‘Ali Ibn Abi Talib (R) (Vol.I)


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Dr. Ali Muhammad Sallaabee
Language: English | Format: PDF | Pages: 1297 | Size: 33 MB

Succession to the Prophet…The murder of `Uthman and the quest for justice…The Battle of the Camel…Ahl al-Bayt…Caliphs and Imams…Moderation and extremism…

This book is far more than a biography, as it discusses major issues that have their origins in the early decades of Islam, the repercussions of which are still felt today. In this book, Dr. Sallabi guides the reader through a myriad of hadiths and reports, peeling away the centuries-old layer of fabrications and distortions through which hostile elements both in the Muslim world and beyond sought to conceal the truth. What emerges is a clear picture of the first great turmoil that engulfed the Muslim world and how the noble Companions of the Prophet and the members of his family worked together to resolve these momentous issues, following the guidance and teaching brought by the Messenger of Allah.

The true battle for hearts and minds is that which is raging in the Muslim world today, where many vested interests are seeking to distort the very self-image of the Muslims. It is high time for us to reclaim our history and to stop letting others tell it for us. This book is of great importance as it sets the record straight on a period of our history that is of major significance. Every Muslim who cares about the big issues faced by Islam and Muslims should read this book.

Dr. Ali M. Sallabi is famous for his detailed books of history and biography that bring the past to life for modern readers. Dr. Sallabi was born in Libya in 1383 H/1963 CE, and earned a bachelor’s degree at the Islamic University of Madinah, graduating first in his class. He completed his master’s and doctorate degrees at Omdurman Islamic University in Sudan.

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‘Ali Ibn Abi Talib (R) (Vol.I)

  2. 2. Ali ibn Abi E VOLUME ONE -?k@I&& Dr. Ali M. Sallabi Translated by Nasiruddin al-Khattab
  3. 3. Contents of Volume 1Arabic honorific symbols used in this book ................... 14Pronunciation and Transliteration Chart ........................... 15About the Word Lord......................................................... 19Fublishers Note .................................................................. 20Translators Foreword ......................................................... 21Introduction .......................................................................... 24CHAPTER IAli ibn Abi T%b in Makkah........................................... 51 1. Names. lineage. amibutes and family ............................. 51 1.1. Names and titles ..................................................... 51 1.1.1. Name and lineage .......................................... 51 1.1.2. Kunyah ........................................................... 52 1.1.3. Titles .............................................................. 52 1.2. The birth of Ali ................................................... 52 1.3. Lineage and family and their impact on the offspring 53 1.3.1. The tribe of Quraysb................................... 55 1.3.2. Banu Hishim 55 1.3.3. Abdd M u m 56 1.3.4. Abu Tilib 58 1.3.5. The mother of Ali ibn Abi Taib ................... 60 1.3.6. The siblings of Ali ibn Abi Tsib .................. 64 1.3.7. The wives and children of Ali ....................... 66 1.3.8. Physical characteristics of Ali ......................... 66 2. His coming to Islam and his most important exploits in Makkah before the Hijrah ............................. 67
  4. 4. 6 Contents of Volume 1 2.1. Accepting Islam ............................ . ..... . . . . .. . 67 2.2. How did Ali become Muslim? .............................. 68 2.3. Between Ali and Abu T%b ................................... 69 2.4. Did Ali break the idols with the Messenger of Allah in MaMcah?............ ................. 70 2.5. Did Ali bury Abu T%b on the Prophets instructions?..................... ....... . . . . 71 2.6. Alis attention to security matters and his role in bringing Abu Dharr to the Messenger of AUah ...... 71 2.6.1. Not rushing to seek information ............. ......... 73 2.6.2. Caution when giving information .... ........ ....... 73 2.6.3. Security cover for their movements ........ ...... ... 73 2.6.4. The Companions advanced approach to security matters and the importance of security in their minds 74 2.7. Ali was with the Messenger of Allah when he went around to the tribes and presented the call to Islam to them, and he attended the negotiations with Banu Shaybin ... 74 2.8. His offering himself as a sacrifice for the Prophet.... 79 2.9. His Hijrah (migration from M&ah to Madinah). . . 82 3. How Ali lived with the Quran, and the impact it had on him....................... ... .......... . . 84 3.1. His concept of Allah, the universe, life, paradise, hell and the divine will and decree .............. .......... ..... 84 3.2. The status of the Noble Quran in his view ............ 91 3.3. What was revealed concerning him of the Noble Quran ........... . ......... ...... 3.4. Ali conveyed the Prophets commentary (tafseer) on some verses of the Noble Quran ............ .............. 96 3.5. The basic principles followed by Ali in deriving rulings from the Noble Quran and understanding its meanings 98 3.5.1. Adhering to the apparent meanings of the Noble Quran .................................. . . . . 99
  5. 5. Ali ibn Abi Tdlib 7 3.5.2.Interpreting verses that are general in meaning on the basis of those that are clear and specific....I00 3.5.3.Interpreting what is general in the light of what is clear and specific in the Noble Qnran ....,101 3.5.4.Knowledge of Quranic verses which abrogate and verses which are abrogated............... 102 3.5.5.Interpreting the Quran in the light of the Arabic language ............... ................ ..I02 3.5.6.Understanding the text in the light of another text ...................................................... 103 3.5.7.Asking the Prophet about what he did not understan 105 3.5.8.Knowledge verses were reveale 105 3.5.9.Specifying what is general in meaning ........... 106 3.5.10.Knowledge of the customs of the Arabs and peoples who lived around them.. .......... ....... ... 108 3.5.11. Deep understanding.................................... ..I08 3.6.Alis interpretation of some verses of the Quran ...lo94. Alis slaying close to the Messenger of Allah .............. 113 4.1.Ali and how he respected the status of prophethood 114 4.1.1.Obligation of obeying the Prophet and adhering to his Snnnah...................................I15 4.1.2.The report of Ali about the signs of the Prophethood of the Messenger .............................,118 4.1.3.Encouraging people to adhere to the way of the Prophet ............. ....... ......... ........ 119 4.1.4. Explaining the virtues of the Prophet and some of the rights that he has over his Ummah ............. 120 4.1.5.Deep and precise knowledge of the characteristics of the Prophets personality .......... .. 124 4.1.6.Examples of Alis following the Sunnah ....... 126
  6. 6. 8 Contents of Volume 1 4.2. People who narrated kom Ah ibn Ahi Taib ........ I31 4.2.1. Caution against telling lies about the Prophet 132 4.2.2. Double-checking the authenticity of the narration 132 4.2.3. Not namting munkar (odd) hadith ................. 132 5. The most important exploits of Ali ibn Abi Titlib between the migration to Madinah and the Battle of the Trench .... 140 5.1. Expeditions 5.2. The Battle o 5.3. The maniage of Ali to Fittimah ............................145 5.4. Her two sons al-Hasan and d-Husayn ................... 151 5.5. The hadith of the cloak and what is meant by Ah1 d-Bayt 58 5.6. Rulings that apply specifically to the family of the Messenger of Allab .............................. 160 5.7. Ali at the Battle of L?~nd..................................... 163 5.8. Ali in the Campaign of Banu an-Nadeer....... ........ 165 5.9. Ali at the Battle of H a m d-Asad ...................... 166 5.10. Ali and his attitude towards the slander incident 168 6. The most important exploits of Ali between the Battle of the Trench and the death of the Prophet . . . ................ 170 6.1. Ali at the Battle of the Trench ............................. 170 - 6.2. Ali at the Battle of Banu Quraydhah .................... 172 6.3. Ali at the Treaty of Hudaybiyah and the pledge of Radwin 173 6.4. Umrat al-Qa& (the fulfilled pilgrimage) in 7 AH and Ali, and the custody of the daughter of Hamzah ...... 179 6.5. Ali and the campaign to Khaybar in 7 AH........... 180 6.6. Ali at the conquest of Makkab and the campaign of Hunayn, 8 AH ................................. 186 6.7. The Prophet appointed Ali in charge of Madinah during the campaign of Tabook in 9 AH ...................192
  7. 7. Ali ibn Abi T6lib 9 6.8. Ali and his media role during the pilgrimage led by Abu Bakr, 9 AH ..... .......................... ..... ........ 192 6.9. Ali and the delegation of Christians from Najrin, and the verse of m u b a d a h in 9 AH ....................... .. 195 6.10. Ali, engaging in dawah and as a judge in Yemen, 10 AH ............................................ 198 6.1 1. Ali during the Farewell Pilgrimage ..... ................201 6.12 The honour of washing and burying the Prophet.. ..203 6.13. The story of the letter that the Prophet thought of writing during his final illness ......... ....... ..203CHAPTER 1 1Ali ibn Abi Taib at the time of the Rightly Guided Caliphs....................... .... ......................-213 1. Ali ibn Abi Taib at the time of Abu Bakr 3-Sideeq...213 1.1. Alis oath of allegiance to Abu Bakr as caliph ..... 213 1.2. l and his support for Abu Bakr during Ai the Wars of Apostasy ................................................ 217 1.3. Ali regarded Abu Bakr as being of a higher position than anyone else ........ ......... ...... ......... 218 1.4. Ali following Abu Bakr in prayer and accepting gifts from him .............. ................... ......222 1.5. Abu Bakr, F2hmah and the estate of the Prophet...225 1.6. Ties of marriage between Abu Bakr and Ah1 al-Bayt................................................................ 241 1.7. Ali and the death of Abu Bakr as-Sideeq .............243 2. Ali at the time of Umar al-Farooq .... ....... ...................245 2.1. With regard to judicial matters ............... . . ......... ....246 2.2. Ali and the financial and administrative systems in Umars state........ ...... .............. ................. ......... ...251 2.3. Umar consulted Ali with regard to jihad and matters of state ...... .... ............. ............... ......... ....253
  8. 8. 10 Contents of Volume 1 2.4. Ali and his children, and their relationship . with Umar ...... ..................... ......... ............. ......... ......256 2.5. Marriage of Umar to Urnrn Kulthoom bint Ali ibn Abi T2i 60 2.6. "0 daughter of the Messenger of Allah, no one in this world is dearer to us than your father, and no one after your father is dearer to us than you." ......... 261 2.7. The dispute between al-AbbL and Ali, and Umars judgement between them ........ .......... ..... 263 2.8. Umars nomination of Ali for the caliphate alongside members of the consultative committee, and what Ali said about Umar after he was martyred ............. 265 3. Ali at the time of Uthmh ibn Affan ..... .................... 271 3.1. Alis oath of allegiance to Uthmh.. ........... .........271 3.2. RZfidi myths that have been inserted into the story of the consultative committee...........................,273 3.3. Ruling on preferring Ali over Uthmh.. ...............277 3.4. Ali canied out hadd punishments and was consulted with regard to matters of state during the rule of Uthmin ....... . ................. ........ ....... 278 3.5. Alis attitude concerning the turmoil faced by Uthmk ......................................................281 3.6. Sayings of Ali about the Rightly -Guided Caliphs..,290 3.7. Description of the Companions of the Prophet in the Noble Qur 300CHAPTER rnThe Oath of Allegiance to Ali, the most important of his characteristics and his way of life in society ...305 1. The oath of allegiance to Ali ....................................... 305 1.1. How allegiance was sworn to Ali.. ........... ........ ....305 1.2. Alis entitlement to the caliphate .......................... 310
  9. 9. Ali ibn Abi Tcilib 11 1.3. The oath of allegiance sworn by Talhah and az-Zubayr 315 1.4. Consensus on the appointment of Ali as Caliph ...318 1.5. Conditions stipulated by Ali in the oath of allegiance, and the fcst speech that he delivered.. ,3282. Some of the virtues and most important characteristics of l and the basis for his system of rule .................... 340 Ai 2.1. Knowledge and understanding of Islam...... .... ........342 2.2. The asceticism and piety of Ali ............................357 2.3. The humility of Ali ibn Abi Tilib ........... ........... ..366 2.4. His generosity .... .................... . ............... .....:... .... ..370 2.5. Shyness, or modesty, before Allah ......................... 373 2.6. True submission, patience and sincerity towards Allah 375 2.7. His gratitude to AUah......... .........:............. ...........,382 2.8. Supplication to Allah 383 2.9. The ultimate referenc of Amk al-Mnmiueen Ali ibn Abi T2ib ................. 388 2.10. The right of the Ummah to keep watch on its rulers 390 2.11. Consultatio 392 2.12. Justice and equality...... ........... .............................394 2.13. Freedom ........ ..................... ........ ................ . .......,3993. ALis life in society and his attention to enjoining what is good and forbidding what is evil ......... ............. 401 3.1. His call to tawheed and combating shirk ...............401 3.2. The amazing sermons of Ali ibn Abi Tilib ..........429 3.3. Ali ibn Abi Tilib and poetry ........ ....... .................433 3.4. Wise sayings of Ali which became widely circulated among the people ..... ....... .... ...................... 435 3.5. Comments of Ali ibn Abi Tilib on the attributes of the best of people, the supererogatory worship of the Prophet, and his description of the noble Companions 440
  10. 10. 12 Contents of Volume 1 3.6. Warning against serious diseases........................... . a 5 3.7. Alis concern about setting guidelines for the marketplace, and various incidents in which he took a stand in order to correct people ...... ..... ......454 3.8. The Police force at the time of Ali ibn Abi Taib 464CHAPTER IVFinancial and judiciary Institutions at the time of Ali ibn Abi Taib, and some of his views on Islamic jurisprudence 67 1. Financial institutions 67 2. Judicial institution 71 2.1. Judiciary and legislative plan at the time of the Rightly Guided Caliphs, and the sources to which the Companions referred at that time ......... ... ............ ..... ..473 2.2. Distinguishing features of the judiciary at the time of the Rightly Guided Caliphs .................477 2.3. The most famous judges of Ali ibn Abi T2ib ......481 2.4. Judicial style of Ali, his view of verdicts issued before his time, those who were qualified to act as judges and free access to the judiciary system ...........483 2.5. What is required of the judge.. . . ... .........................486 3. The Islamic jurisprudence of Ali ibn Abi Taib ............488 3.1. With regard to acts of worship ............ ................ ..488 3.2. Hadd punishments 511 3.3. Just retaliation and bodily h a m . . . ... ............ ..........,523 3.4. Disciplinary punishments ... .... ............... ........ ......., 5 3 2 4. Regarding the opinions of the Companions and Rightly Guided caliphs as Sharia evidence ................... ..535 4.1. From the Book of Allah .... ........................... .... ....,541 4.2. Evidence from the Sunnah.................................. ..,544
  11. 11. Ali ibn Abi Trilib 13 4.3. Evidence from other reports...... .. ...........................544 4.4. Sayings of the imams and scholars concerning the binding nature of the Companions opinions ........ .... ..545CHAPTER VGovernors at the time of Ali ibn Abi Taib .................547 1. Regions of the state ........ .:. ........................ ....... .........547 ... 1.1. Makkah al-Mukarram 547 548 1.3. Bahrain and Om 549 550 1.5. Syria ..................................................................... 551 1.6. Mesopotamia (at-Jazeerah) ............... ....... .............. ,556 557 572 582 1.10. Eastern provinces 584 2. Appointment of governors at the time of Ali ...............589 2.1. Alis attitude towards the governors of Uthmh, and his appointment of his relatives ..... ................ . ....589 2.2. Amir al-Mumineen Alis keeping an eye on his workers, and some of his instructions ........ ................601 2.3. The extent of power and authority granted to governors of the time of Ali ............ ................. ...603 2.4. Administrative concepts of Ali ... ............ . ... ... .......620Notes ............ .... ................... .... ................ ............... ..............629Glossaq of Islamic terms ....... .................... ......... ........ .....694
  12. 12. Arabic honorific symbolsused in this book(@) : Subhcinahu wa tacila - "The Exalted"(g)Salla-Allcihu : alayhi wa sallam - "Blessings and peace be upon him"(m): Alayhis-salcim - "May peace be upon h i d(&) : Radiya-Allihu anhu - "May Allah be pleased with him"( .- : Radiya-Allihu anha - "May Allah be pleased with her" &) ,
  13. 13. Pronunciation andTransliteration Chart Arabic script Pronunciation Transliterated a: s i short a, as in cat a - longer a, as in cab (not as in cake) 2 - U /b/ as in bell, rubber and tab bII ii It/ as in tap, mustard and sit t I takes the sound of the preceding h or t (when bactrical mark sometimes ending in h] followed by I (when in pausal form): ah, ih, or ooh; another or atu(n), ati(n) or ata(n) when in Arabic word) uninterrupted speech 3 /th/ as in thing, maths and wealth th r /j/ as in jam, ajar and age j harsher sound than the itial /h/, and may occur mediaily an in word-final position as well I t as in Bach (in German); may occur kh initially and medially a s well > Id/ as in do, m&y and red d1 j as in this, father, and with dh J d as in raw, art and war; may also b r a rolled r, as with Spanish words
  14. 14. 16 Pronunciation and transliteration c h i ?1 Arabic script / Pronunciation /z/ as in zoo, easy and gaze I1 Transliterated a: I 0- IS/ as in so, messy and grass s c; as in ship, ashes and rush sh1 / no close equivalent in English, but 1 8 11 I may be approximated by I 1 pronouncing it as Iswl or- IS/ farther back in the mouth -4 no close equivalent in English, d but may be approximated by1 I pronouncing /dl I 1 farther back in the mouth . b no close equivalent in English, t but may be approximated byI I pronouncing /t/ I I farther back in the month i; no close equivalent in English, - dh but may be approximated by1 I pronouncing the, 1 1 farther back in the mouth c no close equivalent in English: a guttural sound in 6 the back of the throat r no close equivalent in English, but may be closely approximated gh by pronouncing it like the French 1 - in rouge 11 A /f/ as in $11, effort and muff 1 f
  15. 15. Ali ibn Abi Tilib 17 1 Arabic script I Pronunciation I~ransliteratedl / 9 1 no close equivalent in English, I q 1 1 / but may be approximated by I 1 pronouncing kl farther back in the mouth 4 E as in king, buckle and tack d k J fl/ as in lap, halo; in the word Allah, 1 it becomes velarized as in ball P /m/ as in men, s i m ~ l e and ram mI b I / tas in net, ant and can a I n 1/ LL - 0 - A / m/ as in hat; unlike /h/in English, 1 h I in Arabic m/ is pronounced in medial and word-final positions as well 1 9 as in wet and away w 9 long u, as in boot and too 00 (as a vowel)I LS I as in yet and yard I Y I long e, as in eat, beef and see I ee I1 F / glottal stop: may be closely approximated by pronouncing it 1 I like t in the Cockney English ronunciation of butter: buer, or tb stop sound in uh - oh!
  16. 16. 18 Pronunciation and transliteration chartDiphthongs:Arabic script Pronunciation Transliterated as: ji Long o, as in owe, boat and go au, aw, ow G $i Long a, as in able, ay, ai, ei rain and sayDiacritical marks (tashkeel): shorter version of oo
  17. 17. About the word Lord %e word lord in English has several related meanings. Theoriginal meaning is master or ruler, and in this sense it is oftenused to refer to human beings: the lord of the mansion or Lord So-and-So (in the United Kingdom, for example). The word Lord with acapital L is used in the lexicon of Islam to refer to the One and OnlyGod-Allah. In Islam, there is no ambiguity about the meaning of thisword. While it is true that one may occasionally use the word lord(whether capitalized or not) to refer to a human being, in I s l m cdiscourse the reference of this term is always clear from the context.Whereas for Christians, Hindus and other polytheists, the word Lordwith a capital L may refer to Allah, to Jesus or to some imagineddeity, for Muslims, there can be no plurality of meaning. Allah aloneis the Lord, and the Lord is Allah - not Jesus, not Rama, not anyother being. The Editor
  18. 18. Publishers Note 4 1 praise and thanks belong to Allah alone, the One, the 1Almighty, and AU-Merciful. Blessings and peace be upon ProphetMuhammad, the last of His Messengers and Prophets, his family, hisCompanions and all those who follow in his footsteps until the end oftime. Ali ibn Abi T2ib (&) was the cousin and close companionof the Prophet (g), the beloved husband of the Prophets daughterFatimah (I&), the father of al-Hasan and al-Husayn, and the fourth ofthe ~ightly-guidedCaliphs who led the Muslim nation after theProphets death. Dr. Ali M. Sallabi has sifted through the numerousreports of this period to produce this authentic biography in which heskilfully describes Alis character and recounts the significantincidents in his life, especially regarding the turmoil that envelopedthe Muslim nation during his caliphate. Inshallah this book will enable the readers to form an accuratepicture of this noble figure in Islamic history so that they will not bemisled by false allegations and distortions about this era, which arewidespread and have repercussions in the Muslim world even today.We also hope that the book will allow the readers to develop a hueunderstanding of what it means to love the family of the Prophet (g). May AUah Mess the efforts of all who contributed to theproduction of this book, and may it be acceptable to Him, imeen. Muhammad ibn Abdul Mohsin Al-Tuwaijri Managing Director International Islamic Publishing House Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  19. 19. Translators Foreword (?L1 this book, Dr. Sallibi presents the biography of the fonrthcaliph of Islam and examines in detail the momentous turmoil andconflicts that prevailed during that period in the history of theUmmah. These issues and events still have repercussions today. Using authentic, sound hadiths and reports, the author depictsthe life and times of Ali ibn Abi T%b (rudiya Allrihu hnhu - mayAllah be pleased with him). Even though Alis caliphate is regardedas an extension of the Rightly Guided caliphate, in the sense that thesystem of government and leadership followed the way of theMessenger of Allah (Salla Allcihu alayhi wa sallam -blessings andpeace be upon him) and the three preceding caliphs, it was marked byimportant differences because Ali (&) was faced with theunprecedented danger that engulfed the Umrnah after the murder ofUthmin (&). Thus Ali (&) was compelled to focus all his effortson seeking to keep the Ummah united and dealing with the extremeviews and groups, such as the Kharijites and Rzfias, that began toemerge as a result of the turmoil. The author highlights in detail the role of Abdullah ibn Sabaand his followers in stirring up unrest. He examines the parts theyplayed in the conspiracy against Uthm2n (&) that ended in hismurder, in sparking the Battle of Camel &r the two sides hadreached a peace deal, and in introducing extreme views concerningAh1 al-Bayt [the family of the Prophet Muhammad (%)I - viewsthat the R a e Shia still believe in. As a result of these internal pressures, the expansion of the . .,Islamic state came to a standstill during the caliphate of Ali (&), as
  20. 20. 22 Translatorsforewordhe was preoccupied with confronting the raging m e s t and conflicts.The positive outcome of this situation w s that Ali (&) set an aexample of the ideal way of dealing with Muslim opponents and withextreme Muslim elements in times of discord. He demonstrated thatthe way to deal with Muslim adversaries is not by labelling themdisbelievers; throughout the conflict, he insisted that his opponentswere Muslims, and that the rules of engagement with a Muslimadversary were different from those that apply when fighting thedisbelievers. I they are Muslims, their wounded are not to be killed, ftheir fighters who flee the battlefield are not to be pursued, theirwomenfolk and children are not to be taken captive, and their wealthand property are not to be seized. In the course of researching this book, Dr. Salliibi read throughan enormous number of hadiths and reports referring to the time ofturmoil, exposing the many false reports that were fabricated by theRsfidi Shia and their i in an attempt to distort the image of senior lkCompanions such as kishah, Tabah, az-Zubayr, Muiiwiyah andAmr ibn al-.&$ (may AUah be pleased with them all). These falsereports depicted those noble figures as petty-minded individualswhose main concern was the acquisition of power and wealth. On thebasis of sound, authentic reports, the author proves that the disputebetween these groups of Companions was due to genuinemisunderstanding and the fact that they held different views, whicheach of them sincerely believed were right and proper. A major portion of the book is devoted to a discussion of theviews and beliefs of the RZfiPi Shia, confirming that these positionsare contrary to the views of Ali ibn Abi r t l b (&) himself. Themembers of Ah1 al-Bayt rejected these views and regarded them asheresy and extremism. This book comes at a time when the RZfidi Shia are striving topropagate their misguided beliefs and ideas throughout the world,
  21. 21. Ali ibn Abi Tilib 23under the banner of love for Ah1 d-Bayt. We are confident that thisbook will become a major reference for the English-speaking Muslimworld and will help Muslims to preserve their sound beliefs and tostand up against corrnpt, misguided notions, so that they will clingmore strongly to the path of the Messenger of AUah (gJ, Bakr, AbuUmar, Uthmk, Ali, the rest of the Companions and Ah1 d-Bayt(may Allah be pleased with them all). Nasiruddin al-Khattab Toronto, 20 10
  22. 22. In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most MerctfulIntroduction p r a i s e be to AUah (SubhBnahu wa TaBlB - Glorified andExalted is He). We praise Him and seek His help and forgiveness.We seek refuge with Allah (g) the evil within ourselves and fromfrom our evil deeds. Whomsoever Allah ( B ) guides, none can leadastray, and whomsoever He sends astray, none can guide. I bearwitness that there is no god but AUah (s) alone, with no partner orassociate, and I bear witness that Muhammad (g) slave and is HisMessenger.4 0 you who believe! Fear Allah b y doing all that He has ordered andby abstaining from all that He has forbidden] as He should be feared.[Obey Him, be thankful to Him, and remember Him always] and dienot except in a state of Islam [as Muslims (with complete submissionto AUah)].) (Quran 3: 102)(0 mankind! Be dutiful to your Lord, Who created you from a singleperson [Adam], and from him [Adam] He created his wife Bawwa(Eve)], and from them both He created many men and women; andfear Allah through Whom you demand [your mutual rights], and [donot cut the relations ofl the wombs @nship]. Surely, Allah is Ever anAll-Watcher over you.# (Quran 4: 1)%Oyou who believe! Keep your duty to Allah and fear Him, andspeak [always] the truth. He will direct you to do righteous gooddeeds and will forgive you your sins. And whosoever obeys Allah
  23. 23. Ali ibn Abi Tcilib 25and His Messenger, he has indeed achieved a great achievement [i.e.he will be saved from the hellfire and will be admitted to paradise1.B (Quran 33: 70-71) 0 Lord, to You be praise as befits the majesty of Yourcountenance and the greatness of Your sovereignty. To You be praiseuntil You are pleased, to You be praise when You are pleased and toYou be praise after You are pleased. This book is the fourth in a series on the era of the RightlyGuided Caliphs. The three books that were published previously arethe biographies of Abu Bakr as-Siddeeq, Umar ibn al-KhattSb d -Farooq and Uthrn2n ibn Af& Dbun-Noorayn (may Allah bepleased with them all). This book encompasses the life of Amir al-Mumineen (Commander of the Faithful) Ali ibn Abi T%b (&)from his birth until his martyrdom. It begins with a discussion of hisname, lineage, titles, birth, family and tribe. It describes how he came to Islam and his most importantactions in Makkah, his migration to Madinah and how he lived underthe influence of the Holy Quran and the impact it had on his life. Itexplains his concept of Allah (s), universe, life, paradise, hell theand the divine will and decree; the status of the Holy Quran in hisview; what was revealed of Quran concerning him; the principlesand fundamentals that Amir d-Mumineen l followed in deriving Airulings from the Holy Quran and how he interpreted its meanings;and his interpretation of some verses. It tells how he stayed close tothe Messenger of Allah (g) his childhood; his deep knowledge fromof the statns of prophethood and how he interacted with it, asexplained through his words and deeds. He was keen to teach thepeople and to encourage them to follow the example of theMessenger of Allah (g) his words and deeds and what he inapproved of. He stated that it is obligatory to obey the Prophet (g)and to adhere to and preserve his Sunnah. He explained the proof of
  24. 24. 26 Introduction Ithe prophethood of the Messenger (g), his virtnes and some of therights that he has over his Ummah. The reader will find examples ofthe ways in which Amir al-Mumineen Ali (&) followed theSunnah of the Prophet, as well as the names of some of those whonarrated from Amir al-Mumineen Mi (&) among theCompanions, the t&bioonl and the members of his household. The book then moves on to the life of Amir al-Mumineen Ah(&) in Madinah at the time of the Prophet (@). It discusses hismarriage to as-Sayyidah Fiicimah (a) and the lessons we can learnfrom this marriage about the hGdal gift, trousseau, weddingcelebration, life and asceticism, as well as Fiitimahs sincerity andleadership in this world and the hereafter. I have also included briefbiographies of Alis sons al-Hasan and al-Husayn (may Allah hepleased with them), mentioning their virtues and the hadiths thatwere narrated from the Messenger of Allah (g) - concerning them. I 2discuss the concept of Ah1 al-Bayt (the people of the Prophetsfamily) among Sunni Muslims, and the rulings that apply specifically ,to them, such as the prohibition on their accepting zak&h the factthat they were not allowed to inherit from the Messenger of Allah@), their entitlement to one-fifth of the war booty, sending blessingsupon them as well as upon the Prophet (B), the obligation to andlove and respect them. I examine the exploits of Amir al-Mumineen Ali (4) in hiscampaigns and battles alongside the Messenger of Allah (g), as suchBadr, Uhud, al-Khandaq (the Trench), Banu Quraydhah, -Hudaybiyah, Khaybar, the conquest of Makkah and Hunayn;how the Prophet (g) Ali (&) in charge of Madinah dnring the . put ,campaign to Tabook in 8 AH; his media role3 when Abu Balcr (&)led the people on hajj; the delegation of the Christians of Najriin &dthe verse4 in which the Christians are challenged to come togetherwith the Prophet a) ,, bringing their fanlilies, to pray to Allah and
  25. 25. Ali ibn Abi Tcilib 27invoke His curse on those who are lying; the Prophets sending Ali(&) to Yemen as a preacher of Islam and a judge, and the rulingsthat he gave in Yemen; the actions of Ali (&) during the farewellpilgrimage; the letter that the Prophet (@) thought of writing dnringhis final illness; Alis relationship with the other Rightly GuidedCaliphs and his position during their caliphates. I descrihe his swearing allegiance to Abu Bakr (&) as caliph,his support for Abu Bakr during the Wars of Apostasy, his respect forand giving precedence to Abu Bakr, and his praying behind him andaccepting gifts from him. I refer to the relationship between AbuBakr (&) and Fgtimah (r&), and the story of the estate of theProphet (g). I refnte the sp&ious arguments of the RZfidisabout thisincident, exposing their weak and fabricated reports, and I providedefinitive proof and clear evidence to rebut their contentions. I prove the love that Fgtimah (a) had for the trnth and heradherence to Sharia. I give examples th& demonstrate her respect forthe successor of the Prophet (g), caliph Abu Bakr (&); her thetolerant attitude towards him, the respect of Ah1 al-Bayt for Abu Bakr(&); intermarriage between the family of Abu Bakr and Ah1 al-Bayt; their love for him and their naming their children after him. Ispeak of the contribution that Ali (&) made during the caliphate ofUmar (&) in judicial, organisational, financial and administrativematters; how Umar (&) appointed Ali (4) to be in charge ofMadinah on several occasions, how be consulted with him regardingmatters of jihad and affairs of the state; the strong and warmrelationship between Umar and Ah1 al-Bayt; the marriage of Umarto Umm Kulthoom, the daughter of Ali ibn Abi T2ib (&); and thebackground of this blessed marriage. I list clear evidence that refutesthe false reports and demolishes them utterly. The historical factsshow us a picture that highlights the real love that existed among thenoble companions, as described in the Holy Quran.
  26. 26. I explain the allegiance that Ali (&) swore to Uthmh (&)when he assumed the caliphate, and I refute the lies that havesurrounded the incident. I speak of Alis efforts in support ofUthmins state, how he defended Uthmh (&) against thetroublemakers, his attitude towards the unrest that led to the siege andmurder of Uthmiin (&), and his stance after this martyrdom. I writeof the intermdage between the family of Ali (4) the family andof Uthmk (&). I quote the comments of Ali (&) concerning the RightlyGuided Caliphs who came before him, which are indicative of thelove and respect he had for them, and his disavowal of those whoslandered and reviled them. He carried out the hadd5 punishment forslander on those who reviled Abu Bakr and Umar (may AUah bepleased with them both). The Muslim reader cannot help hut weepwhen he or she reflects upon the words of Amir al-Mnmineen Ali(&) concerning the caliphs and his interactions with that uniqueQuranic generation and its noble leaders. I recount the swearing of allegiance to Ali (&) as caliph andhow it was done; why he was most entitled to it; the consensus of theCompanions concerning it; how Tabah and az-Zuhayr sworeallegiance to him voluntarily, without any pressure or compulsion;how consensus was formed about his caliphate; the conditionsstipulated by Ali (&) in his oath of allegiance; the first sermons hegave; the decision-makers in his state; a little about his virtues andmost important attributes and the foundations of his system of rule. Idiscuss at length his attributes, describing his vast knowledge, deepunderstanding, asceticism, humility, generosity, noble attitude,modesty, devotion and gratitude to Allah (B), patience, sincerityand humble supplication; the ultimate reference point for his stateand how it adhered to the Book of Allah and the Snnnah of HisMessenger (g) followed the example of the Rightly Guided and
  27. 27. Ali ibn Abi T8lib 29Caliphs who preceded him; the right of the Ummah to keep watchover its rulers; consultation, justice, equality and freedom; his life insociety and his concern to enjoin what is good and forbid wbat is evil;his promotion of tawheed6 and his fight against polytheism; histeaching the people about the names and attributes of Allah ( B ) andthe blessings of Allah (B), which He deserves to be thanked; his forkeenness to erase a l traces of pre-Islamic ignorance; his keenness to lprove the falsity of belief in the stars; his punishment of those whoexaggerated about him and claimed that he was divine; his speechabout how faith begins in the heart; his definition of taqwa7; hisconcept of the divine will and decree and how Allah (&)brings Hisslaves to account despite their large numbers. I also cite some of his speeches and exhortations, as well as thepoetry that is attributed to him or that he quoted on differentoccasions. I have chosen a number of his valuable, wise sayings thathave become like proverbs among the people. I discuss wbat he saidabout the attributes of the best of people and about obeying theProphet (g); be described the noble Companions and how he howwarned against serious diseases that affect the he& (spiritualmaladies), such as expecting to live a long life, following whims anddesires, showing off and self-admiration. I also relate his concern forbringing discipline in the markets and for fighting againstinnovations and actions among people that are contraty to Sharia. I discuss the institutions of his state, such as financialinstitutions, the judiciary and the governor system, and how theinstitutions of judiciary and legislation worked at the time of theRightly Guided Caliphs; the sources to which the Companionsreferred at that time; the distinguishing features of the judiciarysystem at the time of the Rightly Guided Caliphs; the most famousjudges appointed by Mi (&); his judicial style; his view of therulings issued before him; those who were qualified to serve as
  28. 28. 30 introduction Ijudges; passing judgement for kee; his ijiihiZs concerning acts ofworship; financial interactions, hadd punishments, just retaliationand criminal cases. I refer to the importance of using as evidence theviews of the Rightly Guided Caliphs and other Companions. In my discussion, I explain the institution of governors and theprovinces of the state at his time, and the important events thathappened in each region. I discuss his method for appointinggovernors and keeping watch over his workers, some of hisguidelines and the extent of authority granted to his governors, suchas appointing advisers to each governor in each province, theformation of consultative committees, the establishment of annies ineach province, the drawing up of foreign policy in war and peace, themaintenance of internal security, the setting up of a judicial system ineach province, financial expenditure, the workers belonging to eachprovince and checking on them, and the role of the chiefs and leadersin maintaining law and order. I explain some administrativeconceptsbased on the sayings of Amir al-Mumineen M (&), such as hisemphasis on human dignity, the importance of experience andknowledge, the relationship between the leader and those under hisauthority, fighting stagnation, inspection and evaluation, control,joint decision-making, good choices on the part of the governor,offering fmancial and psychological security to state employees,keeping men of experience around the governor, a benevolentpaternalistic approach to administration, and the criteria foremployment, which should be based on qualifications and not onpersonal connections. Then I move on to a discussion of the internal problems at the ..time of Ali (&). I begin with the Battle of the Camel, starting withthe events that preceded it and the effect of the Sabai organisation onthe outbreak of the battle; the role of Abdullah ibn Saha in stirring upinternal turmoil; the difference of opinion among the Companions
  29. 29. Ali ibn Abi Tilib 31concerning the way to punish the murderers of Uthmin (i) and &d;the attitude of kishah, Mother of the Believers (%),~a&ah,az-Zubayr, MuZ2wiyah Abi SufySm and those,who were with them, ibnwho favoured hastening to punish the murderers of UthmSm (&I. Ialso describe the attitude of those who were neutral and did not getinvolved in the conflict, such as Sad ihn Abi Waqqi~, Abdullah ibnUmar, M&arnmad ibn Maslamah, Abu Moosa al-Ashari, Imribibn Husayn, U s h a h ibn Zayd and others who adopted theirapproach. I discuss the view of those who wanted to delay carryingout any pu~shInent until things had settled down, such as Amir al-Mumineen Ali (&); the attempts at reconciliation before the Battleof the Camel broke out; the outbreak of fighting and the first andsecond rounds thereof; the martyrdom of Talhah and az-Zubayr; howthe people of Basra swore allegiance to l (&); the attitude of Ali Ai(&) towards the Mother of the Believers Aishah (&) and how heinteracted with her, showed respect towards her and sent her back toMadinah honourably. I refer to the virtues of kishah (I!&) and give a little of herbiography. I also give biographies of az-z"bayr and Ta&ah, becausethey were among the most influential personalities of the era of theProphet ($&) and the Rightly Guided Caliphs, including the time ofAmir al-Mumineen Ali (&). I defend them on the basis of tmth,because they have been wronged; I describe their virtue and theirstatus in Islam, and I refute the misleading arguments and lies thathave become attached to them. I affum the clear facts andindisputable evidence about their refined characteristics and nobleattitudes, so that the Muslim reader will come away with realknowledge of these brilliant figures, without any trace of confusionor ambiguity, so that he or she will not be influenced by the weakreports or fabricated stories, made up by RZfidi Shia historians,which have distorted the image of these characters in the minds ofsome people. The approach I followed in discussing the biographies
  30. 30. 32 Introductionof kishah, Tabah, az-Zubayr, and other senior Companions wholeft their mark during the time of Amir al-Mumineen Ali (&), is inaccordance with the method of Ah1 as-Sunnah wal-Jamciah (SunniMuslims), in general and in details. I also discuss the Battle of Siffeen; Muiwiyahs motives innot swearing allegiance; the correspondence between him and Ali(may AUah be pleased with them both); attempts at reconciliation;the outbreak of fighting; the calI for arbitration; the slaying of Ammi%ibu Y2sir (&) and its impact on the Muslims; the goodconduct of both sides during the war and confrontation; the treatmentof prisoners of war; the number of people slain; how Ali (&)prayed for mercy for the slain on both sides; and his ban on revilingMnZwiyah and cursing the people of Syria. I then discuss thearbitration, and I provide short biographies of Abu Moosa al-Ashariand Amr ihn al-As (may Allah be pleased with them both). Idemonstrate the falseness of the baseless lies and fabricated storiesthat have been attributed to them with regard to the arbitration, and Ioutline what we can learn from this story about resolving disputesbetween Muslim countries. 1focus on the attitude of Ah1 as-Sunnahwith regard to these wars, and I warn against some books whichdistort the history of the Companions wrongfully, such as al-Imcimahwas-Siycisah, a book which is falsely attributed to Ibn Qutaybah; al-Agh&ni by a l - I s f a h ~ , Tareekh al-Yaqoobi; Tareekh al-Masoodiand other books which deviate from the methodology of Ah1 as-Sunnah wal-Jamiah and the academic trust. I explain the role of theOrientalists in distorting Islamic history, and how they made use ofthe books of the R2fidi Shia to do so; how they established anopposing school of thought which contributed to the contaminationof ideas, distortion of events, concealing of the facts, andexaggeration of the dark spots in our bistoly under bright sloganssuch as unbiased academic research, realistic approach, objectivityand neutrality. These destructive ideas were adopted by a number of
  31. 31. Ali ibn Abi T&lib 33Muslims who belong to Islam but who do not understand it, present itwell, follow its teachings or defend it effectively; instead, they fellinto the traps of the enemies of Islam, who are working to distort thehistory of this Ummah and the civilisation that was created by thisgreat religion. In the last chapter, I undertake an objective, academic study onthe Kharijites and RZfidi Shia. I describe the origin of the Kharijitesand who they are, and I quote prophetic hadiths which mentioncriticism of them. I also discuss their withdrawing to Haroora, IbnAbbbs debate with them, Alis policy in dealing with them, thereasons why he fought them, the outbreak of fighting with them, thestory of Dhul-Thadyah or al-Mukhaddaj, and the effect of his slayingon the m y of Ali (&). I present the rulings of Islamic jurisprudence that Amir d - ..Mumineen Ali (&) came up with in the Battle of the Camel, thebattle of Siffeen and his battles with the Kharijites, and how theMuslim jurists subsequently relied on these rnlings and compiledthem in their books, under the heading of rulings of the interpretationof Islamic law of dealing with rebels. I also point out the mostimportant characteristics of the Kharijites at the time of Ali (&),such as religious extremism, ignorance of religion, rebelling againstauthority, regarding the blood and wealth of the Muslims aspermissible, slander, misguiding, thinking badly of others and beingcruel and harsh towards the Muslims. I discuss some of the beliefsand opinions of the Kharijites, such as regarding as a disbelieveranyone who commits a major sin, their view of the position of caliph,their slander against some of the Companions and their regardingUthmk and Ali (may Allah be pleased with them) as disbelievers. Ibriefly discuss the causes of the Kharijite deviation from the truth andtheir ideas in modem times, such as: ignorance of Islamic sciences asa result of turning away from the scholars and reading books without
  32. 32. teachers, going to extremes in condemning those who imitate orfollow scholars, the neglect of their duties on the part of manyscholars, the spread of injustice and refening to man-made laws forjudgement, the spread of conuption among people and their failure topurify their souls. I point to the most significant aspects of theirexaggeration, such as going to extremes and making issues ofreligion hard on themselves and others, pretending to have greathowledge, self-admiration, clinging to their own opinions andregarding others as ignorant, criticising and maligning the dedicatedscholars, having harsh and violent altitudes towards others andregarding some Muslims as disbelievers. I speak of the R2fidi Shia sect and explain the meaning of thewords Shia and ar-rafd (the root of the word R2fidi) both inlinguistic terms and in Sharia terminology, and thk reason for theirbeing called R Z G s ; how they originated and the role of the Jews inthat; the stages through which the Shia passed; the most importantbeliefs of the RZ& Shia; the attitude of Ali (&) and the scholars ofAh1 al-Bayt concerning those beliefs that are attributed to them, suchas the belief in imamate and the ruling on the one who denies that.They claim that the Quran has stated the concept of imamate in theverse of purification (33:3 ) the verse of mubiihalah ( : 61) and the 3, 3verse of wilriyah ( : 5 ) Their so-called evidence from the Sunnah 5 5.includes the sermons of Ghadeer Khum and the hadith, "You are tome like Haroon was to Moosa." I also discuss the weak andfabricated hadiths that they quote as evidence for the concept of theimamate, such as the hadith of the bird, the hadith of the house, andthe hadith "I am the city of howledge, and Ali is its door." I discussat length the evidence that they offer for the concept of infallibility,and I explain why it is false. I include in the book an index of the weak and fabricatedhadiths that the RZ& Shia quote as evidence, so as to warn the
  33. 33. Ali ibn Abi T&lib 35Muslims against falling into their traps. I explain the meaning oftawheed according to the R%& Shia, how they distorted the texts oftawheed to make them correspond to their belief in the Imams andmade imamate the basis for acceptance of deeds; their belief that theImams are intermediaries between AUah (&) and His creation; theiridea that people cannot be guided except by the Imams andsupplication cannot be accepted except in the name of the Imams; thefact that they consider pilgrimage to Shia shrines better thanpilgrimage to the House of Allah, their idea that the Imam can forbidor permit whatever he wants, and that this world and the hereafter arefor the Imam to dispose of however he wants; their attribution ofnatural events to the Imams; their saying that the Imams have theknowledge of what has happened and what will happen, and thatnothing is hidden from them; their exaggeration about the concept ofaffirmation and how they deny the divine attributes; the issue of thecreation of the Quran and the issue of seeing Allah (&) in thehereafter; their belief that the Imams are superior to the prophets andmessengers; their attitude towards the noble Quran and the belief ofsome of their scholars that the Book of AUah has been distorted, witha refutation of that; the attitude of the Rafidi Shia towards the nobleCompanions and the Sunnah of the Prophet; their concept of taqiyyah(dissimulation or deception); their belief in the awaited M a w , theirbelief in bringing certain individuals back to life and their belief inchanges in the divine will and decree. I explain the attitude of Amiral-Mumineen Ali ibn Abi T a b (&), the imams of Ah1 al-Bayt andthe Snnni scholars towards these conupt beliefs that deviate from theBook of Allah. In my discussion, I strive to adhere to proper etiquetteand to avoid reviling and insults. I discuss Shia ideology on the basisof their sources and the books on which they rely. I am keen to showthe truth to those who love AN al-Bayt among the Shia; I invite themto follow the example of Amir al-Mumineen Ali (&), and I warnthem against those who hide beneath the cloak of Ah1 d-Bayt with
  34. 34. 36 Introductionthe aim of corrnpting peoples beliefs and keeping them away fromthe Book of Allah and the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah ( J@. Moreover, I have written this hook with a sincere desire toeducate the Sunni masses about the reality of the RsifidiShia, becauseShia ideology is present and influential among the peoples of Africa,Asia, Europe, and North and South America. The proponents of theRZfidiShia point of view are active in spreading their deviant call andare spending a lot of wealth for that purpose. They have alliedthemselves with the enemies of true Islam so as to strike it, distort itand put an end to it. This is not a new phenomenon, hut the Sunnis -with few exceptions -are completely oblivious to their tactics; theyseem to be in a deep slumber, unaware of what is being plannedagainst them. Some of them say that the SunniIShia conflict belongsin the past, but this is not trne; it indicates ignorance and shows thatthe Muslim masses have been deceived in the name of bringing thetwo sides together and uniting the Muslims. The correct way to grow close together is for the Sunnischolars to make a greater effort to spread the sound beliefs that arederived from the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of the Messenger ofAllah (g), to explain the soundness of those beliefs and todemonstrate how they are distinct from the views of the followers ofinnovation. Ahl as-Sunnah wal-JamZah are the ones who arefollowing the way of the Messenger of Allah (g) his andCompanions, and their name is derived from their adherence to theSunnah of the Prophet a), which is encouraged in his words, "I urgeyou to adhere to my ~ u n n a hand the way of the Rightly GuidedCaliphs who come after me; cling to it and adhere firmly to it."" Hewarned us not to go against it when he said: "Beware of newlyinvented matters, because every newly invented matter is aninnovation, and every innovation is a going astray,"" and,"Whoever turns away from my Sunnah has nothing to do with me."
  35. 35. Ali ibn Abi Trilib 37This is different from the others, the people of whims and desires andinnovation who followed ways other than that of the Messenger (g). The beliefs of Ah1 as-Sunnah originated with the emergence ofthe Prophets mission, and they are preserved by Allah (&) in HisBook and in the Snnnah of the Messenger (SJ. the other hand, Onsome of the beliefs of the followers of whims and desires emergedafter the time of the Prophet (g); emerged at the end of the era someof the Companions, and others emerged later than that. TheMessenger &), foretold that whoever of his companions lived long ~.enough would see division and dissent. He said: "Whoever amongyou lives (long enough) will see a lot of differences."12 Then he toldthem to follow the straight path, which means following his Sunnahand the way of the Rightly Guided Caliphs, and he wamed againstnewly invented matters, saying that they are misguided. It is notrational to suggest that some p a t of truth and guidance could hehidden from the Companions (may Allah he pleased with them) andsaved for people who would come after them. All of those newlyinvented innovations are evil; if there had been any good in them, theCompanions would have initiated them. Many of those who cameafter them indulged in these innovations and deviated from the wayof the Companions (may Allah be pleased with them). Imam Maik(may Allah have mercy on him) said: "The last of this Ummah willnever be sound except on the basis of that which made the first of thisUmmah sound." Hence Ah1 as-Sunnah are named after the Sunnah,while others are named after false and deviant groups or afterparticular people. The best way to bring people together is to explain the truthand expose the falsehood and to hring the Shia closer to the Book ofAllah and the Sunnah of His Messenger (@), with the understandingof true Islam according to the Sunni scholars, primarily the jurists andscholars of Ahl al-Bayt, such as Amir al-Mumineen Ali (&) and
  36. 36. 38 introductionhis sons and grandsons. We should also pay attention to andencourage sincere Shia voices of reform. We should respect them,appreciate them and support them in their attempts to correct thecourse of their people, as as-Sayyid Husayn al-Moosawi has said inhis valuable book, Lillrihi thumma lit-Tareekh: Kashf al-Asrrir waTabriah al-Aimmah al-Athlir 13, and as represented in the academiceffort undertaken by as-Sayyid m a d al-Kitib in his bookTatawwur al-Fikr as-Siycisi ash-Shii min ashShoora ila WiEyat al-Faqeeh. We have to show support to every sincere lover of Ah1 al-Bayt who follows the sound reports related from them and their wayof guiding people to the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of HisProphet @).We should treat them with all due respect and hold theirhands until they reach the safe shore. We should encourage them touse reason, liberate their minds from their bonds and remove theheavy accumnlation of falsehood that has overwhelmed theircommon sense, so that they will have the opportunity to reach thetruth, which shines brightly and cannot be hidden by the dark clouds. The scholars of Ah1 as-Sunnah must adhere to the methods ofcalm academic research when discussing innovation and innovators,and they should be kind and gentle with them. P r of that kindness atmay entail visiting them and helping them in matters in which there isno dispute, or supporting them at times of calamity and hardship, orwhen they are in a dispute with disbelievers or those who arewronging them, in accordance with a proper understanding of Islamicpolitics and on the basis of the pros and cons. But this principle ofcooperation, good relationship and quiet academic debate is notalways appropriate. In the case of those Rififidi Shia who engage inextreme actions, when keeping quiet may have an impact on theuneducated masses, we must denounce the extremists with regard totheir odd opinions. What are the guidelines for differentiatingbetween the two - the first group, with whom we should speak
  37. 37. Ali ibn Abi Ttlib 39gently, as opposed to the second group, with whom we should dealharshly? If the persons opinion is based on a Sharia text but themisinterpretation of it leads to his or her confusion, or the personsopinion is based on arguments that are erroneous but that may makesense to some people, then we should kindly explain to them. As forthose who base their views on strange reports that were hansmittedby unknown or later narrators, and those whose ideas are not a resultof simple misinterpretation, being harsh in denouncing theirinnovations is a must. The Sunni scholars and the decision-makers among them insectarian societies have a major role to play in leading the Muslimstowards goodness. They are also the ones who-areable to evaluate thepolitical situation and make alliances or deals with other groups andsects on the basis of a proper understanding of the pros and cons, inaccordance with Sharia political principles. This does not mean thatthe scholars and caJlers should give up teaching the Muslims thebasic principles of Ah1 as-Sunnah and educating them in accordancewith those principles, calling the people to them and waming themagainst the &en, compt beliefs that are being propagated among theMuslims. This is necessary so that the Muslims will not be influencedby these false beliefs whose proponents are striving to spread themnight and day, in secret and in the open, without ever getting tired.We have a good example in the Messenger of Allah @); when hemigrated to Madinah, he signed treaties and covenants with the Jewsthat guaranteed them a life of dignity in the shade of the Islamic state.At the same time, the Holy Quran spoke of the beliefs, the historyand the morals of the Jews so that the Muslims would come to knowthe reality of the Jewish character and would not he misled by it.When the Jews committed their act of treachery, the Muslims werenot deceived because they already had knowledge of their character.
  38. 38. The one who studies Islamic history, such as the Crusades atthe time of ora ad in^ and saladin15, the Ottoman era at the time ofSultan Muhammad al-F2tih and others, and the ~lrnoravids~ the attime of Yoosuf ibn Tashfeen, will notice that the factors leading torevival and victory are many, including: purity of belief and clarity ofmethod; ruling the state in accordance with the laws of Allah; thepresence of a dedicated leadership that follows the guidance of Allah,acts according to the natural laws of Allah with regard to educatingand leading the nations and the rise and fall of states, and is alsoaware of social problems, how nations develop, the secrets of history,and the plots of the enemies, be they Crusaders, Jews, atheists,esoteric sects or innovators, and gives each factor its proper weightwhen dealing with them. Issues having to do with revival, short andlong term, are complex and interwoven. They can only be understoodby those who understand the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of theMessenger (@) and are well versed in the positions of the RightlyGuided Caliphs, which have been preserved from our greatpredecessors. They know the features and characteristics of revival,the means of bringing it about and the causes of its disappearance,and they learn from Islamic history and experiences of revival. Thusthey realise that this Ummah never lost its leading position when itwas sincere to its Lord and its Prophet, and they understand thatmilitary defeat is temporary, the effects of which soon diminish, butthat intellectual defeat is a deadly wound. They h o w that soundeducation builds the Muslim individual, the Muslim family, theMuslim society and the Muslim state. This education must be built onsolid foundations that are based on the Book of A l l a , the Sunnah ofHis Messenger (g) the guidance of the Rightly Guided Caliphs andand those who followed in their footsteps. The genius of the earlygeneration in building the Islamic civilisation is that which, after thehelp and protection of All&, preserved for Islam its strncture untiltoday.
  39. 39. Ali ibn Abi Tilib 41 We have to strive for this religion. Our happiness will comenot from haste and quick results, but from sensing the help of Allah(g) hoping to attain His pleasure. and In my study of the era of the Rightly Guided Caliphs, I havebeen careful in selecting words and phrases in order to fully clarifythis period through sound reports, so that Muslims may learn fromthis era and acquire abundant knowledge and deep understanding,thus comprehending Islam in its totality. May Allah bless this effortand make it of benefit to those callers whose names we do not know,but whose impact will be seen over time, those who will help theMuslim world to overcome all obstacles and rise above itsshortcomings, those devoted and sincere souls who know the truthand are happy to support it, who strive for it, defend it and stand by it,despite their weakness and lack of helpers. Allah (&) bas guidedthem because of their sincerity and devotion and their following theProphet (s). He make this book beneficial to those scholars and ~. May ,seekers of knowledge, the ink of whose pens is equal to the blood ofthe martyrs; and to those businessmen who stand behind dawah"efforts, supporting them with their wealth and their selves, implicitlysaying: 4We wish for no reward, nor thanks from you. Verily, Wefear from our Lord a Day, hard and distressful, that will make thefaces look horrible [from extreme dislike to it].) (Quran 76: 9-10)They are the unknown soldiers of this world, who will neverthelessbe prominent figures in paradise. Powerful storms are raging, seeking to uproot our Islam, ourreligion and our beliefs; the efforts of the enemies of Islam, theCrusaders, Jews, secularists, esoteric sects and innovators aretargeting our leaders and prominent figures in the fields of science,literature and politics, seeking to destroy our history, because if anation is without history, it will never be a sound nation. What is thevalue of a nation that has no heroes? What is the value of a religion
  40. 40. 42 Introductionthat does not produce heroes despite its lengthy history (as theyclaim)? Can we learn lessons from our history that will humiliate theenemies of Allah and tum their plots against them? What can help usto resume our mission and support our civilisation? Humanity is currently going through hard times in this darkera of history because it has strayed far from the path of Allah. Theremedy lies with the Muslims alone. Will they be fair to themselvesand save the others? Will there he a return to Islam in such a way thatour hearts are purified, we establish good, we become connected withthe Qnran and we fully sense the honour of belonging to the nationand religion of Muhammad (g)? we be motivated to conduct Willour lives in accordance with his call and the way of the RightlyGuided Caliphs Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthmin and Ali, and all thenoble Companions (may Allah be pleased with them)? Will we beable to form another link in the chain of support for the message ofthe Beloved (g), will continue until the end of time? which Before mentioning the sources and references that I used, it isessential to acknowledge that were it not for the help of Allah (B),and then the efforts of the scholars of Ah1 as-Sunnah and the seekersof knowledge who followed in their footsteps, I could not havepursued this venture in such depth. Hence I acknowledge that I havebenefited from academic theses which have been typed but notpublished, in terms of their content, methodology,judging of reports,referring to modem, historical and other sources, while alsoattempting to build on and benefit from the efforts of others. In particular, I would like to mention Dr. Akram Diya al-Umari, who supervised and discussed many of the theses in thisfield. I have benefited from his books, such as his sound biography ofthe Prophet (g) his study of the era of the Rightly Guided andCaliphs. I have also benefited from the theses that he supervised,such as that by Dr. Yahya al-Yahya, titled al-KhilZfah ar-Rcshidah
  41. 41. Ali ibn Abi Tilib 43wal-Dawlah al-Umawiyyah min Fath al-Bdri Jaman waTawtheeqan (The Rightly Guided Caliphs and the Umayyadstate, collected and authenticated from Fath al-Bin); the thesis ofProfessor Ahdul-Azeez al-Muqbil, Khilifat Abi Bakr as-Siddeeq(&) min khilril Kutub as-Sunnah wat-Tareekh: Dirisah Nadqiyyahlil-Riw&it bistithna Huroob ar-Riddah [The Caliphate of Abu Bakras-Siddeeq (&,) from the Books of Sunnah and History: a CriticalStudy of the Reports with the Exception of the Wars of Apostasy];the thesis of Dr. Ahdul-Azeez ibn Muhammad al-Furayh, TahqeeqKitCEb Mahd as-Sawibji Fadriil Arneer al-Mumineen Umar ibn al-Khactib (Commentary on the Book Mahd as-Sawib on the Virtuesof the Commander of the Faithful Umar ibn al-Khatt2b) by Yoosufibn al-Hasan ibn Abdul-Hidi ad-Dimashqi @-Sai& al-Hanbali; thethesis of Dr. Muhapmad ibn Abdnllah al-Ghabbin, Fi Fitnat Maqtal Uthmcin ibn Affin (On the Turmoil of the Murder of Uthmh ibnAfh) and the thesis of Abdul-Hameed Ali Nhir, Khilifat Ali ibnAbi Tilib (The Caliphate of Ali ibn Abi T2ib). I also consulted other university theses that were supervised byother professors, such as the thesis of Dr. Muhammad Amlpzoon,Tahqeeq Mawiqifaf-Sa@bahfil-Fitnah Riwiyit ac-Taban wal- minMuhadditheen (Study of the Attitudes of the Companions towardsTurmoil based on the Reports of at-Tabari and the Scholars ofHadith); the thesis of Salm& al-Oadah, Abdnllah ibn Saba waAtharuhu ji fidith al-Fitnah j Sadr al-Islam (Abdullah ibn Saha iand his Impact on the Creation of Turmoil at the Beginning of Islam);the thesis of Professor Asma Muhammad Ahmad Ziyiidah, Dawr al-Marah as-Siyrisi ji Ahd an-Nabi (B) wal-Khulafa ar-Rrishideenpolitical Role of Women at the Time of the Prophet (g) the andRightly Guided Caliphs]; and others. Thanks be to Allah first of all,then to my professors and brothers and sisters who paved the way forme. I pray for them in absentia that Allah may accept their efforts and
  42. 42. 44 introductiontheir good deeds on the Day whereon neither wealth nor sons willavail, except for the one who brings to Allah (&) a clean heart [cleanfrom shirk (polytheism) and (hypocrisy)].8 With regard to the sources used for this study that have to dowith the era of the Rightly Guided Caliphs, they are as follows:1)Books of Hadith I started with the six books: Saheeh al-Bukhari, SaheehMuslim, Sunan Abi Driwood, Sunan at-Tirmidhi, Sunan an-Nasriiand Sunan Ibn Mcijah; then the Muwatca of M%k and the Musnad ofA m d , then I made some effort to extract the historical material thathas to do with the era of the Rightly Guided Caliphs. I referred to thehistorical material in Musannaf Abdur-Razzciq, Musannaf Ibn AbiShaybah, Mustadrak al-Hrikim, as-Sunan al-Kubra by al-Bayhaqi,the Sunan of Saeed ibn Mansoor, the Musnadal-Humaydi, Musnadat-Tayrilisi, Majma az-Zawciid, Kashf as-Sattrir an Zawriid al-Baurir and Mawririd adh-Dhamcin ila Zawciid Zbn Hibbcin. I didnot overlook al-Mujam al-Kabeer by at-Tabarki or the Sunan ofad-Dikaqutni. I benefited from the efforts of the commentators on thehooks of hadith mentioned above when judging the reports.2) Commentaries on Hadith The most important of the commentaries on hadith are Fath al-B i n by Ibn Hajar and Sharh an-Nawawi ala Saheeh Muslim, inwhich there is historical material that cannot be overlooked. Thecomments of Ibn Hajar and an-Nawawi on some significant historicalevents are also important.3) Books of Tafseer (Qufanic commentary) The most important of these are by at-Tabari, a l - Q m b i andIbn Katheer. I paid more attention to their comments than to the
  43. 43. Ali ibn Abi Tilib 45reports that they transmitted, since most of the reports are mentionedin the books of hadith and history.4) Books of ~ ~ e e d a h ~ The most important of these hooks are Minhcij as-Sunnah an-Nabawiyyah by Ibn Taymiyah, from which I benefited a great deal,Sharh at-Tahhiiwiyyah, al-Ibcinahji Ujool ad-Diycimh, al-Itiqcid byal-Bayhaqi, ash-Sharee ah by al-A,- and other books of aqeedah,from which I quoted the opinions of the early generation concemingthe Rightly Guided Caliphs and the status of the Companions (mayAllah be pleased with them all).5) Books of Islamic jurisprudence The most important books that I consulted are: al-Mughni byIbn Q u d h a h , al-Majmoo by an-Nawawi, Bidciyat al-Mujtahid byIbn Rushd and some others. I benefited from them with regard tointerpretation of Islamic law and judicial issues in which the RightlyGuided Caliphs reached their conclusions on the basis of their ijtihsd.6) Literary works I have taken from these literary works some poetry that isattributed to the Rightly Guided Caliphs or that they quoted orlistened to. Since literaq works do not mention chains of narration,and they contain both good and had material, I chose verses of poetrythat are in harmony with the Book of Allah (B), Sunnah of His theMessenger (@) and the morals and attitude of that unique generation.Among the most important of these books are: Uyoon al-AWlbcir byIbn Qutaybah and al-Adab al-Zslamiji Ahd an-Nubuwwah by NiyifMaroof.
  44. 44. 46 Introduction7) Books of Asceticism and softening o hearts f j From these I have quoted sayings of the Rightly Guided iCaliphs in this field. Among the most important of these books are: !Uddat as-Sibireen wa Dhakheerat ash-Shcikireen by Ibn al- 1Qayyim; Madirij as-Srilikeen by Ibn d-Qayyirn; Mukhtafar Minhij ! 1al-Qrisideen by &mad ibn A b d u r - R b i n d-Maqdisi, and others. 1 j8) Books on Sects and madh-habs(Schools o juristic thought) f ii i The most important of these books are: al-Faqlfil-Milal wal- jAhwa wan-Nikl by Abu Muhammad ibn Hazm adh-Dh&ri and i IUsool Madh-hub ash-Shiah al-Imamiyyah al-Ithm Ashariyyah by I IDr. N2sir at-Qafc.9) Books on Systems of ruling I 1 The most important of these books are: Ni&im al-Hz~koomahal-Islamiyyah by al-Katrini, which is also known as at-Tariteeb al- I -Idririyyah, and Nidhim al-Hukm fish-Shareeah wat-Tareekh al- I !Islami by @%r d-Qkimi. i I I10) Biographies I I! The most important of these books are: Siyar Alrim an-Nubala by adh-Dhahabi, Shadharrit adh-Dhahab f i Akhbrir man I,dhahaba by Abdul-Hayy d-Hanbali, Asad al-Ghibah by Ibn d -Atheer and Siyar as-Salaf by Abu d - Q k i m d-Isfahihi.11) Books o Evaluation of narrators f The most important of these books are: Tahdheeb a l - K a h l f iAsma ar-Rijril by d - H Z & d-Mazzi, al-Jarh wat-Tadeel by IbnAbi Hgtim, ath-Thiqit by Ibn Hibbik and al-Kimil f i Duafa ar-R@l by Ibn Adiyy.
  45. 45. Ali ibn Abi Tdlib 4712) Books of history The most important of these is Tareekh at-Tabari. This bookcontains reports whose chains of narration are sound, weak andfabricated. The reports regarding aqeedah, Sharia rulings and eventshaving to do with the Companions must be subjected to thoroughevaluation, and the ones by Riitifidi Shia, liars and unknown narratorsshould be highlighted. In this regard, I have benefited from the bookslstishhcid Uthmcin wa Waqat al-Jamalfi Mawiycit Sayf ibn Umarfi Tareekh at-Tabari by KhiXd al-Gbayth, Marwzycit Abi MakhnufjiTareekh at-Tabari by Dr. Y&ya Ibrriheem al-Y&ya and Athar at-Tashayyu ala ar-Rzwciycit at-TCEreekhiyyah by Dr. Abdul-AzeezNoor Wali. One of the most important of these books is al-Bidciyahwan-Nih&ah by Ibu Katheer. These are the most important sources to which I referred, alongwith a large number of various modem references I was very strict in verifying reports or passing judgement onthem when they had to do with matters of belief, rulings and theCompanions (may AUah be pleased with them). In this regard, I onlytransmitted the words of scholars who are specialised in this field, sothanks is due fist to Allah ($g)and then to these scholars. I sought todepict historical events on the basis of sound repoas, but I did notneglect the weak reports altogether; I made use of the latter tocomplete the picture when it could not be completed by the soundand reliable reports, in a manner that is in harmony with the spirit ofthat age, but only with regard to issues that have nothing to do withaqeedah or Sharia. I also engaged in a discussion of the erroneousarguments and lies of the Rzdis, the Orientalists and somecontemporary writers. I was keen to demonstrate the methodology ofAh1 as-Sunnah concerning the period of the Rightly Guided Caliphsand to refute the specious arguments, especially with regard to thetime of Uthmib and Ali (may AUah be pleased with them). Many
  46. 46. new ideas have been presented by some of our dear brothers in thestudy of the period of the Rightly Guided Caliphs, and I have thestrong intention, if Allah (g) to develop these ideas further in wills,a manner that is in harmony with that brilliant age. We ask Allah (&)to guide and help us. I have singled out the fifth of the Rightly Guided Caliphs, al-Hasan ibn Ali ihn Ahi T2ib (&), for a special study because of theimportance of his views, which reflect a deep understanding of howto run the state in accordance with Sharia and according to a deepunderstanding of pros and cons; his unique vision for reforming anduniting the Ummah by giving up the caliphate to Muiwiyah (&);and the obstacles and calamities he faced while striving to implementhis vision. He had a remarkable ability to lead his pioneering ventureof reconciliation and a resolve to c m y it out, which led to the unity ofthe Ummah and the fulfilment of the prophecy of the Prophet (g):"This son of mine is a leader, and perhaps Allah will reconcile twogroups of the Muslims through With al-Hasans giving upthe caliphate and swearing allegiance to Muiwiyah (may Allah hepleased with them both), the period of caliphate in the footsteps of theProphet came to an end after thirty years. The evidence for that is tobe found in the words of the Messenger of Allah (B): "Caliphate inthe footsteps of the prophets will be for thirty years, then Allah willgive sovereignty to whomever He will,"21 and "Caliphate in myUmmah will be for thirty years, then it will be kingship after that.""Ibn Katheer commented on this hadith, saying: "The thirty yearswere completed with the caliphate of al-Hasan ibn Ali, as he gave upthe caliphate to Mut2wiyah in Rabee al-Awwal 41 AH, thuscompleting exactly thirty years from the death of the Messenger ofAllah (B), died in Rabee al-Awwal ll AH. This is one of the as hesigns of his prophethood (@)."23 Thus al-Hasan ibn l (&) was Aithe fifth Rightly Guided Caliph.
  47. 47. Ali ibn Abi Talib 49 Inshallah my book al-Hasan ibn Aliwill provide an importantconclusion to the study of the period of the Rightly Guided Caliphs.It will encompass the unique features and characteristics of that era,the reasons for its demise, its system of rules and the qualities of itspeople and leaders, its constitution and crisis management at thattime, as well as a study of the laws and causes of advancement, thestatus of women at the time of the Rightly Guided Caliphs, theinstitutions of the state and the deep understanding of what it meantthat they knew that they were going to meet Allah (&). I was also very keen to analyse the character of Amir at-Mumineen Ali (&) from various angles, as his life is a great pagein the history of the Ummah. He is one of the leaders whose guidancepeople can follow in their words and deeds in this life. His biographyis one of the strongest sources of faith, sound Islamic inspiration andproper understanding of this religion. From him we learn the trueunderstanding of the law of cause and effect, and how to behave andplan in accordance with it; how we may live with the Holy Quran,following its guidance and the example of the Messenger of Allah(g); the importance of fearing Allah (&), being sincere to Him andseeking that which is with Him in order to attain success in this worldand the hereafter; the impact of all of these on the life and revival ofthe Muslim Ummah and the resumption of its role in building aleading civilisation. Hence in my study of the life and times of Alibin Abi T2ih (&), I dedicated myself to the task and put all myeffort into it, without claiming to he infallible and without denyingany of my mistakes, seeking nothing but the countenance of Allah(g) His reward, for He is the one whose help I seek, His are the andbest of names, and He hears a l supplications. l I completed this book on Saturday at 12:45 p.m. on 17 Raheeal-Awwal1424 AW 7 June 2003 CE. A thanks he to AUah (%)first Uand last. I ask Him by His most beautiful names and sublime
  48. 48. 50 Introduction i Iattributes to make my work sincerely for His sake and beneficial to i jHis slaves, to reward every letter that I have written and put it in the jbalance of my good deeds, and to reward my brothers who helped me r Lwith everything they could to complete this humble effort. We hope ithat every Muslim who reads this book will not forget its author, who Iis in need of the pardon, forgiveness, mercy and good pleasure of his I ILord, in his or her supplications. (My Lord! Grant me the power and iability that I may be grateful for Your favours which You have T !bestowed on me and on my parents, and that I may do righteous good jdeeds that will please You, and admit me, by Your Mercy, among iYour righteous slaves.) (Quran 27: 19) I Allah (&) says: (Whatever of mercy [i.e. of good], Allah may 1igrant to mankind, none can withhold it; and whatever He may Iwithhold, none can grant it thereafter. And He is the Almighty, the i IAU-Wise.) (Quran 35: 2) j I May AUah send blessings and peace upon Sayyiduna IMuhammad (g) his family and Companions. Glory and praise and ibe to You, 0 Allah. I bear witness that there is no god except You, I iseek Your forgiveness and I repent to You. And the end of our I isupplications is: all praise be to AUah, the Lord of the Worlds. The one who is in need of the pardon, forgiveness, mercy andgood pleasure of his Lord, 1 I i :,4 Ali Muhammad as-Sallabi
  49. 49. CHAPTER ONEAli ibn Abi Tglib (&) in Makkah 1. Names, Lineage, Attributes and Family1.1.Names and titles1.1.1.Name and lineage %e full name and lineage of Ali (&) was Ali ibn Abi T%b (Abd Man%) ibn Abdul-Mudib, who was called Shaybahal-qamd2 ibn Hhhim ibn Abd Manif ibn Qnvayy ibn Kilib ibnLuayy ibn Gb2lib ibn Fihr ibn M i l k ibn an-Nab ibn Kinkah ibnKhuzaymah ibn Madrakah ibn nyis ibn Mudar ibn Nizir ibn Madibn Adn211.~ He was the paternal cousin of the Messenger of Allah(B)and s h a d a grandfather with him in Abdul-Muytalib ibnHkhim. His father was Abu T%b, the full brother of Abdullah, thefather of the Prophet (g). name at birth was Asad, he was Alisgiven this name by his mother (%),who named him after her fatherAsad ibn Hkhim. This is referred to in the lines of verse that Alicomposed on the day of Khaybar, when be said: "I am the one whosemother named him ~ a ~ d a r alike a lion of the jungle, frightful to h~,beh~ld."~ Abu Tilib was not present when Ali was born. When hereturned, he did not like this name, and be called the child ~ l i . ~
  50. 50. 52 Ali ibn Abi Tilib in Makkah The kunyab of Ali (&) was Abu al-Hasan, after his oldestson al-Hasan, who was one of the children of his wife Fztimah ( &) & ,,the daughter of the Messenger of Allah (g). was also knowdby Hethe kunyab Abu Turib, which was given to him by the Prophet (s),and he was always happy to be addressed by it. The story behind thatname was that once when the Messenger (&) came to the house ofFgtimah, and he did not find Ali in the house, be asked her: "Whereis the son of your uncle? She said: "Tbere was a disagreementbetween him and me, and we got angry with one another, so he wentout and did not take a nap here with me." The Prophet ( J tog saidsomeone: "Go and see where he is." The man came and said: "0Messenger of Allah, he is sleeping in the mosque." The Messengerof Allah (g) and saw h i n lying there. His upper garment had wentfallen from his shoulder, and dust (turrib)had gotten on to him,so theMessenger of Allah (g) began wiping it from him and saying, "Getup, Abu Tm5b (father of dust)." According to a report narrated byBukhari: By Allah, no one called him that except the Prophet (+z).~ Other kunyahs of his were: Abu al-Hasan wal-Husayn, Abu al-Q k i m al-~Lhimi and Abu a s - ~ i b @ ~ n . l 1.1.3. Titles Amir al-Mumineen (Commander of the Faithful), the fourthof the Rightly Guided1.2. The birth of Ali (&) There are many different reports about the year of his birth. Al-Hasan d-Bqri stated that be was born fifteen or sixteen years beforethe Prophets mission began.13 Ibn Ishiq stated that he was born tenyears before the mission began,14 and Ibn Hajar regarded this view as
  51. 51. Ali ibn Abi Tii clb 53more likely to be ~ o r r e c t . Al-B@ir Mulpmrnad ibn Ali mentioned ~two views: the first is the same as that mentioned by Ibn Ishiq andregarded as more likely to be correct by Ibn Hajar, which is that hewas born ten years before the mission began.16 The second view isthat he was born five years before the mission began.I7 I am inclinedto favour the view of Ibn Hajar and Ibn Ishiq, so his birth was mostlikely to have occurred ten years before the mission began. Al-172kihi19stated that Ali (&) was the first of Banu Hishim to be borninside the Kabah. Al-H&m said: The reports that Ali was borninside the Kabah are mutawiitir (reported by so many people that itwould not be possible for them to have agreed on an untruth).201.3. Lineage and family, and. their impacton the offspring According to the science of anatomy (the study of the bodysstructure), psychology, bebavioural science and sociology, blood tiesand lineage affect a persons attitude, talent and potential to someextent, in most cases. That bas to do with three things:(a) Individuals try to maintain the values and ideals that their fathersand forefathers strongly believed in and adhered to, and they regardthemselves as being of noble descent because of them. They considerthemselves highly respectable and regard as odd those members ofthe family who go against these beliefs and drifi away. Such anatt~tude considered to be unacceptable and a sign of low esteem, islack of dignity, disobedience to the forefathers and tarnishing of thelineage that cannot be forgiven according to the inherited standardsof that family.(b) Each family has stories of forefathers and prominent membersand their courage, chivalry, gallantry, sense of honour, generosity,munificence, and defence of the oppressed and weak. These are