarned him against the Messenger of Allah. As a result,he was afraid to go near him to listen to him. By Allah, At-Tufayl said, they kept at me until Idecided not to listen to him at all nor to speak with him, 60
  62. 62. to the extent that I stuffed my ears with cotton. I went tothe mosque and the Messenger of Allah was standingthere praying at the Kabah. I stood near him and Allahhad decided that I should hear some of his words. I heardsome good words and said to myself, "By Allah, I am anintelligent man, a poet. The difference between good andevil is not concealed from me. Why should I not listen towhat this man says? If what he brings is good, I willaccept it. If it is evil, I will leave it." ‘ At-Tufayl met the Messenger of Allah in his houseand told him what had happened. The Messenger ofAllah offered him Islam and recited the Quran to him.At-Tufayl became a Muslim and returned to his peopleto call them to Islam. He refused to live with his familyuntil they all became Muslims. Eventually the wholetribe of Daws turned to Islam.The journey to T aif After Abu Talibs death, the Messenger of Allahsuffered more than ever before. The Quraysh had beenrestrained during the lifetime of Abu Talib but now theystepped up their victimization campaign. One evenaccosted him and showered dust on his head. When the insults from the Quraysh became unbear-able and they refused to have anything to do with Islam,the Messenger of Allah went to Taif to ask help of the 61
  63. 63. Thaqif people and to call them to Islam. He hoped theywould be sympathetic to his call. On arriving in Taif, he went to the leaders andnobles of Thaqif, talked with them and called them toAllah. They, however, were rude to him and ridiculedhim. They incited the towns riff-raff to shout insults athim and stone him. He retired, distressed, to the shade ofa palm-tree where he sat down. Nowhere had heencountered worse treatment than that which he receivedat the hands of the idolworshippers in Taif. The townspeople formed a line on either side of hispath. When he passed they stoned him until he wasbleeding. His feet were streaming with blood. He was sodejected that he complained to Allah of his helplessnessand pitiable state. He sought refuge with Allah, pleading: O Allah, I complain to you of my weakness, lack of resources and humiliation before men. You are the Most Merciful, You are the Lord of the oppressed and You are my Lord. To whom will You entrust me? To someone far away who will frown on me or to an enemy to whom You have given power over me? If You are not angry with me, I do not care, but Your favour is better for me. I seek refuge with the light of Your face which illuminates the darkness, and by which the affairs of this world and the Next are put in order, from having Your anger descend on me or Your wrath fall upon me. I repent to You, 62
  64. 64. seeking Your forgiveness and Your favour until You are well-pleased. There is no power nor strength except by Allah. Allah sent the angel of the mountains to ask if hewanted him to bring together the two mountains betweenwhich Taif lay. The Messenger of Allah replied, No, forI hope that Allah will bring forth from them those whowill worship Allah alone and not associate anything withHim. When Utbah ibn Rabiah and Shaybah ibn Rabiahsaw his distress, they were moved with compassion.They called a Christian slave of theirs named Addas andtold him to take a bunch of grapes to him. As Addascarried out his orders he noticed the kindness of theMessenger of Allah. He was so impressed that hebecame a Muslim. The, Messenger of Allah returned from Taif toMakkah where his people were even more opposed tohim than they had been previously.The ascent to the heavens At this time the Messenger of Allah travelled bynight from the Masjid al-Haram to the Masjid al-Aqsa.From there he was transported into the proximity toAllah that He wished him to experience. He travelled 63
  65. 65. through the heavens, witnessed the signs of Allah andmet the earlier Prophets. His eye swerved not nor swept aside. He saw one ofthe greatest signs of his Lord. (53: 17-18) He received generous hospitality from Allah andsolace and compensation for the distress he had enduredin Taif. Next morning, he told the Quraysh what hadhappened to him. They rejected it, thinking him mad,calling him a liar and mocking him. Abu Bakr said, ByAllah, if he said it, he has spoken the truth. What makesyou wonder at it? By Allah, he tells me that news comesto from heaven to the earth in any hour of the night orday and I believe him, and that is more unlikely thanwhat you are astounded by. During the Ascent, Allah made fifty prayers eachday obligatory for his Ummah. The Messenger continuedto ask Allah to reduce the number of prayers until Hereduced them to five prayers each day. Allah decreedthat all perform their prayers with sincerity and inexpectation of a reward will receive the reward of fiftyprayers.The Messenger of Allah offers himself to the tribes The Messenger of Allah contacted members ofvarious Arab tribes when they came to Makkah during 64
  66. 66. festivals. He explained the beliefs of Islam to them andasked them to protect him from his enemies, saying, O people! I am your Messenger of Allah. Hecommands you to worship Him and not associateanything Him and to abandon the worship of those youconsider equal with Him. He commands you to believein Him and confirm Him and to protect me so that I maymake clear what Allah has sent to me. When the Messenger of Allah finished speaking,Abu Lahab usually got up to say, O people! This mancalls on you to abandon al-Lat and al-Uzza and yourallies among the jinn for this innovation andmisguidance he brought! Do not obey him and do notlisten to him!The Ansar accept Islam While the Messenger of Allah was at Aqabah duringthe festival he met a group of the Khazraj of Yathrib andcalled them to Allah, the Mighty and Exalted. He offeredthem Islam and recited the Quran to them. They were neighbours of the Jews in Madinah andhad heard mention of a Prophet who was About to come.They said to each other, People! By Allah, you knowthat he must be the Prophet whom the Jews havepromised you. Dont let them get to him before us. They accepted his teachings and became Muslims,saying, We have left our people and no people are more 65
  67. 67. rent by enmity and evil as they are! Perhaps Allah willjoin us together by means of you. We will go to themand call them to this religion which we have acceptedfrom you. If Allah gathers them to you, then no man willbe mightier than you. They went back to their land having confirmed theirfaith. When they came to Madinah, they mentioned theMessenger of Allah to their brothers and called them toIslam. News soon spread among them until there was nohouse of the Ansar in which the Messenger of Allah wasnot discussed.The First Pledge of ‘Aqabah The following year, twelve Ansar attended thefestival in Makkah. They met the Messenger of Allahand gave him their pledge, the First Pledge of Aqabah,that they would believe in one God, abstain from theft,fornication and killing children, and obey him in whatwas right and proper. When they left, the Messenger of Allah sent Musabibn Umayr with them. He commanded him to read theQuran to them, to preach Islam and to instruct them inthe religion. He also led them in prayers. He was calledThe Reader in Madinah where he stayed with Asad ibnZurarah.Islam spreads throughout Madinah 66
  68. 68. Islam began among the people of the Aws and theKhazraj in Madinah. Said ibn Muadh and Usayd ibnHudayr became Muslims. They were the leaders of theirpeople, the Banu Abdu‘l-Ashhal of Aws. They wereconvinced of the truth because of the wisdom andkindness of those who had become Muslims before them,particularly by the excellent presentation of Islam byMusab ibn Umayr. All the people of the Banu‗Abdu‘l-Ashhal became Muslims, and not a householdof the Ansar remained which some men and women hadnot accepted the faith.The Second Pledge of ‘Aqabah Musab ibn Umayr returned to Makkah the follow-ing year and a number of the Muslim Ansaraccompanied those of their people making hajj whowere still idolworshippers. The Muslims arranged tomeet the Messenger of Allah at Aqabah. When they hadfinished the hajj, they met in the valley near ‗Aqabahlate at night. There were seventy-three men and twowomen. The Messenger of Allah came with his uncle,al-Abbas ibn Abdu‘l-Muttalib who was still anidolworshipper at that time. The Messenger of Allah talked to them, recited theQuran and prayed to Allah and encouraged people tobecome Muslims. Then he said, I ask for your allegiance 67
  69. 69. on the basis that you protect me as you would protectyour wives and children. They pledged their allegiance to him. They asked topromise that he would not leave them and return to hispeople. The Messenger of Allah gave his promise, I amfrom you and you are from me. I will fight those youfight and will be at peace with those with whom you areat peace.‘ He chose twelve leaders from among them: ninefrom the Khazraj and three from the Aws.The Hijrah to Madinah begins Once the Messenger of Allah had taken this pledge,the Muslims had more security and some from Makkahtook refuge with the Ansar. The Messenger of Allahordered his Companions and those Muslims who werewith him in Makkah to leave for Madinah, and to jointheir brothers among the Ansar. He said, Allah hasgiven you brothers and an Abude where you will besafe. They soon began to leave Makkah. The Messenger of Allah, however, remained inMakkah waiting for Allahs permission to emigrate toMadinah. The emigration of the Muslims from Makkah wasnot easy. The Quraysh put many obstacles in their wayand subjected the emigrants to considerable stress.However, the emigrants were determined to go. They did 68
  70. 70. not want to remain in Makkah. Some, including AbuSalamah, were forced to leave their wives and childrenbehind and to travel alone. Some had to relinquish allthey had earned in their lifetime. Suhayb was amongthose who lost all wealth. ‗Umar ibn al-Khattab, Talhah, Hamzah, Zayd ,Abdur-Rahman ibn Awf, Zubayr ibn al Awwam, AbuHudhayfah, Uthman ibn Affan and others emigrated(may Allah be pleased with them) and the emigrationcontinued apace. None were left in Makkah with theMessenger of Allah except for those who wereimprisoned or awaiting trial, apart from Ali ibn AbiTalib and Abu Bakr ibn Abi Quhafah.The Qurayshs final plot fails When the Quraysh saw that the Messenger of Allahhad Companions and helpers in Madinah over whomthey had no power, they were alarmed About hisdeparture. They knew that if that happened, they wouldhave no means to stop him. So they assembled in the Daran-Nadwah, the house of Qusayy ibn Kilab which theQuraysh used when decision-making. The Qurayshnobles consulted one another on what to do About theMessenger of Allah. They finally agreed that each tribe would provide ayoung warrior and together they would attack theMessenger of Allah, each man striking a blow. That way 69
  71. 71. responsibility for his death would be divided among thetribes and the Banu ‗Abd Manaf would not be able tofight them all. Allah informed His Messenger of this plot, so hecould tell Ali ibn Abi Talib to sleep in his bed wrappedup in his cloak, adding, Nothing unpleasant will happento you. When the murderous gang gathered at the doorintending to attack, the Messenger of Allah came out andtook up a handful of dust. Allah then instantly removedtheir sight and the Messenger of Allah scattered the dustover their heads while reciting verses from Surah YaSin,„We have covered them so that they do not see. (36: 9) Someone came to them and said, What are youwaiting here for? Muhammad, they replied. May Allah disappoint you! he said. By Allah, hecame out earlier and went About his business. When they looked and saw someone sleeping on thebed they did not doubt that it was the Messenger ofAllah. But in the morning when Ali got up from the bed,they were so embarrassed that they slunk away quietly.The Hijrah of the Messenger of Allah The Messenger of Allah went to Abu Bakr to tellhim, Allah has given me permission to emigrate. 70
  72. 72. Abu Bakr exclaimed, In company, Messenger ofAllah? In company, replied the Messenger of Allah, andAbu Bakr wept for joy. Abu Bakr brought two camels which he had inreadiness for the journey and hired Abdullah ibn Urayqitto act as their guide. Over the years, the Messenger ofAllah had developed such a reputation for honesty thatthe unbelieving Quraysh would deposit their valuableswith him, certain that they would be safe. This day hecharged Ali with the responsibility for returning all theproperty to rightful owners.The Cave of Thawr The Messenger of Allah and Abu Bakr left Makkahsecretly. Abu Bakr asked his son, Abdullah ibn AbiBakr, to find out what people were saying About them inMakkah and he asked Amir ibn Fuhayrah, his freedslave, to graze his milking sheep in the daytime but tobring them to them each night. Asma bint Abi Bakrwould bring them food. They went to the Cave of Thawr. Abu Bakr went infirst to clean it up and to make sure that it was safe sothat nothing could harm the Messenger of Allah. Oncehe was satisfied he called him in. When they were inside Allah sent a spider to spin aweb from a bush across the entrance to the cave. It 71
  73. 73. concealed the fact that the Messenger of Allah and AbuBakr had only just gone in. Allah also commanded twowild doves to fly down between the spider and the tree."They made a nest there and laid eggs. ‗To Allah belongthe armies of the heavens and the earth. (48: 4) The idolworshippers followed the tracks of theMessenger of Allahs party, but when they reached themountain they became confused. They climbed up thehillside passing close to the cave. However, when theysaw the spiders web they said, If anyone had enteredhere, there would not be a spiders web across theopening. Then, they rode on. Abu Bakr saw theidolworshippers coming. In alarm he said, Messenger ofAllah, if one of them steps forward, he will see us. The Messenger of Allah replied, Why worry Abouttwo when Allah is the third? Allah says in the Quran, ... the second of the two;when the two were in the Cave, when he said to hiscompanion, “Grieve not. Allah is with us.” „ (9: 40)Suraqahs experience When the Quraysh realized that the Messenger ofAllah had escaped, they offered a hundred camels toanyone who handed him over, dead or alive. TheMessenger of Allah remained in the cave for three daysand then left with ‗Amir ibn Fuhayrah who guided himalong the coastal route. 72
  74. 74. Suraqah ibn Malik ibn Ju‘sham was eager to get thereward offered for the Messenger of Allah. He wastracking his footsteps when his horse stumbled and hewas thrown off. He refused to give up so he mountedagain and rode on. His horse stumbled a second time andhe fell again. Determined to capture his quarry, he rodeon once more. Just as he caught sight of the Messengerof Allah, his horse stumbled a third time. Its feet sankinto the sand and Suraqah fell. Then he watched as dustrose from the ground like a sandstorm in front of him. When Suraqah saw that happen, he knew that theMessenger of Allah was under the protection of Allah.He realized that the Messenger of Allah would certainlyhave the upper hand over his enemies. He called out, ‗Iam Suraqah ibn Ju‘sham. Wait for me so that I can speakto you. By Allah, I will not harm you. The Messenger of Allah said to Abu Bakr, Ask himwhat he wants from us. Write a document for me which will be a warrant ofsecurity. The Messenger of Allah asked Amir ibn Fuhayrahto write it and Suraqah kept the piece of leather (or bone)on which it was written for many years. The Messengerof Allah, looking ahead to the day when the Persianempire would crumble, said to Suraqah, How will youfeel when you are wearing the bracelets of Chosroes? And indeed that event took place. When Persia wasconquered, the bracelets, belt and crown of Chosroes 73
  75. 75. were brought to Umar. He summoned Suraqah ibnMalik and put the royal insignia on him. Although Suraqah offered the Messenger of Allahprovisions for his journey to Madinah, they were notaccepted. He only asked, Conceal our presence.A blessed man During their journey the Messenger of Allahs partypassed the tent of Umm Mabad al-Khuzaiyyah who hada goat which was giving no milk during the drought. TheMessenger of Allah stroked its udder, invoked the nameof Allah and prayed for a blessing. Milk flowed. He gaveUmm Mabad and his Companions milk to drink untilthey were satisfied. Then he drank last of all. The ewewas milked a second time and her milk filled a vessel.When Abu Ma‘bad returned home, his wife told himwhat had happened, exclaiming, By Allah, it could onlyhave been a blessed man who passed by us. When she described the angelic stranger, he said,By Allah, I think it is the man whom the Quraysh areseeking. 74
  76. 76. In MadinahMadinah receives the Messenger of Allah The Messenger of Allah and his party continuedtheir journey to Quba which is on the outskirts ofMadinah. It was Monday the 12 of Rabi al-Awwal andthis date marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar. When the Ansar heard that the Messenger of Allahhad left Makkah they waited for him even more eagerlythan people who are fasting wait for the new moon ofthe Id. Every day after the Morning Prayer they went tothe outskirts of Madinah to look for him. They stayedthere until the heat of the summer sun forced them toseek shade. They would go back into their houses feelingvery disappointed. On the day that the Messenger of Allah arrived, thepeople had just gone back into their houses. The Jewshad taken note of what was going on and the first personto see him was indeed a Jew. He shouted as loudly as hecould to announce to the Ansar that the Messenger ofAllah had arrived. Everyone went out to greet him. Heand Abu Bakr, who was About the same age, weresheltering under a palm-tree. Only a few of them hadseen the Messenger of Allah before so most of thepeople in the crowd were unable to distinguish betweenhim and Abu Bakr. Realizing their confusion, Abu Bakr 75
  77. 77. stood up to shade him with his cloak from the sun, thusmaking it clear who was the Messenger of Allah. 76
  78. 78. MADINAH MUNAWWARAH 77
  79. 79. The Muslims were overjoyed at the arrival of theMessenger of Allah. It was the best thing that had everhappened to them. The women and children chanted,This is the Messenger of Allah who has come! This isthe Messenger of Allah who has come! In their delight,the girls of the Ansar recited: The full moon shines down upon us from Thaniyat al-Wada. We must all give our thanksgiving all the while praising Allah. You whom Allah sends among us, what you bring, we will obey. Youve ennobled Madinah. Welcome now! Guide us to His way! Anas ibn Malik al-Ansari, a boy at that time, said, Isaw the Messenger of Allah the day he entered Madinah.I have not seen a better or more radiant day than whenhe came to us in Madinah. The Messenger of Allah spent four days at Quba!where he established a mosque. On Friday morning, heset off again. At noon he stopped among the Banu Salimibn Awf where he prayed the Jumuah. This was the firstJumuah in Madinah.The house of Abu Ayyub al-Ansari 78
  80. 80. In Madinah the Messenger of Allah was greeted bypeople, all asking him to stay with them. They grabbedthe halter of his camel but he said, Let it go its own way.It is under orders. That happened several times.Eventually the camel stopped at the home of Banu Malikibn an-Najjar. By herself she kneeled at a place whichtoday marks the door of the Prophets mosque. At thattime it was used for drying dates and belonged to twoorphan boys of the Banun Najjar who were the Prophetsmaternal uncles. The Messenger of Allah got off his camel. AbuAyyub Khalid ibn Zayd quickly carried his luggage intohis house and the Messenger of Allah stayed with him.Abu Ayyub showed him generous hospitality and greatrespect. The Messenger of Allah insisted on staying onthe lower floor of the house although Abu Ayyubdisliked occupying the top floor Abuve him, thinking itan insult. The Prophet, however, reassured him, saying,Abu Ayyub, it is more convenient for me and those whocall on me that I stay on the lower floor.The Messenger of Allahs Mosque The Messenger of Allah called for the two orphanswho owned the date store and asked them to name aprice for it, so that a mosque could be built. They said,We give it to you, Messenger of Allah. He refused toaccept it as a gift, however, and insisted on paying them. 79
  81. 81. The Messenger of Allah helped in the building of themosque, carrying bricks alongside the other Muslims. As he worked he recited, O Allah, the true reward isthe reward of the Next World, so show mercy to theAnsar and Muhajirun! The Muslims were happy, reciting poetry andpraising Allah. The Messenger of Allah stayed in the house of AbuAyyub for seven months until his mosque and the roomsfor his family were ready. The Muhajirun joined the Messenger of Allah untilnone were left in Makkah except those in prison orawaiting trial. Every house of the Ansar became Muslim.Brotherhood The Messenger of Allah established brotherhoodbetween the Muhajirun and the Ansar, and they were putunder an obligation to assist one another. The Ansarwere so eager to form a brotherhood that they had todraw lots to allocate their shares. The Ansar gave theMuhajirun authority over their homes, their furniture,their land and their animals and preferred them overthemselves in every way. An Ansari would say to a Muhajir, Have whicheverhalf of my property you want to take, and the Muhajirwould say, May Allah bless you in your family andproperty! Show me the market. From the Ansar there 80
  82. 82. was great benevolence as they demonstrated theirgenerosity to their Muslim brothers while the Muhajirunretained their self -respect.The Prophets covenant The Messenger of Allah bound together the Muha-jirun and the Ansar when he made a covenant with theJews. They were confirmed in their freedom to practicereligion and in their title to their wealth. Conditions weremade for them and accepted from them.The Adhan When the Messenger of Allah was secure inMadinah and Islam had been strengthened, the peoplewould join him at prayer without a call. He disliked theway the Jews and Christians used horns and bells toannounce their calls to prayer. Then Allah honoured theMuslims with the adhan. One of them saw the method ina dream. The Messenger of Allah confirmed it andprescribed it for the Muslims. He chose Bilal ibn Rabahal-Habashi to call the adhan. He was the muadhdhin ofthe Messenger of Allah and thus became the Imam of allthe muadhdhins until the end of time.The hypocrites 81
  83. 83. Islam spread throughout Madinah and some of therabbis and Jewish scholars also became Muslims. Theyincluded a learned rabbi named Abdullah ibn Salamwhose acceptance of Islam annoyed other Jews. At thattime the Jews were feeling anxious. They envied Islam,but at the same time they were frightened of it. Hence agroup of hypocrites emerged. Their leader was Abdullahibn Ubayy ibn Salul, whose power was not questionedbefore the arrival of Islam, but now his people wereflocking to the new faith. He and others like him whowere greedy for power became open enemies of Islamwhile others became secret hypocrites.The Qiblah The Messenger of Allah and the Muslims prayedtowards Jerusalem for sixteen months after he carne toMadinah but he wanted to turn to the Kabah. Muslims,as Arabs, had grown up with both love and esteem forthe Kabah, They did not consider any other house equalto it nor any qiblah equal to the qiblah of Ibrahim andIsmail. They all would have preferred to turn towardsthe Kabah. They found that the qiblah towardsJerusalem was an irritation, but they declared, „We hearand obey‟ and „We believe it. All is from our Lord.‟ Theyalways obeyed the Messenger of Allah and submitted tothe commands of Allah whether or not that was whatthey wanted. 82

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