European Literature


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European Literature

  1. 1. Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth . Physically and geologically , Europe is the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia , west of Asia . Europe is bounded to the north by the Arctic Ocean , to the west by the Atlantic Ocean , to the south by the Mediterranean Sea , to the southeast by the Caucasus Mountains and the Black Sea and the waterways connecting the Black Sea to the Mediterranean. To the east, Europe is generally divided from Asia by the water divide of the Ural Mountains , the Ural River , and by the Caspian Sea .
  2. 2. European Literature <ul><li>European literature refers to the literature of Europe . </li></ul><ul><li>European literature includes literature in many languages ; among the most important of the modern written works are those in English , Spanish , French , Dutch , Polish , German , Italian , Modern Greek , Czech and Russian and works by the Scandinavians and Irish . </li></ul><ul><li>Important classical and medieval traditions are those in Latin , Ancient Greek , Old Norse , Medieval French and the Italian Tuscan dialect of the renaissance. </li></ul><ul><li>In colloquial speech, European literature often is used as a synonym for Western literature . </li></ul><ul><li>European literature is a part of world literature . </li></ul>
  3. 3. William Butler Yeats
  4. 4. <ul><li>William Butler Yeats (1865-1939), Irish poet and dramatist, and Nobel laureate, who was a leader of the Irish Renaissance and one of the foremost writers of the 20th century. </li></ul><ul><li>Yeats was born in Dublin on June 13, 1865, the son of the noted Irish painter John Butler Yeats. He was schooled in London and in Dublin, where he studied painting, and vacationed in county Sligo, which inspired his enthusiasm for Irish tradition. In 1887 he moved with his family to London and became interested in Hinduism, theosophy, and occultism. He wrote lyrical, symbolic poems on pagan Irish themes, such as The Wanderings of Oisin (1889) and The Lake Isle of Innisfree (1893), in the romantic melancholy tone he believed characteristic of the ancient Celts. He also wrote The Celtic Twilight (1893) and The Secret Rose (1897), which deal with Irish legends. On a visit to Ireland he met the beautiful Irish patriot Maud Gonne, whom he loved unrequitedly the rest of his life. She inspired much of his early work and drew him into the Irish nationalist movement for independence. </li></ul><ul><li>Later Years: </li></ul><ul><li>As Yeats grew older, he turned to practical politics, serving in the Senate of the new Irish Free State from 1922 to 1928. He also accomplished the feat, rare among poets, of deepening and perfecting his complex styles as the years advanced. His later writings are generally acknowledged to be his best. They were influenced by Georgie Hyde-Lees, his wife since 1917, who had a medium's gift for automated writing. A Vision (1925) is an elaborate attempt in prose to explain the mythology, symbolism, and philosophy that Yeats used in much of his work. It discusses the eternal opposites of objectivity and subjectivity, art and life, soul and body that are the basis of his philosophy. Other poetic works in this vein are The Wild Swans at Coole (1917), The Tower (1928), and The Winding Stair (1933). </li></ul>
  5. 5. Lake Isle of Innisfree <ul><li>I will arise and go now, and go to Innisfree , And a small cabin build there, of clay and wattles made: Nine bean-rows will I have there, a hive for the honeybee, And live alone in the bee-loud glade. And I shall have some peace there, for peace comes dropping slow Dropping from the veils of the morning to where the cricket sings; There midnight's all a glimmer, and noon a purple glow, And evenings full of the linnet's wings. I will arise and go now, for always night and day I hear the lake water lapping with low sounds by the shore; While I stand on the roadway, or on the pavements gray, I hear it in the deep heart's core. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>First published in the collection The Rose in 1893, “The Lake Isle of Innisfree” is an example of Yeats’s earlier lyric poems. Throughout the three short quatrains the poem explores the speaker’s longing for the peace and tranquility of his boyhood haunt, Innisfree. </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Lake Isle of Innisfree” suggests that a life of simplicity in nature will bring peace to the troubled speaker. However, the poem is the speaker’s recollection of Innisfree, and therefore the journey is an emotional and spiritual escape rather than an actual one. Innisfree may be a symbol for the speaker’s passed youth, which the speaker is unable to return to in the “real,” or physical, world. Emotionally, the speaker can return again and again to the tranquility of Innisfree. </li></ul>
  7. 7. William Blake
  8. 8. <ul><li>William Blake (1757-1827), English poet, painter, and engraver, who created an unusual form of illustrated verse; his poetry, inspired by mystical vision, is among the most original, lyric, and prophetic in the language. </li></ul><ul><li>Blake, the son of a hosier (stocking-maker), was born November 28, 1757, in London, where he lived most of his life. Largely self-taught, he was, however, widely read, and his poetry shows the influence of the German mystic Jakob Boehme, for example, and of Swedenborgianism. </li></ul><ul><li>As a child, Blake wanted to become a painter. He was sent to drawing school and at the age of 14 was apprenticed to James Basire, an engraver. The young Blake had to draw monuments in the old churches of London, a task he thoroughly enjoyed. </li></ul><ul><li>After his seven-year apprenticeship was over, Blake studied briefly at the Royal Academy, but he rebelled against the aesthetic doctrines of its president, Sir Joshua Reynolds. Reynolds was a neoclassicist who took a very academic approach to the study of art. Blake preferred to draw from his imagination. At the Royal Academy Blake did, however, establish friendships with such artists as John Flaxman and Henry Fuseli, whose work may have influenced him. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1784 Blake married Catherine Boucher, the daughter of a gardener, who proved a devoted wife. The Blakes set up a print shop; although it failed after a few years, for the rest of his life Blake eked out a living as an engraver and illustrator. His wife helped him print the illuminated poetry for which he is remembered today. </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>&quot;The Tyger&quot; was published as a part of Songs of Experience and the poem can also be seen as dealing with the growing knowledge of the world as one ages. While &quot;The Lamb&quot; is grounded in the pastoral settings of Blake's youth &quot;The Tyger&quot; is set in the industrialized modernity. &quot;The Tyger&quot; reflects a knowledge that evil exists in the world and that benevolence is not omnipresent. </li></ul>
  10. 11. The Lamb <ul><li>Little Lamb who made thee? </li></ul><ul><li>Dost thou know who made thee? </li></ul><ul><li>Gave thee life and bid thee feed </li></ul><ul><li>By the stream and o'er the mead; </li></ul><ul><li>Gave thee clothing of delight, </li></ul><ul><li>Softest clothing whooly bright; </li></ul><ul><li>Gave thee such a tender voice, </li></ul><ul><li>Making all the vales rejoice. </li></ul><ul><li>Little Lamb who made thee? </li></ul><ul><li>Dost thou know who made thee? </li></ul><ul><li>Little Lamb I'll tell thee, </li></ul><ul><li>Little Lamb I'll tell thee; </li></ul><ul><li>He is called by thy name, </li></ul><ul><li>For he calls himself a lamb. </li></ul><ul><li>He is meek and he is mild; </li></ul><ul><li>He became a little child. </li></ul><ul><li>I a child and thou a lamb, </li></ul><ul><li>We are called by his name. </li></ul><ul><li>Little Lamb God bless thee. </li></ul><ul><li>Little Lamb God bless thee. </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Jesus Christ is &quot;The Lamb of God&quot; - Blake makes the animal's name be secondary to Christ's name, seeing Christ was ordained to bear the sins of the world from before eternity; therefore it is called by God's name (not vice versa). We are also called by Christ's name: Child:he is the Son of God - from before eternity and we become God's Children through faith in him. In this way the lamb is called by God's name and the child is called by God's name. </li></ul>