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Preview of “3 angela m delfiacco sgp final”


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Preview of “3 angela m delfiacco sgp final”

  1. 1. SKIN CANCER ! By Angela Del Fiacco(
  2. 2. OVER VIEW! PowerPoint! Application movie! Class activity
  3. 3. PERSONALI chose skin cancer as my topic for my senior graduation project because almost every teenage girl that I know goes tanning or hasbefore and I do not think they realize how dangerous it is. Before this project I tanned almost every day. My parents wouldconstantly tell me that I should stop going tanning and that it is very bad, so I kind of wanted to scare myself away from tanningand at the same time make other people aware about how dangerous it is.
  4. 4. THESIS Skin cancer is becoming a big problem in the United States. It is important to know how to prevent skin cancer and the signs to catch it early.(
  5. 5. HOW IS THIS TOPIC RELEVANT TO YOU? ! We all have skin ! Weare all exposed to the sun daily ! About2 million Americans develop skin cancer yearly(
  6. 6. SKIN CANCER IS A DISEASESkin cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal/damaged skin cellsIt is very slow to developAbout 40 to 50 percent of Americans who live to age 65 will have skin cancer at least once in their lifetimeIt is best to catch skin cancer early on because it can spread to the organs( images)
  7. 7. !1 sunburn may take 20+ years for skin cancer to form !1 serious sunburn can increase risks by 50%Sunburn can start within 30 minutes of exposureThe sun gives off both UVA and UVB, both are responsible for pre-mature agingBetween 10 am and 3 pm the sun puts out more radiation, which means you can burn easierAs the ozone layer depletes, the rays will get stronger(
  8. 8. 1 in 5 Americans will develop skin cancer(
  9. 9. 28% of teenage girls have used a tanning bed at least 3 times 7% of teenage boys have used a tanning bed at least 3It is really bad because teenagers think that they have nothing to worry about until they are older, but they are putting their selvesat higher risk because they are using tanning beds(
  10. 10. Why do so many teens tan?Teens tan indoor and outdoor without proper protection(
  11. 11. They say it is an addiction..Most of my friends that use tanning beds say they do it because it is addicting, once they are tan they do not want stop becausethey do not want to look pale -- and when you do look pale, people point it out because looking tan is what is “in”it is also quicker than laying out in the sunGoing to the tanning salon for about 10-15 minutes a day is a lot easier than laying outside all day for a tan, they tan outside whenthey have time(
  12. 12. Magda Spisak, 18, said she used to go to tanning booths every few weeks — not because she thought it was safe but because "its the fashion right now."(
  13. 13. What is a tan?A tan is an injury to the skin’s DNA-- the skin darkens as a reaction, it is an attempt to prevent further damage to the DNA. Skincancer occurs when more damage is done.(
  14. 14. THE SUN GIVES OFF VITAMIN DVitamin D is actually the only good thing about the sunVitamin D is the essential nutrient for the teeth and bonesThe elderly and people who are dark-skinned produce less vitamin D.It also helps with seasonal depressionIt reduces the risk of: Colon Cancer Breast Cancer Multiple sclerosis High blood pressure ( ( ( (google images)
  15. 15. UVA RAYS95 percent of the suns rays are UVAThe rays cause premature agingthey penetrate in the skin deeperIt is the dominant tanning rayTanning booths give off UVA rays. The tanning beds give off 12 times more UVA than the sunUVA penetrates through glass(
  16. 16. UVB RAYSCauses most of the sunburnIt plays a key role in the development of skin cancer and causes premature agingat high altitudes and on reflective surfaces such as snow, ice and waterThe intensity varies by the season, location and time of dayUVB does not go through glass(
  17. 17. UVA RAYS CAN TRAVEL THROUGH CAR & HOME WINDOWSA lot of people do not realize that they are exposed because they are inside their homes and do not even think of it when they arein cars(
  18. 18. Types of skin cancer(google images)
  19. 19. Basal Cell Carcinoma is the most common form of Skin CancerThis picture is of scar from cancer removalAffects about one million Americans a yearMost common areas are the face, ears, neck, scalp, shoulders, and back but it can form anywhereMost affected are people in their 20’s or 30’s, occasionally a teenager, and rarely children.Men have twice the chance of getting it.It is easily treated in the early stages.The larger the tumor grows, the more treatment is needed.This cancer on scalp and nose are very hard to treat.(
  20. 20. ! Pearly or waxy bumps ! Flat, flesh- colored or brown lesions ! Open sores ! Scar like areas ! Reddish patchesThe signs of basal cell carcinoma ----Picture is of the cancer on her nose.Pearly or waxy bumps - Bumps are often pink, red or whiteFlat, flesh-colored or brown lesions - Open sores that bleed, ooze, crust or remain open for 3 or more weekScar like areas that are usually white, yellow, or waxy and are not a perfect shapeReddish patches usually occurring on the chest, shoulders, arms or legs(
  21. 21. BASAL CELL CARCINOMAMost common treatment is Mohs which is a Micrographic surgery it removes tumor with a very thin later of tissue around it tomake sure that it is removed. The patient is under anesthesia. They remove it by burning or freezing. Then the skin is checkedunder a microscope, if tumor is still present the procedure is repeated until the skin is tumor freeMohs has the highest cure rate of up to 99% in new cancers and 95% is recurrent cancersAlso, the scars are smallIt removes cancer cells without removing healthy tissue(
  22. 22. Squamous Cell Carcinoma is the second most common skin cancer(sqame - ous)Forms in the squamous cellsPeople who use tanning beds are 2.5 more likely to develop this cancerCan form anywhere on the bodyMen have double of the risk of this skin cancerThis cancer will appear before age 50 and are most often seen in people 70 or older.It is the most common skin cancer for African-AmericansIt will weaken the immune system and it is dangerous for people who already have a weak immune system(
  23. 23. ! Crusted/scaly area on the skin ! Bumpy or thickened skin ! Wart-like growthSigns of squamous cell carcinoma ---All sores/lesions/bumps are usually inflamed, noticeable, and do not healThis cancer can be very dangerous if not treated, it can spread to organs(
  24. 24. SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA CAN BEMost common is Mohs because it is the most affective.Radiation therapy is the best for older people with larger cancer( images)
  25. 25. Melanoma is the most serious form of skin cancerCauses the most deathsThere were 8,650 deaths in 2009Anyone who has more than 100 moles is at greater risk for melanoma.It is hereditary, If your first-degree relatives (mother, father, siblings, or children) -- have had a melanoma, you have a 50 percentrisk without exposure( images)
  26. 26. Exposure to indoor tanning before the age of 30 increases the risk of melanoma by 75 %The majority of people who tan indoors are under the age of 30(
  27. 27. THERE ARE 5 STAGES OF MELANOMA Stage 4 Stage 1 Stage 3 Stage 0 Stage 2Stage 0 melanoma receive minor surgery to remove the tumor and some of the surrounding tissue.Stage 1 melanoma receive surgery to remove the tumor. The surgeon may also remove as much as 2 centimeters of tissue aroundthe tumor. To cover the wound, the patient may have skin grafting.Stage 2 and Stage 3 melanoma receive surgery to remove the tumor. The surgeon may also remove as much as 3 centimeters oftissue around the tumor. Sometimes the surgeon removes nearby lymph nodes as well. Skin grafting may be done to cover thewound.Stage 4 melanoma receive surgery and are under intensive care because the cancer is very bad at this stage they try to help thepatient feel better - physically and emotionally.( images)
  28. 28. Signs of Melanoma--Moles that are blue-black.The change in size, shape, color or fellSwollen lymph nodes, especially in the armpit or groinWeight loss that is not expectedGrey skin which is called melanosisA chronic cough (meaning that it will not go away when treated for it)Severe headachesSeizuresAlso…Existing moles that are not cancerous can grow to be cancerous.( images)
  29. 29. MELANOMA CAN BE TREATED …Depends on what stage, but most common is Mohs because it is most affective(
  30. 30. !A for Asymmetry !B for Border !C for Color !D for Diameter !E for EvolvingA for Asymmetrymeaning that one half is different than the other half.B for Border– poorly definedThe edges are notched, uneven, or blurred.C for ColorThe color is uneven. Shades of brown, tan,and black.D for DiameterDiameter is greater than about a half of an inchE for Evolving Getting bigger( images)
  31. 31. SELF EXAMINATIONS AREIt is recommended to see a doctor first to make sure you do not have any existing signsthen self examine regularly( images)
  32. 32. Just incase you forgot.. This is what you should look forSpots on the skin that appears pearly, translucent, tan, brown, black, or multicoloredA mole, birthmark, beauty mark that has: changed color, increased in size or thickness, changed in texture, has an irregularoutline, is bigger than the size of a pencil eraser or appears after age 21A spot/ sore that keeps itching, hurting, crusting, scabbing, eroding, or bleedingAn open sore that does not heal within three weeksThese are all signs of a skin cancer(
  33. 33. How to perform a self examination ..
  34. 34. ! “Examine body front and back in the mirror, then look at the right and left sides with arms raised.” ! “Bend elbows and look carefully at forearms, upper underarms, and palms.” ! “Look at the backs of your legs and feet,(
  35. 35. ! “Examine the back of your neck and scalp with a hand mirror. Part hair for a closer look.” ! “Finally, check your back and bottom with a hand mirror.”(
  36. 36. epidermis dermisEpidermis – is the outer layer of the skin, it provides protection from injury and it is a barrier to keep out infectious organisms.About every 35 to 45 days, you have an entirely new epidermisDermis – is the second layer of skin is referred to as the top soil - this layer contains capillaries that feed the cells with nutrient-rich blood. Just like top soil most things grow here – such as hair follicles, nerve cells, and sweat glands.( images)
  37. 37. Dark chocolate is good for you, it helps protect the skin(Skin Cancer by Bonnie Juettner)(
  38. 38. indoor tanning exposure can raise your risk for skin cancer even without causing sunburnTanning beds are listed as a cancer-causing substance by the United States Department of Health & Human ServicesPresident Bush signed the TAN act, which regulates tanning equipment, there are now warning labels saying that the beds causedamage to the skin and eyes.Tanning beds give off both UVA and UVB raysIndoor tanning give a high risk of: skin cancer, cataracts, premature aging,weakened immune system(
  39. 39. FIGHTING IT !10 % tax on indoor tanning !About 32 states regulate use of tanning for minorsA lot of the rules for tanning are going to change, more states are trying to regulate the use of tanning beds for minors becausethey go into tanning salons not knowing their limits(
  40. 40. About 30 million Americans tan indoors yearly…2.3 million are teens71% of tanning salon customers are girls and women of ages 16-29The indoor tanning industry makes about $5 billionTanning is very popular because everyone wants to have a “healthy glow”(
  41. 41. DON’T BE ONE OF THEM..tanning causes premature agingIt causes the skin to lose flexibility and becomes saggyWhen tanning at a young age, skin damage to the skin will start showing by mid-twenties"Teenagers may think they look good now, but the sad part is that by the time they reach 60, their skin will look like a leather bagand theyll be paying a dermatologist to try to reverse the damage," said Dr. Ted Daly, director of pediatric dermatology at NassauUniversity Medical Center in New York( images)(
  42. 42. The sun can damage eyes severelythe powerful rays have wavelengths shorter than visible light which makes them invisible to the naked eye – this is why we do notrealize how harmful it is to our eyesThe eye cornea can also suffer burns from the UVA raysCan cause vision loss or cataracts and eyelid cancers – 240 people died from eye lid cancer in 2008So always wear protective sunglasses(Skin Cancer by Bonnie Juettner)(
  43. 43. 3,000…The FDA estimates there are about 3,000 hospital emergency room cases a year for indoor tanning bed and lamp exposure(
  44. 44. P P R R E E V V E E N N T T I I O O NSeek shade between 10 am and 3 pm because the sun is the strongest in these hoursCover up with a broad-brimmed hat and UV-blocking sunglasses and protective clothing.Use sunscreen of at least 15 SPF daily - usually people only think about the using sunscreen when they are by a pool or at thebeach when actually they are exposed every dayIt is okay to apply more sun screen than you shouldThe Skin Cancer Foundation is urging the public to reach out to Congress to request $10 million for melanoma research last year(March 2009).DO NOT TAN INDOORS!(
  45. 45. A white shirt only has an SPF of 5-9Lycra (like rah) (fabric) nearly blocks 100% of all UV radiation( images)
  46. 46. This picture is of the proper cover up (Lycra)(Lycra bodysuit)(google images)
  47. 47. PEOPLE WITH FAIR SKIN ARE MORE PRONE TO SKIN CANCERPeople who have fair skin,light or red hair,and blue, green, or gray eyesare at highest risk of developing skin cancerAnd they should avoid over exposure(
  49. 49. If you were .. previously treated for skin cancerHave a family history of skin cancerHave moles/freckles/sunburn before tanning(
  50. 50. If you .. live or vacation at the beach or tropicsWork indoors all week and then get intense sun exposure on weekendsWork out doors or spend a lot of time out doors (like gardening)(
  51. 51. If you .. take medicines that lower your immunityTake oral contraceptivesTaking antibioticsHave had an organ transplant(
  52. 52. SPRAY TANNING ! The more SAFE way to be tan ! Skin cancer free ! Available in high-end salon/spas and some tanning salonsDHA (dihydroxyacetone) is the active ingredient – it is a colorless sugar that interacts with the dead skin cells, creating a tannedappearanceIt lasts about 5-7 days( images)
  53. 53. SELF TANNING LOTIONSYou can buy self tanning lotions at any drug store, super market, or tanning salon(google images)
  54. 54. MAKE UP ! Make up can give the appearance of a tan ! It is also skin cancer free ! You can do it at home!First use a foundation then bronzer then blush to accent cheekbones to make it look more natural(google images)
  55. 55. USE SUN SCREEN!A lot of people that I know do not use sun screen and it is extremely important to wear it(
  56. 56. How much sunscreen? The least that should be applied is a full shot glass..About 1 ounce OR more of sun screen should be applied all over the bodyMost people do not apply enough, so they do not have the proper protection( images)
  57. 57. 30 MINUTESSun screen should be applied 30 minutes before exposure to the sunIt allows the ingredients to fully bind to the skinMeaning the ingredients work as soon as you are exposed to the sunAlso make sure to cover the nose, cheek bones, top of the ears, forearms, back of the hands, and lips with sunscreen.(
  58. 58. READ THE LABEL! o Expiration date o Waterproof o Skin irritation o 2 types of sun screenExpiration date is important because the active compounds in the sun screen stop working after a period of time, so if you applysunscreen that is expired, it is not worth wearingIf swimming or sweating a lot, water proof sun screen should be usedWater proof sun screen provides at least 1 hour of protectionThere are now hypoallergenic sunscreens for people who break out or have irritationChemical Absorber Sun Screen/ tanning lotions- absorb rays (picture on top)Physical Reflector Sun Screen/ protective lotions - they filter the UVA rays, Usually thick, White or colored (picture on bottom)(Skin Cancer by Po-Lin-So)(
  59. 59. REAPPLY, REAPPLY, REAPPLY!Reapplying is just as important as the first application.Reapply every 2 hoursReapply right after swimming or heavily sweating( images)
  61. 61. Show iMovie
  62. 62. CONCLUSION !Do not tan indoors !Use sun protection daily !Perform self examinations !Remember that 1 in 5 Americans will develop skin cancer(
  63. 63. What I’ve Learned…Some of the most important things I learned that skin cancer is very serious when not taken care of properly. I also learned aboutthe other types of skin cancers, because the only one people talk about is melanoma. I learned that tanning beds are a lot moredamaging than the sun is, but we still need to use protection when in the sun. I didn’t know the proper way to use sunscreen until Iresearched it. I also learned that it is important to do self examinations because it is better to catch skin cancer early so that itdoes not spread..I actually gradually stopped tanning because of this project.. I went from tanning almost every day to not tanning at all, it hasprobably been over a month since I tanned indoors
  64. 64. WORK CITED ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! (Skin Cancer by Bonnie ! ( Juettner) ! ( ! (Skin Cancer by Po-Lin-So) ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! (google images) ! ( ! ( these should have been full bibliographic citations
  65. 65. CLASS ACTIVITY ! Black Light ! Word Search ! Raffle for Free facial at Tantra Salon & Day Spa with Carole for the first 5 that finish correctlyBlack light --- ask for volunteers to show their sun spots on their face because the face is what is always exposed and it isexposed the mostCrossword puzzle --- first 5 that finish the word search get to be in the raffle for the free facial with Carole she is an expert onsun damage