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The names of the 12 months that comprise the Islamic year are:
Muḥarram — المحرّم, "forbidden" — so called because battle was set aside (haram) during this month. Muharram includes the Day of Ashura.
Ṣafar — صفر, "void" — supposedly named because pagan Arab houses were empty this time of year and had to gather food.
Rabīʿ I (Rabīʿ al-Awwal) — ربيع الأوّل, "the first spring".
Rabīʿ II (Rabīʿ ath-Thānī or Rabīʿ al-Ākhir) — ربيع الثاني or ربيع الآخر, "the second (or last) spring".
Jumādā I (Jumādā al-Ūlā) — جمادى الأولى, "the first month of parched land". Often considered the pre-Islamic "summer".
Jumādā II (Jumādā ath-Thāniya or Jumādā al-Ākhira) — جمادى الثانية or جمادى الآخرة, "the second (or last) month of parched land".
Rajab — رجب, "respect" or "honor". This is another sacred month in which fighting was traditionally forbidden.
Shaʿbān — شعبان, "scattered", marking the time of year when Arab tribes dispersed to find water.
Ramaḍān — رمضان, "scorched". Ramadan is the most venerated month of the Hijri calendar during which Muslims must fast from dawn till sunset and should give charity to the poor.
Shawwāl — شوّال, "raised", as she-camels normally would be in calf at this time of year.
Dhū al-Qaʿda — ذو القعدة, "the one of truce". Dhu al-Qa'da was another month during which war was banned.
Dhū al-Ḥijja — ذو الحجّة, "the one of pilgrimage", referring to the annual Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca, the Hajj.