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Need for better Data on Nutrients to Support Stewardship (DONUTSS)


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Presenter: Kimo van Dijk
Organization: European Sustainable Phosphorus Platform (ESPP, / Wageningen University
Title: Need for better Data on Nutrients to Support Stewardship (DONUTSS)
Location: 1st meeting FAO LEAP Technical Advisory Group on Nutrient cycles modelling and Impact Assessment FAO, Rome, Italy
Date: 12 July 2016

Austria AT
Belgium BE
Bulgaria BG
Cyprus CY
Czech Republic CZ
Germany DE
Denmark DK
Estonia EE
Spain ES
Finland FI
France FR
Greece EL
Hungary HU
Ireland IE
Italy IT
Lithuania LT
Luxembourg LU
Latvia LV
Malta MT
Netherlands NL
Poland PL
Portugal PT
Romania RO
Sweden SE
Slovenia SI
Slovakia SK
United Kingdom UK
Switzerland CH




Published in: Food
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Need for better Data on Nutrients to Support Stewardship (DONUTSS)

  1. 1. Need for better Data on Nutrients to Support Stewardship (DONUTSS) Kimo van Dijk Wageningen University / European Sustainable Phosphorus Platform / 1st meeting FAO LEAP Technical Advisory Group on Nutrient cycles modelling and Impact Assessment FAO, Rome, Italy, 12 July 2016
  2. 2. Phosphorus challenges Source: Cordell, D., J. O. Drangert, et al. (2009). "The story of phosphorus: Global food security and food for thought." Global Environmental Change- Human and Policy Dimensions 19(2): 292-305.  Non-renewable at human time scale  Spatially concentrated: geopolitical dependency and tension  Relatively low price, but price volatility (2008 case)  Lower P-rock quality: ● Decreasing P content ● Increasing impurities (e.g. cadmium, uranium)  Pollution and eutrophication
  3. 3. Geological versus anthropogenic cycles RESOURCE RESERVES SINKS Society Crops Animals Industry & retail Consumers Non- food LossesInputs [90% fertilizer, and other mineral P use] Geological cycle Direct IMPACTS Anthropogenic cycle
  4. 4. Phosphorus use in the EU-27 in 2005 Detergent, wood, paper & fibres Crops, fish, food products & mineral additives Animal feed, mineral additives & live animals Mineral fertiliser, seeds & pesticides Solid & liquid organic waste Organic waste Wood, paper & fibres Slaughter residues, solid & liquid waste Crops & food products Manure losses Live animals Leaching & runoff Seeding materials Input 2392 Output 1468 Flows & stocks in Gg = Mkg = kton P per year Van Dijk et al. 2016
  5. 5. Import, export and losses per sector Van Dijk et al. (2016) 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Gross import Gross export Net trade Losses Accumulation Phosphorusquantity[Gg P/year] Absolute quantity [Gg P/year] Relative fraction of total system import, export & losses [%] Primary P import Import Export Losses Import Export Losses Gg P/year % of total system primary import % of total sector import CP 1399 4 84 58 1 7 1391 78 99 AP 440 21 62 18 9 5 250 14 57 FP 338 216 339 14 86 28 27 2 8 NF 215 11 77 9 4 6 110 6 51 HC - - 655 - - 54 - - - Total 2392 251 1217 100 100 100 1777 100 Van Dijk et al. 2016
  6. 6. EU-27 P use efficiency per sector in 2005 Van Dijk et al. 2016 CP AP FP NF HC PUE-1 Output flows minus losses 70 97 80 76 21 PUE-2 Upward output flows plus export 70 24 52 76 - 𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 = 𝑂𝑂𝑂𝑂𝑂𝑂𝑂𝑂𝑂𝑂𝑂𝑂𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 𝐼𝐼 𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡 ∗ 100
  7. 7. Fertilizer P consumption in EU-27 in 2010 FAOSTAT data 2010
  8. 8. Animal feed P origin in EU-27 in 2005 Source: Miterra-Europe model, CAPRI & FAOSTAT data 2003-2005
  9. 9. Agricultural P balances per country for 2005 & period 1905-2005 Van Dijk et al., in preparationVan Dijk et al. 2016 128 Mtons P accumulated in agricultural soils between 1905 -2005
  10. 10. Agronomic P balances in the EU Annual regional agricultural P balances [kg P/ha] for EU-15 in 2000 Estimated cumulative P balances [kg P/ha] of EU countries during 1991–2005 Source: Csathó & Radimszky 2012 Source: Grizzetti & Aloe, 2007
  11. 11. EU-27 annual soil P balances 1961-2009 Western Europe (EU-15) Eastern Europe (EU-12) Van Dijk et al., in preparation, Modelling crop yield responses to drastic decreases in phosphorus fertilization in EU-27
  12. 12. 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 DomesticfoodPsupply[kg/ca/year] Animal Plant Domestic food P supply in EU-27 in 2005 Domestic food P supply necessary to fullfill human dietary P intake requirements at consumption level Van Dijk et al., in preparation Minimum P intake requirement Mean EU P intake Maximum P intake level
  13. 13. EU-27 consumption sector P losses in 2005 Van Dijk et al. (2016) 41% 12% 6% 26% 14%
  14. 14. Reuse of organic waste in EU-27 in 2005 Based on Barth et al. 2008
  15. 15. Sludge destinations in EU-27 in 2010 Source: P-Rex, FP7 project,; based on Eurostat 2010, Milieu Ltd 2010 & Destatis 2011
  16. 16. Transition towards sustainable P use •remove non-essential P inputs (e.g. detergents) •match P requirements more closely (precision agriculture) •utilise legacy P stores Realign P inputs •optimise input management •minimise runoff and erosion •strategic retention zones Reduce P losses to water •avoid wastage •improve utilization efficiency •adopt integrated production systems Recycle P in bioresources •recover P in societies' wastes •produce fertilizer substitutes Recover P in wastes •influence dietary choice •define end-user P requirements •re-connect crop and animal production systems Redefine P in the food chain Withers, Van Dijk, et al. (2015): Stewardship to tackle global phosphorus inefficiency: the case of Europe
  17. 17. R/P ratio for P, K & micronutrients Source: de Haes et al. 2012. Schaarste van micronutriënten in bodem, voedsel en minerale voorraden: Urgentie en opties voor beleid. Utrecht, Netherlands, Platform Landbouw, Innovatie & Samenleving. AND Chardon & Oenema, 2013. Verkenning mogelijke schaarste aan micronutriënten in het voedselsysteem, Wageningen: Alterra Wageningen UR. A simplistic way of expressing resource scarcity R/P ratio = reserve / production
  18. 18. EU-27 P fertilization reduction scenarios Van Dijk et al., in preparation), Modelling crop yield responses to drastic decreases in phosphorus fertilization in EU-27 2116 2170 Fertilisation scenarios of 100, 80, 60, 40, 20 and 0 % of original P application in baseyear 2005
  19. 19. Agricultural P management scenarios VanDijketal.,inpreperation
  20. 20. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 2005 2030 2055 2080 2105 2130 2155 2180 2205 2230 2255 2280 AveragecropPuptake[kgP/ha/year] BAU SI S2 S3 Per ha EU-27 crop P uptake per scenario for 2005-2300 50 % 25 % Van Dijk et al., in preparation - BAU: present (~2005), Business as Usual - S1: no P import via fertilizer - S2: no P import via fertilizer + compound feed - S3: as S2 + BMPs
  21. 21. Data quality & monitoring challenges  Data quality: trade > production > consumption > recycling  Unclear definitions & not enough detail in data  Public data is incomplete and inconsistent  Data gaps for waste flows & (new) recycling flows  Literature data mostly not recent and only specific base years  Trade databases not available for all products/materials  Data gaps requires data filling procedures & flow balancing  Industry data not publically available, sometimes commercially, but no peer reviewed  Uncertainties for most data unknown  Nutrient concentrations not monitored spatially & temporarily  From quantity to quality, from theory to practise
  22. 22. WssTP RR WG 24th June 2015 - n°23European Sustainable Phosphorus Platform DONUTSS Data on Nutrients to Support Stewardship - workshop Ghent with science and important all stakeholders - EU Commission DG GROW support  identify data needs to support decision making for industry & regulators  define how and who to monitor & compare data
  23. 23. WssTP RR WG 24th June 2015 - n°24European Sustainable Phosphorus Platform Data systems on nutrient flows should be: • Adequate, reliable, coherent and targeted to support improved nutrient management decisions • Available at regional, national and global level • Specific to be useful for certain specific stakeholders and sectors • Covering both quantities of flows and quality • Designed to target identification of key management points
  24. 24. WssTP RR WG 24th June 2015 - n°25European Sustainable Phosphorus Platform National policy initiatives on phosphorus • Switzerland: waste ordonnance, proposal to make obligatory P-recovery from sewage sludge and animal waste ash (or separate storage pending recovery) • Sweden: proposal to oblige 40% recycling of P & 10% of N (including via agricultural valorisation of sewage biosolids) • Germany: political commitment to make P-recovery obligatory in sewage works • Netherlands: struvite allowed to the market, in regulation
  25. 25. WssTP RR WG 24th June 2015 - n°26European Sustainable Phosphorus Platform European Sustainable Phosphorus Platform (ESPP) @phosphorusfacts
  26. 26. Thank you for your attention Questions? Comments? Suggestions? Twitter: @kimovandijk Website:
  27. 27. Additional literature and links (1)  Van Dijk et al. 2016. Phosphorus flows and balances of the European Union Member States.  Withers et al. 2015. Stewardship to tackle global phosphorus inefficiency: The case of Europe.  Schoumans et al. 2015. Phosphorus management in Europe in a changing world.  Withers et al. 2015, Greening the global phosphorus cycle: How green chemistry can help achieve planetary P sustainability.  Outcomes 2nd Scientific European Phosphorus Workshop in Wageningen:  Lesschen et al. 2013. Options for closing the phosphorus cycle in agriculture; Assessment of options for Northwest Europe and the Netherlands.  K.A. Wyant, J.R. Corman, and J.J. Elser. Phosphorus, Food, and Our Future. Oxford University Press, New York City, New York, USA.  European Commission - Sustainable Phosphorus Use:  Dutch Nutrient Platform: and European Sustainable Phosphorus Platform: