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Introduction to programming


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An introduction to Computer Programming, an overview of various programming concepts and what makes scratch programming better for high school students

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Introduction to programming

  1. 1. 21/07/15 05:19 AM CSC Alliance — 1 Kimera Richard E-mail: Phone: 0701 437989 INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND TECHNOLOGY Intro to Computer Programming
  2. 2. MUST- ICS What is a program A sequence of instructions that a computer can interpret and execute;  If I tell you the way from ICS to Administration Block … I will tell sequence of instructions…. Any wrong instruction leads to a undesired result. A program is something that runs on your computer. In case of MS Windows program is of .EXE or .COM extensions MS Word, Power point, Excel are all computer programs
  3. 3. MUST- ICS Discussion Question: How advantageous is Computer Programming in relation to National development?
  4. 4. MUST- ICS Programming Concepts Data Types Variables Operators Conditional Statements Looping Statements Functions and working with Files Application programming Interfaces (API’s) e.t.c
  5. 5. MUST- ICS Data Types and Variables Data Type: It is basically a scheme for representing data OR data storage location e.g Int, String, float, boolean, byte, e.t.c A variable is a named data storage location in your computer's memory. By using a variable's name in your program, you are, in effect, referring to the data stored there.
  6. 6. MUST- ICS Operators  Operators are symbols which take one or more operands or expressions and perform arithmetic or logical computations.  E.g +, -, *, /, %, =, ++, - -. ==, <, >, //, &&  Operands are variables or expressions which are used in conjunction with operators to evaluate the expression.  Combination of operands and operators form an expression.
  7. 7. MUST- ICS Conditional Statements If…else statement – Tests if a certain condition is true/ false and executes a given statement Switch Statement – Similary works as the if..else statement
  8. 8. MUST- ICS Looping Statements Executes a certain condition and loops up to when the set condition is met Examples of statement include; While loop Do…….while Break and continue goto for
  9. 9. MUST- ICS Functions/Methods Functions/Methods are independent sections in a code that perform some specific task and optionally returns a value when called The help break a complex problem or task into a smaller portions
  10. 10. MUST- ICS Writing Computer Programs A programmer uses an editor to create or modify files containing C code e.g Notepad, Codeblocks, Visual studio, Android studio, e.t.c Code is also known as source code. After a source file/Project has been created, the programmer must invoke the compiler before the program can be executed (run). For advanced IDE’s(Integrated Drive Electronics), the program is compiled as you code.
  11. 11. MUST- ICS Introduction to programming languages Programming languages can be; Server side languagesServer side languages – Code is stored on the server and accessed by a clied basically through the browser. E.g php Client side languagesClient side languages – code can be stored on either the client or server e.g HTML Interpreted languagesInterpreted languages – Code will execute even if it contains errors, no compile is needed e.g HTML Compiled languagesCompiled languages – Code will not execute/run if the compile fails to understand some statements e.g C, Java Any more???
  12. 12. MUST- ICS Categories of Programming languages Procedure languagesProcedure languages – Follow a step by step program execution e.g C, C++, e.t.c Object Oriented Programming languagesObject Oriented Programming languages – Classes are used a data types for Objects. Event Driven Languages-Event Driven Languages- The program runs basing on user actions, this is common in GUI programming. Events can be generated when a user clicks a button, touches the scroon, moves a mouse, types on the key board, etc. Examples… Java, Visual Basic, C++. OO Php Scripting languagesScripting languages – light weight languages e.g php, python, javascript Mobile programming language –Mobile programming language – Light weight languages that run on mobile devices e.g Android, windows OS, swift/Objective C, Symbian, WebOS, Blackberry OS.
  13. 13. MUST- ICS Programming support Tools Basic Editors e.g Notepad, Notepad ++ IDE’s (WYSIWYG) e.g Netbeans, Dreamweaver, Codeblocks Content management systems e.g Joomla, Wordpress, Drupal, etc Mockups – pencil, fireworks, etc
  14. 14. MUST- ICS Example of program written in C #include <stdio.h> int main( void ) { int value1, value2, product ; printf(“Enter two integer values: “) ; scanf(“%d%d”, &value1, &value2) ; product = value1 * value2 ; printf(“Product = %dn”, product) ; return 0 ; }
  15. 15. MUST- ICS Example of program written in Java /* Sample Java Program */ public class Sample { public static void main (String [] args) { int i; for (i = 1; i <= 10; i++) { System.out.println ("Number: " + i); } } }
  16. 16. MUST- ICS Example of program written in Objective C #import <Foundation/Foundation.h> int main() { /* my first program in Objective-C */ NSLog(@"Hello, World! n"); return 0; } Source: _environment_setup.htm
  17. 17. MUST- ICS Example of program written in Android package; import; import android.os.Bundle; import android.view.Menu; import android.view.MenuItem; public class MainActivity extends ActionBarActivity { @Override protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.onCreate(savedInstanceState); setContentView(R.layout.activity_main); } @Override public boolean onCreateOptionsMenu(Menu menu) { getMenuInflater().inflate(, menu); return true; } return super.onOptionsItemSelected(item); } }
  18. 18. MUST- ICS Programming Languages
  19. 19. MUST- ICS Discussion Question If we are to teach Computer programming in Secondary Schools, which one of the above programming languages would be simpler Lets think about the our school labs and resources available
  20. 20. MUST- ICS Scratch Is one of the best! Was it on the list?
  21. 21. MUST- ICS QUESTIONS What do you think could be the best way of teaching computer programming in your school?
  22. 22. MUST- ICS