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Case Study #2 - Urolithiasis

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Case Study #2 - Urolithiasis

  1. 1. Case Study Urolithiasis
  2. 2. Signalment20 year old APHA geldingpink colored urine a!er exerciseintermittent colic episodes a!errunning and bucking
  3. 3. Normal Horse Urine is...Cloudy because horses excrete excess Calcium Carbonate crystals via the renal systemFoamy due to mucus secreted by the kidney that prevents the crystals %om sticking together
  4. 4. What Causes a Stone?Excess minerals Diets high in Calcium or Phosphorus supersaturate the urineDehydration Crystals are not kept in suspension and begin to stick together and form a stoneInfection Bacteria acts as a nidus for stone formationGenetics
  5. 5. When to suspect your horse has a stone?Symptoms vary based on size and location of the stone Difficulty or pain on urination Frequent sma( urinations especia(y when ridden Colic a!er exercise Bloody urineIf the stone becomes lodges in the urethra and completely obstructs urine flow,severe colic and death can result
  6. 6. DiagnosisUrinalysis blood in urine increased Calcium Carbonate CrystalsPelvic Palpation and Ultrasound
  7. 7. DiagnosisUrinalysis blood in urine increased Calcium Carbonate Crystals 6 cm stonePelvic Palpation and Ultrasound
  8. 8. DiagnosisUrinalysis blood in urine increased Calcium Carbonate CrystalsPelvic Palpation and Ultrasound
  9. 9. Diagnosis Ultrasound waves hit the stone and bounce back leaving a shadow below the edge of the stoneUrinalysis blood in urine increased Calcium Carbonate CrystalsPelvic Palpation and Ultrasound
  10. 10. Location of Bladder Stone
  11. 11. TreatmentChanging the pH of urine by changing the diet is not as successful forhorses as it is in humans and sma( animalsMost stones need to be surgica(y removedMethod of removal depends on size of stone Perineal Urethrostomy - remove pieces of stone a!er %agmentation with a laser Celiotomy - abdominal approach to the bladder to remove entire stone intact
  12. 12. PreventionConsult with a veterinary toensure your horse is fed abalanced diet with a correctCa:P ratioProvide access to %esh waterat a( times

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