368–369 Nabeel Turner/Getty ImagesIslamic CivilizationMuslims gather around the Kaabaat the Great Mosque in Makkah. A.D. 600 A.D. 900 1200 1500 c. A.D. 610 A.D. 750 c. 1100 1258 c. 1375 Muhammad Abbasids Omar Khayyam Mongols Ibn Khaldun receives overthrow writes the burn writes prophetic call Umayyads Rubaiyat Baghdad histories
Chapter Preview Chapter Overview Visit jat.glencoe.com for a preview A few hundred years after the beginnings of Christianity, of Chapter 11.another important religion arose in the Middle East: Islam.Followers of Islam conquered much of the Middle East,northern Africa, and part of Europe. They also made greatcultural contributions to the world. View the Chapter 11 video in the World History: Journey Across Time Video Program. The Rise of Islam The religion of Islam originated in Arabia. It was based on the teachings of Muhammad. Islamic Empires Followers of Islam, called Muslims, conquered or converted people as they spread their faith throughout the Middle East and the Mediterranean. Muslim Ways of Life Muslims were skilled traders and builders. They established large cities and made many advances in mathematics, science, and the arts. Categorizing Information Make the following foldable to organize information about the people and places of Islamic civilization. Step 1 Collect two sheets Step 2 Fold down the top edges Reading and Writing of paper and place them of the paper to form four tabs. As you read, use your about 1 inch apart. foldable to write down what you learn about Islamic civilization. This makes all the tabs the Write facts under each Keep the same size. appropriate tab. edges straight. Step 3 When all the tabs are the Islamic Civilization Staple same size, crease the paper to hold the tabs in place and staple the sheets The Rise of Islam along the fold. together. Turn the paper and label The Muslim Ways of Life each tab as shown. 369
Main Idea Main Ideas and Details Main ideas are the most important ideas in a paragraph, section, or chapter. Supporting details are facts or examples that explain the main idea. Read the following paragraph from Section 3 and notice how the author explains the main idea. Several things explain the success of Muslim trade. When Muslim empires expanded, they spread the Arabic language. As a result, Arabic became the lan- guage of trade. Muslim rulers also made trade easier by provid- ing merchants with coins. —from page 388 Supporting Detail nce st sente Often , the fir ll raph wi in a parag dea. Supporting Main Idea Supporting a main i Detail Detail contain details Su ppor ting following e in will com . Supporting es sentenc Detail 370
Using a Graphic Read to Write “The famous MogulOrganizer ruler Akbar could not read, yet he set up a Read the following paragraph, and find the main idea large library because heand supporting details. Create a graphic organizer like the valued education, books,one that appears at the bottom of page 370. and art.” Write a letter to Akbar telling him about your favorite book and why it should be included in his library. Times were good in India under Akbar. Farmers and artisans pro- duced more food and goods than the Indians needed. As a result, trade increased. Muslim merchants brought paper, gunpowder, and fine porcelain from China to India. In addition, Muslim architects intro- duced new building styles, such as the arch and dome, to India. —from page 386 As you read Chapter 11, create your own graphic organizer to show the main idea and supporting details from at least one paragraph. 371 Paul Dupuy Museum, Toulouse, France/Lauros-Giraudon, Paris/SuperStock
The Rise of Islam What’s the Connection? Locating Places Previously, you learned about Makkah (MAH • kuh) early empires in southwest Asia. Kaaba (KAH • buh) During the A.D. 600s, people called Madinah (mah • DEE • nah) Arabs began a new empire in the region. The driving force behind Meeting People their empire building was the religion Bedouin (BEH • duh • wuhn) of Islam. Muhammad (moh • HAH • muhd) Focus on the Building Your Vocabulary • The deserts, coastline, and oases of oasis (oh • AY • suhs) Arabia helped shape the Arab way sheikh (SHAYK) of life. (page 373) caravan (KAR • uh • VAN) • The prophet Muhammad brought the Quran (koh • RAHN) message of Islam to the people of Arabia. (page 374) Reading Strategy Organizing Information Use a • The Quran provided guidelines for diagram like the one below to identify Muslims’ lives and the governments the Five Pillars of faith. of Muslim states. (page 377) Five Pillars A.D. 550 A.D. 600 A.D. 650 A.D. 570 c. A.D. 610 A.D. 630 Muhammad Muhammad receives Makkah surrenders Madinah is born prophetic call to Muhammad Makkah (Mecca)372 CHAPTER 11 Islamic Civilization
Daily Life in Early Arabia Bedouins lived in tents and ate dried fruits and nuts. They drank the milk of their The deserts, coastline, and oases of animals. Only rarely would they eat meat.Arabia helped shape the Arab way of life. Their animals were much too valuable to beReading Focus Do you ever think about how rainfall used as food.shapes your life? Read on to find out how lack of rainhelped shape the Arabs’ way of life. Trade and Towns Many Arabs lived in vil- lages where they farmed or raised animals. Desert stretches over most of the Arabian These villages were near oases or in thepeninsula. The heat is intense, and a sand- mountain valleys.storm can blind any traveler. Water is found Some of the villagers were merchantsonly at oases (oh AY seez), green areas fed by who transported goods across the desert. Tounderground water. Not all of Arabia is dry, fend off attacks by Bedouins, many traveledhowever. In the mountains of the south- in a caravan (KAR • uh• VAN), or group of trav-west, enough rain falls to support plants eling merchants and animals.such as juniper and olive trees. By about A.D. 500, Arabian merchants To survive, early Arabs organized into handled most trade between India and thetribes who were very loyal to one another. Mediterranean Sea. As their trade grew,The head of the tribe was called a sheikh Arab merchants founded towns along the(SHAYK). trade routes in Arabia. Makkah (MAH • kuh), also known as Mecca, became the largestWho Are the Bedouins? Some Arabs were and richest of them all. It was a crossroadsdesert herders. To water and graze their for merchants, and it was also an importantcamels, goats, and sheep, they went from religious site. The holiest place in Arabia wasoasis to oasis. They were called Bedouins in this city.(BEH • duh • wuhnz). Today, many Bedouins still roam the desert and live in tents. Where did Bedouins graze their animals in the desert? Bedouin woman making bread 373 (l)DiMaggio/Kalish/CORBIS, (r)Kevin Fleming/CORBIS
The Middle East, c. A.D. 600 Muhammad: Islam’s Prophet N The prophet Muhammad brought the W KEY E message of Islam to the people of Arabia. Byzantine Empire S Persian Empire Reading Focus Have you ever heard someone speak and been moved to tears? The following paragraphs tell CAU Black Sea CA about a prophet who moved the Arab people with his Ca SU SM words. spi Constantinople TS an S ASIA . 40°N MINOR ea Muhammad’s Message Ti In A.D. 570 a man griMediterranean SYRIA s R. Sea Damascus named Muhammad (moh • HAH • muhd) was E PERSIA Baghdad born in Makkah. An orphan, he was raised up hAlexandria Jerusalem ra sR by an uncle. As a teenager, he worked in te . Persepolis EGYPT the trusted job of caravan leader and even- Pe r Ni si a n tually became a successful merchant. He le R Gu lf Red SAHARA Yathrib . married and had children. Sea 0 500 mi. ARABIAN Despite his success, Muhammad was 0 500 km Makkah P E N I N S U L A Lambert Azimuthal (Mecca) 20°N dissatisfied. He felt that the wealthy town Equal-Area projection leaders should return to the old ways. He YEMEN Arabian thought they should honor their families, Sea be fair in business, and help the poor. Muhammad went into the hills to pray. Islam, one of the world’s major In about A.D. 610, he said he was visited by religions, began in the Arabian an angel and told to preach Islam. Islam Peninsula. means “surrendering to the will of Allah.” 1. Which empire was located Allah is the Arabic word for “God.” north and west of the Arabian Peninsula? Inspired, Muhammad returned to 2. About how far is it from Makkah Makkah. Everywhere he went, he told to Yathrib? people to destroy statues of false gods and Find NGS online map resources @ to worship only Allah, the one true God. www.nationalgeographic.com/maps Muhammad also preached that all peo- ple were equal and that the rich should share their goods. In Makkah, where most In the middle of Makkah was the Kaaba people lived humbly, this vision of a just(KAH buh), a low square building sur- society was very powerful. Muhammadrounded by statues of gods and goddesses. was saying that wealth was not as impor-Arabs believed that the great stone inside tant as leading a good life. When the Day ofthe Kaaba was from heaven. Pilgrims, peo- Judgment arrived, he said God wouldple who travel to a holy place, flocked to reward the good people and punish theMakkah. Arabians worshiped many gods, evildoers.but the most important was Allah. Allahwas considered to be the creator. Opposition to Islam Slowly Muhammad Analyze How did geography convinced people that his message wasshape life in Arabia? true. At first, only his family became374 CHAPTER 11 Islamic Civilization
Muslims, or followers of Islam. Soon, how- Muhammad’s Government The people ofever, many of the poor were attracted to his Madinah accepted Muhammad as God’smessage that goods should be shared. prophet and their ruler. Muhammad Wealthy merchants and religious lead- proved to be an able leader. He applied theers did not like Muhammad’s message. laws he believed God had given him to allThey thought he was trying to take away areas of life. He used these laws to settletheir power. They made his life difficult and disputes among the people. Muhammadbeat and tortured his followers. created an Islamic state—a government that In A.D. 622 Muhammad and his follow- uses its political power to uphold Islam. Heers left Makkah. They moved north to a required all Muslims to place loyalty to thetown called Yathrib (YA • thruhb). The jour- Islamic state above loyalty to their tribe.ney of Muhammad and his followers to To defend his new government,Yathrib became known as the Hijrah (HIH • Muhammad built an army. His soldiers con-jruh). The word comes from Arabic and quered Makkah in A.D. 630, and Muhammadmeans “breaking off relationships.” Later then made it a holy city of Islam. Two yearsMuslims made the year A.D. 622 the first later, Muhammad died. By this time, Islamyear of a new Muslim calendar. Yathrib wel- was spreading to all of Arabia.comed Muhammad and his followers. Their Explain Why didcity was renamed Madinah (mah • DEE • nah), Muhammad’s message appeal to the poor?which means “the city of the prophet.” A pilgrimage to MakkahA Holy JourneyA pilgrimage to the holy city of Makkah often involved a long,difficult journey across deserts and other rough country.Muslim travelers carried palm leaves to show that they wereon a pilgrimage. Where was Muhammad born? 375 Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris/Bridgeman Art Library
(t)C. Hellier/Ancient Art & Architecture Collection, (b)George Chan/Photo ResearchersMU570–A2 MAD H M 63 A.D. and many Muhammad experienced great poverty Abd Allah, died beforehardships early in his life. His father, uttalib, took care ofhe was born. His grandfather, Abd al-M e. Abd al-Muttalib feltMuhammad in Makkah for a short tim to raise a baby, but hethat Makkah was an unhealthy place itical leader in the city.could not leave because he was a pol e of nomads. TheySo he entrusted Muhammad to a trib home, the desert. When took the baby Muhammad to their ther died. Two years Muhammad was six years old, his mo grandfather also died. later, when Muhammad was eight, his inherit anything, so Arab custom did not allow minors to The Mosque of the Prophet mad’s father and in Madinah contains the property and money from Muham n to him . To survive, Muhammad’s tomb. grandfather could not be passed dow of Abu Talib, his uncle Muhammad needed the protection who now headed the family. eled by camel on trading journeys to Under the care of Abu Talib, Muhammad trav mad met a about twenty-five years old, Muham Syria. On one of these trips, when he was r daughters. and Muhammad married and had fou wealthy woman named Khadijah. She to t childhood. Muhammad’s marriage They also had at least two sons who did not live pas ant class. mber of Makkah’s prosperous merch Khadijah made him a wealthy man and a me et his early However, Muhammad could not forg influenced experiences. His childhood had deeply tful person. He Muhammad and made him a though r Makkah and often would go up into the hills nea he would reflect spend nights in a cave. Alone there, and the growing on the problems he saw in Makkah h great wealth tension between the few people wit It was in these and the many people with nothing. el told him, hills that Muhammad claimed an ang “You are the Messenger of God.” d saw in Are any of the problems Muhamma we see The Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem Makkah similar to problems in society is marks the place where Muhammad today? Explain. believed to have ascended to heaven.
Muhammad. For Christians, Jesus wasIslam’s Teachings more than a prophet. He was the son of The Quran provided guidelines for God and therefore divine. In Islam,Muslims’ lives and the governments of Muslim Muhammad is seen as a prophet and a verystates. good person but not as divine.Reading Focus Do you ever wonder how you shouldact in certain situations? In the following paragraphs, What Is the Quran? Muslims wrote downyou will learn where Muslims looked for guidance. the messages that Muhammad said he received from Allah. These writings became Islam, Judaism, and Christianity have the Quran (koh • RAHN), or holy book ofsome beliefs in common. Like Jews and Islam. For Muslims, the Quran is God’sChristians, Muslims believe in one God. written word. For this reason, MuslimsMuslims believe this one God holds all strive to follow the Quran.power and created the universe. They also The Quran instructs Muslims aboutbelieve that God determines right and how they should live. Many of its moralwrong. People are expected to obey God’s teachings are like those of the Bible. Forlaws if they want to be blessed in the afterlife. example, Muslims are told to be honest and Jews, Christians, and Muslims also to treat others fairly. They are to honor theirbelieve that God spoke to people through parents, show kindness to their neighbors,prophets. For Muslims, early prophets and give generously to the poor. Murder,were Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and finally lying, and stealing are forbidden. A child studies the Quran Muslim pilgrims surround the Kaaba in Makkah. When did Muhammad’s soldiers capture the city of Makkah? CHAPTER 11 Islamic Civilization 377 (l)AFP/CORBIS, (r)ARAMCO
Many rules in the Quran apply to The Five Pillars of Islam Muslims’ daily life. According to these rules, Muslims should not eat pork, drink liquor, Belief Muslims must declare that there is no god but Allah and or gamble. The Quran also has rules about that Muhammad is his prophet. marriage, divorce, family life, property rights, and business practices. Prayer Muslims must pray five times Muslims are expected to fulfill the Five per day facing toward Makkah. Pillars of Islam, or acts of worship. These are shown in the chart at the left. Charity Muslims must give to the poor. Scholars of Islam also created a law code that explains how society should be run. Fasting Muslims must not eat from This code is taken from the Quran and the dawn to dusk during the sacred holiday of Ramadan. Sunna (SUH • nuh). The Sunna is the name given to customs based on Muhammad’s Pilgrimage Muslims must visit Makkah words and deeds. Islam’s law code covers once in their life. all areas of daily life. It applies the teachings of the Quran to family life, business, and government. The Five Pillars are acts of worship that all Muslims must carry out. How many times Evaluate What role do the should Muslims pray each day? Quran and Sunna play in Muslim daily life? Study CentralTM Need help with the material in this section? Visit jat.glencoe.com What Did You Learn?Reading Summary 1. What are oases, and why were they important to Arabs? 4. Conclude Why do you think Muhammad’s teachings wereReview the 2. Name some activities the popular with poorer people?• In the desert of the Arabian Peninsula, the Arab people were Quran prohibits. 5. Analyze How did Muhammad mostly herders and traders. link religion and government? Critical Thinking 3. Compare and Contrast 6. Expository Writing Suppose• In the town of Makkah, Draw a Venn diagram to you are living in Makkah at Muhammad began to preach a compare and contrast Islam, the time Muhammad began new religion, Islam, which soon Judaism, and Christianity. preaching. Write a short news- spread to all of Arabia. paper article that describes Muhammad’s teachings and• Muslims believe that Muhammad the reactions of people in the was Allah’s final prophet and that Islam Judaism city to those teachings. All their holy book, the Quran, is Three 7. Main Idea Draw Allah’s written word. a graphic organizer to show the supporting details for this main Christianity idea: Geography shaped the way that the early Arabs lived.378 CHAPTER 11 Islamic Civilization
Islamic Empires What’s the Connection? Meeting People In Section 1, you learned how Umayyad (oo • MY • uhd) Islam spread from Madinah to Sufi (SOO • fee) Makkah. In time, Islam’s followers Abbasid (uh • BA • suhd) brought their beliefs to all of Suleiman I (SOO • lay • MAHN) Southwest Asia and parts of Mogul (MOH • guhl) Southeast Asia, Africa, and Europe. Akbar (AK • buhr) Focus on the • Arabs spread Islam through preaching, Building Your Vocabulary caliph (KAY • luhf) conquest, and trade. (page 380) Shiite (SHEE • eyet) • While Muslims split into two groups, Sunni (SU • nee) the Arab Empire reached new heights. sultan (SUHL • tuhn) (page 382) • Turks and Moguls built Muslim empires Reading Strategy in Asia, Africa, and Europe. (page 384) Cause and Effect Create a diagram to show why the Arabs were successful Locating Places conquerors. Damascus (duh • MAS • kuhs) Indonesia (IHN • duh • NEE • zhuh) Timbuktu (TIHM • BUHK • TOO) Baghdad (BAG • dad) Arabs were successful conquerors. Delhi (DEH • lee) A.D. 500 1100 1700 A.D. 750 1258 1526C´ordoba Abbasids overthrow Mongols burn Moguls rule Constantinople Umayyads Baghdad India from Delhi Baghdad Delhi CHAPTER 11 Islamic Civilization 379
fought hard for Islam. They wanted toThe Spread of Islam The Art Archive/Hazem Palace Damascus/Dagli Orti spread Allah’s message to everyone. Under Arabs spread Islam through preaching, their rule, the empire expanded to includeconquest, and trade. all of southwest Asia.Reading Focus When you come up with a new idea, Expansion continued under the Umayyadhow do you let others know about it? Read on to find (oo • MY • uhd) caliphs, who ruled fromout how Arabs spread Islam. A.D. 661 to A.D. 750. They made their capital the city of Damascus (duh • MAS • kuhs) in Syria. Now the Arab Empire included When Muhammad died, his followers North Africa, Spain, and some of India.chose his successor. He was called a caliph(KAY • luhf), which meant successor to the The Muslims Build an Empire Just 100Messenger of God. years after Muhammad’s death, the Islamic The first caliph was Muhammad’s father- state became a great empire. Why were thein-law, Abu Bakr. The first four caliphs ruled Arabs so successful?from Madinah and were called the Rightly Arabs had always been good on horse-Guided Caliphs. That is because they tried back and good with the sword, but asto follow in Muhammad’s footsteps. They Muslims, they also were inspired by theirlived simply, treated others fairly, and also religion. They were fighting to spread The Spread of Islam A.D. 632–750 0 20 E N Aral FRANCE Sea 40 E °N W Ca SPAIN S sp C´ordoba Black Sea ian Strait of Constantinople Se Gibraltar GRANADA a ASIA Ind u s R. Tig M MINOR SO r E P is MOROCCO up OTA R. E SYRIA h ratM es IA Baghdad PERSIA Mediterranean Sea Damascus R. INDIA Jerusalem Pe Cairo r si a AFRICA nG ul f 0 500 mi. EGYPT Madinah 20°N 0 500 km Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection Makkah Arabian Re (Mecca) R. Sea Nile dS ARABIA ea KEY Islamic territory at Muhammads death, A.D. 632 Islamic expansion, A.D. 632–661 Islamic expansion, A.D. 661–750 After Muhammad’s death, the ter- Byzantine Empire, A.D. 750 ritory in the Arab Empire expanded. 1. What area of Europe came under Muslim control? The Umayyad Mosque, also 2. Describe the territories conquered known as the Great Mosque by the Arabs by the year A.D. 661. of Damascus
The Rightly Guided Caliphs Abu Bakr Umar Uthman AliRelationship to father-in-law friend son-in-law, first cousin,Muhammad member of the son-in-law Umayyad familyCareer merchant merchant merchant soldier, writerCaliphate A.D. 632–634 A.D. 634–644 A.D. 644–656 A.D. 656–661Achievements spread Islam to spread Islam to spread Islam reformed taxas Caliph all of Arabia; Syria, Egypt, into Afghanistan collection restored peace and Persia; and eastern and other after death of redesigned Mediterranean; government Muhammad; government; organized a navy; systems; spent created code paid soldiers; improved the most of caliphate of conduct in held a census; government; battling Muawiya, war; compiled made taxes built more roads, the governor Quran verses more fair; built bridges, and of Syria roads and canals; canals; distributed aided poor text of the Quran Islamic glass horse Under the caliphs, Islam spread through theIslam. Muslims believed anyone who died Middle East and into North Africa.in battle for Islam would go to paradise. 1. Which caliph organized a navy? 2. Compare What achievements did Umar The Arabs were also successful because and Ali have in common?they let conquered peoples practice theirown religion. They called Christians andJews “People of the Book,” meaning thatthese people, too, believed in one God and and teaching Islam. They won many fol-had holy writings. Muslims did not treat lowers throughout the Arab Empire.everyone equally, though. Non-Muslims Arab merchants also helped to spreadhad to pay a special tax. Islam. They set up trading posts throughout When a people are conquered, they tend southeast Asia and taught Islam to the peo-to adopt the religion and customs of their ple there. Today, the country of Indonesianew rulers. In the Arab Empire, many peo- (IHN • duh • NEE • zhuh) includes more Muslimsple became Muslims and learned Arabic. than any other nation in the world.The customs of the conquered countries also Some Arab merchants crossed the Saharainfluenced the Arabic rulers. Eventually, the to trade with kingdoms in West Africa. Interm Arab meant only that a person spoke the 1300s, the west African city of TimbuktuArabic, not that he or she was from Arabia. (TIHM • BUHK • TOO) became a leading center ofPreaching and Trading Muslims also Muslim learning.spread Islam by preaching. A group called Explain How did ArabsSufis (SOO • feez) spent their time praying spread the religion of Islam through trade? CHAPTER 11 Islamic Civilization 381 Burstein Collection/CORBIS
Struggles Within Islam to the present day. Today most Muslims are Sunnis. Iran and Iraq have the largest pop- While Muslims split into two groups, ulations of Shiites.the Arab Empire reached new heights.Reading Focus Have you ever belonged to a club How Did Islam Split? Shiites (SHEE • eyets)whose members could not agree on a leader? Read to believed that Ali, Muhammad’s son-in-law,find out what happened when Muslims disagreed about should succeed him and that all futurewho should lead them. caliphs should be Ali’s descendants. According to the Shiites, the Umayyad From the moment Muhammad died, caliphs in Damascus had no right to rule.Muslims began arguing about who had Sunnis (SU • nees), who outnumberedthe right to be caliph. The quarrel over Shiites, accepted the Umayyad dynasty aswho should succeed Muhammad split the rightful caliphs, though they did not alwaysMuslim world into two groups, the Sunnis agree with their policies. Over time, theand the Shiites. This division has remained Shiites and Sunnis developed different reli- gious practices and customs. Who Were the Abbasids? The Abbasids (uh • BA • suhds) were the dynasty that came Royal Caliphs after the Umayyads. The Umayyads lost Ibn Khaldun recorded historical events and power in A.D. 750 because they angered his interpretation of them. many Muslims, especially in Persia. Persian “When one considers Muslims felt that Arab Muslims got what God meant the special treatment. They got the best caliphate to be, nothing jobs and paid fewer taxes. more needs [to be said] When these Muslims rebelled, about it. God made the caliph his substitute to people all over the empire joined handle the affairs of His them. They overthrew the Umayyads, servants. He is to make and a new dynasty began. The them do the things that new caliph was a descendant of are good for them and Muhammad’s uncle. His name was forbid them to do those Abu al-Abbas. The new Abbasid that are harmful. He has been directly told so. dynasty lasted until 1258. A person who lacks the The Great Mosque The Abbasids devoted their energies to power to do a thing is of Damascus trade, scholarship, and the arts. They also never told to do it.” built by the built a new capital, Baghdad (BAG • dad). Umayyad caliphs. —Ibn Khaldun, Baghdad prospered because it was “The Muqaddimah” beside the Tigris River and near the Euphrates River. It was a good location to trade since many people used the rivers to According to Khaldun, what is the ship goods north and south. As a result, the relationship between God and the caliph? Arab Empire grew even wealthier. The Abbasid dynasty is also known for bringing Persian influence into the empire.382 CHAPTER 11 Islamic CivilizationAlison Wright/CORBIS
Abbasid Empire A.D. 800 60°E N KEY W EAbbasid empire during reignof Harun al-Rashid, A.D. 800 Da Aral Ca nu b e R. S SeaAbbasid capital sp Black Sea 40°N ianFormer Umayyad capitalTrade route through Baghdad BYZANTINE Se EMPIRE a Ti I n d us R gri PERSIA sR 0° SYRIA . Baghdad . Medit errane Damascus Eu an Se INDIA ph a ra Jerusalem te s R. Pe PALESTINE r si a EGYPT nG ulf 20°N Madinah Re dS . R Makkah le ea Ni (Mecca) 0 500 mi. 0 500 km Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection 20°E 40°E Baghdad became the capital of the Abbasid empire and an important center for trade. A mosque 1. What empire blocked Abbasid expansion to the northwest? in Baghdad 2. Does Baghdad appear to be well located for trade? Explain.Baghdad was very close to Persia, and the 1055, they boldly took Baghdad itself. TheAbbasid rulers came to know and love the Seljuks were satisfied to rule only theart and literature of Persia. government and army. They let the Abbasid caliph remain as the religious leader. TheThe Seljuk Turks Time brought many Seljuk ruler called himself sultan (SUHL •changes in the 500 years of Abbasid rule. In tuhn), or “holder of power.”Egypt and Spain, the Muslims wanted their For 200 more years, the empire contin-own caliphs. About the same time, a new ued in this way. The Seljuks ruled, but itpeople, the Seljuk Turks of central Asia, was still the Abbasid dynasty. Then, in thebegan moving south into the Arab Empire. 1200s, another people swept into theThe Abbasids were losing control. empire. These were the fierce Mongols of The Seljuk Turks were nomads and central Asia. The Mongols were buildinggreat warriors. When they first moved their own empire and destroying many ofinto the empire, the Abbasids hired them as the civilizations they conquered. In 1258soldiers. Soon, however, the Seljuk Turks they stormed into Baghdad and burned it tosaw how weak the Abbasids were. They the ground. The Arab Empire had ended.decided to take power for themselves. First, the Seljuks took over much of Contrast What is the dif-what is now Iran and Turkey. Then, in ference between Shiite and Sunni Muslims? CHAPTER 11 Islamic Civilization 383 Nik Wheeler
Later Muslim Empires James L. Stanfield/National Geographic Society Image Collection Who Were the Ottomans? In the late 1200s, a group of Turks in the northwest Turks and Moguls built Muslim empires corner of Asia Minor began to build a newin Asia, Africa, and Europe. empire. The ruler of these Turks was namedReading Focus How do you react when someone Osman, and as a result, these Turks becametreats you unfairly? Read on to find out how Muslims in known as the Ottoman Turks.Turkey and India treated the people they conquered. The Ottomans quickly conquered most of the land that today makes up the country The Arabs built—and lost—the first of Turkey. They attacked the ByzantineMuslim empire. Later on, other Muslim Empire and pushed north into Europe. Ingroups created empires in Asia, Africa, and 1453 they seized Constantinople, theEurope. One of the largest and most power- Byzantine capital. They changed the city’sful of these empires was the Ottoman name to Istanbul and made it the center ofempire that began in Turkey. Another was their empire.the Mogul empire in India. Ottoman armies also marched south, conquering Syria, Palestine, Egypt, Mesopotamia, and parts of Arabia and North Africa. They used guns and cannons to fight their bat- tles and built a large navy to control the Mediterranean Sea. Like the Seljuks, the Ottomans called their leader a sultan. The most famous sultan was Suleiman I (SOO • lay • MAHN), who ruled in the 1500s. Suleiman was a man of many talents. He was enthusiastic about architecture and built many schools and mosques. Suleiman was also a brilliant gen- eral, who brought Ottoman armies north into Europe. He even threatened the great European capital of Vienna. For all these reasons, Ottomans called him Suleiman the Magnificent. After his rule, the Ottoman empire began to weaken. Little by little, they lost territory. The empire finally col- lapsed at the end of World War I. Muslims pray beneath the large decorated dome of Selimiye Mosque in Edirne, Turkey. Suleiman built this beautiful mosque for his son Selim II. What were some of the reasons that Suleiman was called “the Magnificent”?
The Expansion of the Ottoman Empire 0 20 E 40 E Dnieper R. ATLANTIC ube D n ie Da n R. ste OCEAN Vienna r FRANCE AUSTRIA Ca R. sp ia40 °N n ITALY Black Sea Se N SPAIN aW E S tr Ti S a it o g f G ibr ASIA MINOR ri a lt a r Algiers GREECE PERSIA sR Tunis . Eu Baghdad phr0 500 mi. Med SYRIA ate sR it e rra n Crete Cyprus .0 500 km ean Sea PeLambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection Tripoli Damascus r si Jerusalem an Gu lf AFRICA Cairo ARABIA N ile R. Madinah KEY Re Ottoman lands, c. 1300 EGYPT Makkah d New Territory Gained: 20°N Se (Mecca) a c. 1300–1326 (Osman) 1326–1451 1451–1481 1481–1520 1520–1566 (Suleiman I) 1566–1699 The Ottoman empire continued to The Ottomans used elite expand for almost 400 years. soldiers called janissaries. 1. How far west into Europe did the Ottoman empire expand? 2. During what time period did the OttomanHow Were Non-Muslims Treated? The empire expand to the Persian Gulf?Ottoman empire had many different people,including Turks, Arabs, Greeks, Albanians,Armenians, and Slavs. These groups prac- Who Were the Moguls? During theticed several religions. While many were 1500s, the Moguls (MOH • guhlz) createdMuslims, others were Christians or Jews. another Muslim empire in India. These The government made different laws for Muslim warriors came from the mountainsnon-Muslims. They had to pay a special tax, north of India. The Moguls used guns, can-and in return, they were free to practice nons, elephants, and horses to conquertheir religion. They also could run their territory. In 1526 they made the city ofown affairs. These groups chose leaders to Delhi (DEH • lee) the center of their empire.present their views to the sultan. The greatest Mogul ruler was Akbar However, the sultan made some (AK • buhr). He brought peace and order todemands on the conquered people. For the part of India he ruled by treating all hisexample, Christian families in Eastern subjects fairly. Most of India’s people wereEurope had to send their sons to Istanbul. Hindu. He allowed them to practice theirThere the boys became Muslims and religion. Both Hindus and Muslims servedtrained as soldiers for the sultan. in Akbar’s government. CHAPTER 11 Islamic Civilization 385 Bettmann/CORBIS
result, trade increased. Muslim merchants brought paper, gunpowder, and fine porce- lain from China to India. In addition, Muslim architects introduced new building styles, such as the arch and dome, to India. After Akbar, the Mogul empire began to decline. Later rulers spent too much money trying to expand the empire and imposed heavy taxes on the people. Others tried to force the Hindus to convert to Islam and banned the building of Hindu temples. These policies led to many rebellions, and parts of the empire broke away. At the same time the Moguls began los- ing power over their subjects, they had to deal with European merchants. The mer- Mogul emperor Akbar passing the crown to chants came to India to trade but used their his grandson Shah Jahan military power to take over Mogul territory. Eventually, the Mogul empire collapsed, and Times were good in India under Akbar. Great Britain took control of most of India.Farmers and artisans produced more food Describe How didand goods than the Indians needed. As a Constantinople change in 1453? Study CentralTM Need help with the material in this section? Visit jat.glencoe.com What Did You Learn?Reading Summary 1. How did the Muslims treat conquered peoples? 4. Contrast Describe the differ- ences between the Shiite andReview the 2. How far did the Arab Empire Sunni Muslims.• Arab armies spread Islam as far west as Spain and as far east as spread under the Umayyads? 5. Summarize Besides conquests India. Muslim traders helped by Arab armies, how was Islam Critical Thinking spread the religion to southeast spread? 3. Organizing Information Asia and west Africa. Draw a chart to organize infor- 6. Evaluate Why was Akbar• Despite splitting into two groups, mation about the Ottoman considered a great ruler? the Sunni and the Shiite, Muslim and Mogul empires. 7. Persuasive Writing Which power reached its greatest height Muslim empire—the Umayyads, under the Abbasids. Ottoman Mogul the Ottomans, or the Moguls— Empire Empire• In the 1400s and 1500s, two treated its non-Muslim subjects great Muslim empires, the the most fairly? The least Ottoman and the Mogul, arose. fairly? Write a paragraph to defend your answer.386 CHAPTER 11 Islamic CivilizationChester Beatty Library, Dublin/Bridgeman Art Library
Muslim Ways of LifeWhat’s the Connection? Meeting People In Section 2, you learned that Mamun (mah • MOON)many Muslim rulers brought peace al-Razi (ahl • RAH • zee)and order to their empires. Peace and Ibn Sina (IH • buhn SEE • nuh)order helped trade to increase. Trade, Omar Khayyamin turn, brought great wealth to the (OH • MAHR KY • YAHM)Muslim empires. Ibn Khaldun (IH • buhn KAL • DOON)Focus on the Building Your Vocabulary• While Muslim traders enjoyed great mosque (MAHSK) success and cities grew, most bazaar (buh • ZAHR) Muslims lived in villages in the country. (page 388) minaret (MIH • nuh • REHT] crier (KRY • uhr)• Muslims made valuable contributions in math, science, and the arts. (page 390) Reading Strategy Organizing Information Create a pyramid to show the social classesLocating Places in the early Muslim world.Granada (gruh • NAH • duh)Agra (AH • gruh) A.D. 800 1100 1400 c. A.D. 900 c. 1100 c. 1375 Al-Razi writes Omar Khayyam Ibn Khaldun medical texts writes the writes Rubaiyat histories CHAPTER 11 Islamic Civilization 387 (l)Mary Evans Picture Library, (c)Bettmann/CORBIS
Trade and Everyday Life While Muslim traders enjoyed great Web Activity Visit jat.glencoe.com andsuccess and cities grew, most Muslims lived in vil- click on Chapter 11—Student Web Activities to learn more about Islamic civilization.lages in the country.Reading Focus Have you ever visited a mall or a farmmarket? These are both places where people gather tosell goods. Read to learn about Muslim traders and their spread the Arabic language. As a result,marketplaces. Arabic became the language of trade. Muslim rulers also made trade easier by Muslims were the leading merchants in providing merchants with coins.the Middle East and northern Africa until Muslim merchants kept detailed recordsthe 1400s. Their caravans traveled overland of their business deals and the money theyfrom Baghdad to China. Their ships crossed made. In time, these practices developedthe Indian Ocean to India and Southeast into a new business—banking. MuslimsAsia. They carried spices, cloth, glass, and respected traders for their skills and thecarpets. On their return, they brought wealth they created.rubies, silk, ivory, gold, and slaves. What Were Muslim Cities Like? TradeThe Success of Muslim Traders Several helped the leading Muslim cities grow.things explain the success of Muslim trade. Baghdad, Cairo, and Damascus wereWhen Muslim empires expanded, they located on trade routes that ran from the Mediterranean Sea to central Asia. However, Muslims shop at a textile market. Muslim cities were not only places of trade. What was a bazaar in a Muslim city?388 CHAPTER 11 Islamic CivilizationRichard Bickel/CORBIS
They also became important centers of(t)Jeff Greenberg/Photo Researchers, (b)The Art Archive/Harper Collins Publishers government, learning, and the arts. Muslim cities looked very similar. The major buildings were palaces and mosques. Mosques (mahsks) are Muslim houses of worship. They also serve as schools, courts, Muslim Carpets and Weavings and centers of learning. Carpets were woven in the Middle East Another important part of every long before the coming of Islam. They Muslim city was the bazaar (buh • ZAHR), or became popular in the Islamic world marketplace. Stalls and shops made up the because Muslims used them in their bazaars. Sellers in the stalls and daily worship. shops sold goods from Asia. Carpets were often Buyers from all over, including made of sheep’s wool Europe, went from stall to stall or goat hair. Shepherds to find goods to take home and might knot them by sell. hand, or the carpets Although cities were impor- might be made on tant, most Muslims lived in portable looms. Flowers villages and farmed the land. and geometric shapes Because water was scarce, Muslim farmers used irrigation were popular designs. to bring water to their crops. The carpets used They grew wheat, rice, beans, for the Muslim’s daily and melons in the fields. They prayers are called prayer raised almonds, blackberries, rugs. No matter where apricots, figs, and olives in A Muslim Muslims live, they pray their orchards. Some farmers also raised woman five times daily. They flowers for use in perfume. weaving a rug kneel down on their At first, Muslim villagers owned small prayer rug and pray farms. Later, wealthy landowners took over facing toward Makkah. Prayer rugs some of these farms and formed large are small and can be folded and estates. Farmers and enslaved people carried from place to place. worked for the landowners. Fine carpets of silk and wool are often hung on the walls of Muslim Society The Muslim people fell mosques and public buildings. into social groups based on power and wealth. At the top were government lead- They are considered fine art. ers, landowners, and traders. Below them Muslim carpet were artisans, farmers, and workers. The lowest group was made up of enslaved people. Connecting to the Past 1. What animals were needed As in other civilizations, slavery was to make carpets? widespread. Because Muslims could not be 2. What is the main reason Muslim carpets enslaved, traders brought enslaved people have continually been in demand?
from non-Muslim areas. Many of these peo-ple were prisoners of war. They often Muslim Achievementsserved as servants or soldiers and could Muslims made valuable contributionsbuy back their freedom. in math, science, and the arts. Men and women played different roles Reading Focus Did you know that the numbers youin the Muslim world. As in other parts of use are called Arabic numerals? Read on to find outthe world, men ran government, society, what other contributions Muslims made.and business. Women, on the other hand,helped run Muslim families. They also could Arabic was the common language of theinherit wealth and own property. Many Muslim empires. You have already readplaces had laws requiring women to cover how Arabic language encouraged trade. Ittheir faces and to wear long robes in public. also helped different people in the empires Explain How did Muslim to share knowledge. For example, in A.D. 830rulers give their merchants an advantage? the Abbasid caliph Mamun (mah • MOON) Hijab Modern Muslim women The teachings of Muhammad state that women’s garments should not attract attention. The female Muslim custom of hijab—wearing garments that cover the head and body— was followed only by upper-class women during the first few hundred years of Islam. In the Middle Ages, hijab became more common. Hijab today ranges from colorful scarves to black robes. Some women wear hijab, and some do not. Many wear hijab to follow Muslim tradition. Others think it allows them to be judged for themselves and not their bodies. In certain countries, the government requires women to wear hijab. Why do you think only upper- Traditional Muslim women class women wore hijab in the early centuries of Islam?390 CHAPTER 11 Islamic Civilization(l)Stapleton Collection, UK/Bridgeman Art Library, (r)David Turnley/CORBIS