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EU wide overview of phosphorus flows & data quality

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Presenter: Kimo van Dijk, Researcher Nutrient Management and Phosphorus Security, Wageningen University
Co-authors:
Title: EU wide overview of phosphorus flows & data quality
Location: Data on Nutrients to Support Stewardship (DONUTSS) workshop, Ghent, Belgium
Date: 3 September 2015
Personal website: http://kimovandijk.weebly.com

Countries:
Austria AT
Belgium BE
Bulgaria BG
Cyprus CY
Czech Republic CZ
Germany DE
Denmark DK
Estonia EE
Spain ES
Finland FI
France FR
Greece EL
Hungary HU
Ireland IE
Italy IT
Lithuania LT
Luxembourg LU
Latvia LV
Malta MT
Netherlands NL
Poland PL
Portugal PT
Romania RO
Sweden SE
Slovenia SI
Slovakia SK
United Kingdom UK
Switzerland CH

Phosphorus:
Fosfor
Fosfor
Fòsfòr
Фосфор
Fosfor
Фосфор
Fosfor
Fosfor
Фосфор
Фосфор
Fosforas
Fosfors
Fuosfuors
Fosfor
Ffуsfforws
Fosfar
Fosfaras
Fosfaar
Fosforus
Φωσφορος
Ֆոսֆոր
Fosfor
Fosfor
Фосфор
Фосфор
ফসফরাস
فسفر
ફૉસ્ફરસનો
फास्फोरस
Fosfor
Fosfori
Foszfor
Фосфор
Фосфор
Паликандур
Fosfor
Fosfor
Фосфор
Фосфор
Фосфор
Фосфор
Fosfor
فوسفور
Fosfor
Fosforoa
ფოსფორი
[fūsfūr]
זרחן
Fosfru
Lìn
リン

ฟอสฟอรัส
Photpho

Posporo
Fosfor
Pūtūtae-whetū
Fosforus
ഫോസ്ഫറസ്
பொஸ்பரசு
Fosofo
Fosforase
Posfori
Fósforo
Phusphuru
Fosforimi
Fosforo
Fosforon
Pesticium

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EU wide overview of phosphorus flows & data quality

  1. 1. EU wide overview of phosphorus flows & data quality Kimo van Dijk Wageningen University kimo.vandijk@wur.nl DONUTSS workshop, Ghent, Belgium 3 September 2015
  2. 2. Overview  Phosphorus (P) flows and balances in the EU-27 Member States  Data & methods used  Data quality & monitoring challenges
  3. 3. Phosphorus use in the EU-27 in 2005 Detergent, wood, paper & fibres Crops, fish, food products & mineral additives Animal feed, mineral additives & live animals Mineral fertiliser, seeds & pesticides Solid & liquid organic waste Organic waste Wood, paper & fibres Slaughter residues, solid & liquid waste Crops & food products Manure losses Live animals Leaching & runoff Seeding materials Input 2392 Output 1468 Flows & stocks in Gg = Mkg = kton P per year Van Dijk et al. (2015)
  4. 4. Per capita P supply per country in 2005 Van Dijk et al., 2015, "Phosphorus flows and balances of the European Union Member States“, Science of the Total Environment.
  5. 5. EU-27 consumption sector P losses in 2005 Van Dijk et al. (2015)
  6. 6. Agricultural P balances per country for 2005 & period 1905 - 2005 Van Dijk et al. (submitted)Van Dijk et al. (2015) 128 Mtons P accumulated in agricultural soils between 1905 -2005
  7. 7. Data & methods used  For EU-27 and individual Member States  As detailed as data allows: 93 sub flows  Imports, exports, losses and internal flows  Entire food system + non-food (e.g. forestry, detergents, pet food, etc.)  Main data sources: Miterra-Europe, CAPRI, FAOSTAT, Eurostat, reports, articles and experts  Time series if present in data (e.g. FAOSTAT, Eurostat)  Data for 2005 complete and checked, other base years possible with additional data input  Raw data is balanced based on mass balance principle  EU-27 corrections for intra/extra trade
  8. 8. Data quality & monitoring challenges  Data quality: trade > production > consumption > recycling  Unclear definitions & not enough detail in data  Eurostat data is incomplete and inconsistent  Data gaps for waste flows & (new) recycling flows  Literature data mostly not recent and only specific base years  Trade databases not available for all products/materials  Data gaps requires data filling procedures & flow balancing  Industry data not publically available, sometimes commercially, but no peer reviewed  Uncertainties for most data unknown  Nutrient concentrations not monitored  From quantity to quality, from theory to practise
  9. 9. Thank you for your attention Questions? Comments? Suggestions? kimo.vandijk@wur.nl / kimovandijk@xs4all.nl Twitter: @kimovandijk Website: kimovandijk.weebly.com
  10. 10. Extra additional slides as background
  11. 11. EU-27 system & primairy P flows in 2005 Van Dijk et al. (2015) Absolute quantity [Gg P/year] Relative fraction of total system import, export & losses [%] Primary P import Import Export Losses Import Export Losses Gg P/year % of total system primary import % of total sector import CP 1399 4 84 58 1 7 1391 78 99 AP 440 21 62 18 9 5 250 14 57 FP 338 216 339 14 86 28 27 2 8 NF 215 11 77 9 4 6 110 6 51 HC - - 655 - - 54 - - - Total 2392 251 1217 100 100 100 1777 100
  12. 12. EU-27 lost P destination per sector in 2005 Van Dijk et al. (2015) Ashes Landfills MSW Hydrosphere Lithosphere Undefined Total losses CP 0 0 0 84 0 0 84 AP 0 0 0 62 0 0 62 FP 294 0 0 2 1 41 339 NF 10 0 0 1 0 66 77 HC 104 59 221 54 74 143 655 Total 408 59 221 204 76 250 1217 Relative share [%] 34 5 18 17 6 21
  13. 13. EU-27 P use efficiency per sector in 2005 Van Dijk et al. (2015) CP AP FP NF HC PUE-1 Output flows minus losses 70 97 80 76 21 PUE-2 Upward output flows plus export 70 24 52 76 - 𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑃𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 = 𝑂𝑂𝑂𝑂𝑂𝑂𝑂𝑂𝑂𝑂𝑂𝑂𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒𝑒 𝐼𝐼 𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼𝐼𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡𝑡 ∗ 100
  14. 14. Changes in EU-27 P inputs 1961-2009 Van Dijk et al. (2015)
  15. 15. Geological versus anthropogenic cycles RESOURCE RESERVES SINKS Society Crops Animals Industry & retail Consumers Non- food LossesInputs [90% fertilizer, and other mineral P use] Geological cycle Direct IMPACTS Anthropogenic cycle
  16. 16. Phoshorus challenge  Non-renewable at human time scale  Spatially concentrated: geopolitical dependency and tension  Relatively low price, but price volatility (2008 case)  Lower P-rock quality: ● decreasing P content ● impurities (e.g. cadmium, uranium)  Pollution and eutrophication Cordell et al. 2009
  17. 17. Global fertilizer P consumption 1961-2010 FAOSTAT data 2010
  18. 18. Fertilizer P consumption in EU-27 in 2010 FAOSTAT data 2010
  19. 19. Animal feed P origin in EU-27 in 2005 Source: Miterra-Europe model, CAPRI & FAOSTAT data 2003-2005
  20. 20. Agronomic P balances in the EU Annual regional agricultural P balances [kg P/ha] for EU-15 in 2000 Estimated cumulative P balances [kg P/ha] of EU countries during 1991–2005 Source: Csathó & Radimszky 2012 Source: Csathó & Radimszky 2012
  21. 21. 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 DomesticfoodPsupply[kg/ca/year] Animal Plant Domestic food P supply in EU-27 in 2005 Domestic food P supply necessary to fullfill human dietary P intake requirements at consumption level Van Dijk et al. (in preparation) Minimum P intake requirement Mean EU P intake Maximum P intake level
  22. 22. Reuse of organic waste in EU-27 in 2005 Based on Barth et al. 2008
  23. 23. Sludge destinations in EU-27 in 2010 Source: P-Rex, FP7 project, www.p-rex.eu; based on Eurostat 2010, Milieu Ltd 2010 & Destatis 2011
  24. 24. P concentrations in rivers and lakes in EU regions, period 1990 - 2005 Source: European Environment Agency, 2007

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