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AlternativeDiabeticDietProposal
Running Head: Alternative Diabetic Diet Proposal
Comparison of Popular diets for the Manag...
New DiabeticDietProposal
1
Abstract
“Diabetes, a disorder of carbohydrate metabolism, is characterized by high blood gluco...
New DiabeticDietProposal
2
Comparison of Dietary Therapy for the Management of Type 2 Diabetes
Background
Type 2 Diabetes ...
New DiabeticDietProposal
3
same items. Medical providers and health websites also offer conflicting diabetic dietary advic...
New DiabeticDietProposal
4
Current Popular Diets
Many alternative diets are being adopted by individuals seeking to improv...
New DiabeticDietProposal
5
The Alkaline Acid diet promotes whole foods and is high in vegetables and fruit. This diet
cont...
New DiabeticDietProposal
6
happen in a person of any age”, reports WebMD (2010). Following a “diabetes diet" is not well
u...
New DiabeticDietProposal
7
Paleo Diet
The Paleo diet is high in protein, vegetables and fruit; however, largely eliminates...
New DiabeticDietProposal
8
Food Combining
The food combining diet is based on the theory that different food groups are di...
New DiabeticDietProposal
9
nutrients like vitamins, minerals, and fiber. A diet rich in vegetables and fruits often can su...
New DiabeticDietProposal
10
largely of them. Avoiding the saturated fats that elevate blood lipids and lead to heart disea...
New DiabeticDietProposal
11
Comparative Diabetic diets table 1.
Diets Fruits Veggies Grains Protein Dairy Sugars Fiber Fat...
New DiabeticDietProposal
12
Cons
-may be expensive
-meat lovers will not likeit
-art sweetner lovers won’t likeit
-clients...
New DiabeticDietProposal
13
Water -necessary for life, cellular
processes,metabolic processes,
eliminationofbody toxins
-r...
New DiabeticDietProposal
14
References
Consumer Compare (2012). The Atkins Diet: Retrieved from http://consumers
compare.o...
New DiabeticDietProposal
15
Jönsson, T., Granfeldt, Y., Ahrén, B., Branell,U.C., Pålsson, G., Hansson, A, Söderström,
M. a...
New DiabeticDietProposal
16
Schwartz, Z., Sheiner, E., Marko, R., Katorza, E., Thiery, J., Martin Fiedler, G., Blüher, M.,...
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Comparison of Popular diets for the Management of Type 2 Diabetes

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“Diabetes, a disorder of carbohydrate metabolism, is characterized by high blood glucose level and glycosuria resulting from dysfunction of pancreatic beta cells and insulin resistance; in advance stages of diabetes, metabolism of protein and lipids are altered. When patients are able to keep blood glucose levels closer to normal, fewer complications occur. Over 90% of known diabetic patients are Type 2 (Marieb, 2010) and diet plays a key role in the treatment. Nutrients needed for health, divide into carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and water. Most foods offer a combination of nutrients but some categories and larger quantities elevate glucose levels. This paper serves to compare the ADA low fat, low carbohydrate diet to the Paleo, the Atkins, the Alkaline Acid diets, and food combining; offering possible alternatives for the diabetic patient.

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Comparison of Popular diets for the Management of Type 2 Diabetes

  1. 1. AlternativeDiabeticDietProposal Running Head: Alternative Diabetic Diet Proposal Comparison of Popular diets for the Management of Type 2 Diabetes Kimmer Collison-Ris, MSN, FNP-C, WOCN American College of HealthCare Sciences Instructor: Dr. Marie Berger Nat 502: Summer 2012
  2. 2. New DiabeticDietProposal 1 Abstract “Diabetes, a disorder of carbohydrate metabolism, is characterized by high blood glucose level and glycosuria resulting from dysfunction of pancreatic beta cells and insulin resistance; in advance stages of diabetes, metabolism of protein and lipids are altered. Many factors like heredity, age, obesity, diet, sex, sedentary life style, socio economic status, hypertension and various stresses are involved in the etiology of diabetes mellitus” (Khan and Safdar , 2003). It is a significant health problem worldwide. Patients develop long-term vascular and neural problems and high blood cholesterol; leading to severe vascular complications: such as atherosclerosis, strokes, heart attacks, renal shutdown, gangrene, and blindness. The nerve damage that occurs leads to loss of sensation, impaired bladder function, and impotence. When patients are able to keep blood glucose levels closer to normal, fewer complications occur. Over 90% of known diabetic patients are Type 2 (Marieb, 2010) and diet plays a key role in the treatment. Nutrients needed for health, divide into carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and water. Most foods offer a combination of nutrients but some categories and larger quantities elevate glucose levels. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends that diabetics follow a low fat, low carbohydrate diet to help maintain their blood glucose levels. Unfortunately, this diet requires carbohydrate counting and allows for many non-nutritive food sources and limits foods that play a key role in immune health. Contrary to popular perception, there is no true diabetes diet (Mayo Clinic, 2012). Several other popular diet trends may hold more promise in helping the diabetic maintain closer to normal blood glucose levels and prevent the complications of the disease. This paper serves to compare the ADA low fat, low carbohydrate diet to the Paleo, the Atkins, the Alkaline Acid diets, and food combining; offering possible alternatives for the diabetic patient.
  3. 3. New DiabeticDietProposal 2 Comparison of Dietary Therapy for the Management of Type 2 Diabetes Background Type 2 Diabetes has been a rapidly emerging health problem, particularly in the last 20 years. Development of type 2 diabetes mellitus is directly related to diet (Khan and Safdar, 2003). Diet high in simple carbohydrate and lipoprotein carbohydrate and fat usually results in type 2 diabetes mellitus mellitus in the latter stages of life. Many dietary regimens have been proposed to address this serious problem of insulin resistance which leads to destruction of the cardiovascular, renal, retinal, and neuropathic systems. Initially, Type 2 Diabetes was treated by eliminating “sugars”; later a diet low on the glycemic index was proposed and used; next, a low fat diet was utilized; and recently, a low fat, low carbohydrate diet has become foundational. The United States ADA makes most of their dietary recommendations based upon lowering fasting blood glucose but these diets are typically unpalatable and lack the necessary antioxidants to combat disease. Nutritional Science may hold better promise for treating and reversing type 2 Diabetes than the traditional conventional medical approach. Type 2 Diabetes is a serious health condition that can benefit from specific dietary therapies and this paper serves to evaluate several popular diet trends that appear to hold promise. The ADA low fat, low carb diet forms the foundation for healthy eating among diabetes patients. This diet utilizes carbohydrate counting to impact blood sugar levels; diabetics are instructed to count the total carbohydrates they eat and to monitor their blood glucose levels frequently. When blood sugar levels are elevated, diabetics are coached to reduce the amount carbohydrates they consume for the next meal. Diabetic educators teach patients to choose carbohydrates in their eating plan that contain the most nutrients, (whole-grain breads/baked goods, high-fiber fruits and vegetables) but at the same time, patients are instructed to limit these
  4. 4. New DiabeticDietProposal 3 same items. Medical providers and health websites also offer conflicting diabetic dietary advice leading to further complexity and confusion. Food Trends “The staples of today’s diet: cereals, refined sugars, dairy products, fatty meats, and salted foods are like adding diesel fuel into a tank meant for standard gasoline” (Marieb, 2010). Since the 1970s, nutritional thinking has gone haywire. People no longer eat as many “real” foods and instead turn to commercial products and supplements. There has been a shift away from fruits, vegetables, and lean proteins in favor of grains carbohydrates. While carbohydrates are beneficial in terms of glycogen storage, they are not rich in other essential nutrients (Cordain, 2005) as a result, an individual’s overall health is weakened. The American Diet and Diabetes Diabetic researchers have correlated diet to chronic health conditions and disease states. They find that a diet largely composed of meats, fish, cheeses, breads, cakes, white sugar, confectioneries, pasta, white flour foods, greasy takeaways, chocolate, coffee, tea, wine, and beer; cause a multitude of health complaints. Unfortunately, many westerners and diabetics consume this kind of diet and have the fastest growing diabetic disease rates worldwide. Advocates of the Alkaline Acid diet state that the typical western diet creates body acidity and therefore leads to illness. Great Plains Research Center reports, ”The increase in diabetes is at least partly due to changes in diet practices that include the consumption of prepared or convenience foods” (August 1994). In diet therapy, diet composition, amount, distribution and time of food intake are important factors. A therapeutic diet must be palatable, must supply adequate amount of nutrients, and be formulated in a way to normalize body weight (Khan and Safdar, 2003).
  5. 5. New DiabeticDietProposal 4 Current Popular Diets Many alternative diets are being adopted by individuals seeking to improve their health; among them are the low fat, low carbohydrate diet, the Paleo diet, the Atkins Diet, the Alkaline Acid Diet, and food combining practices. The low fat, low carbohydrate diet is advocated by the ADA . The Atkins diet and the Paleo diets share similarities that stress high proteins, allow for high fat, but restrict dietary carbohydrates that elevate blood glucose. The Alkaline Acid Diet is unique, emphasizing that participants consume 80% alkaline-forming and 20% acid-forming foods/drinks daily to maintain a homeostatic balance. Food combining limits the types of foods eaten together, but also emphasizes combining proteins and carbohydrates to stabilize blood glucose. The Paleo Diet was designed after the concept of the Paleolithic age where the key belief is to only eat what cavemen had access to. Paleo restricts refined sugars, dairy products, grains, and legumes of all kinds and consists of the following whole foods: lean meat, fish, poultry, vegetables, and fruits; however, there is no specific recommendation regarding the quantity of food allowed. Paleo allows the individual to mold their own diet plan according to their specific goals, to eat when they feel hungry, and to stop when they are full. Consumers of this diet do lose weight quickly but long-term effects are virtually unstudied due to the diet’s newness (http://consumerscompare.org/paleo-diet-review/). However, researchers Frassetto, Schloetter, and Mietus-Synder (2009) found, “when switched to a paleolithic-type diet plan in patients with type 2 diabetes there was an increase in insulin sensitivity, and a great improvement in their lipid profiles with weight loss in less than 2 weeks”. Researchers Jönsson, Granfeldt, and colleagues (2009) also found that a Paleo diet given to Type 2 Diabetics over 3 months “improved glycemic control and several cardiovascular risk factors compared to a diabetes diet in patients“.
  6. 6. New DiabeticDietProposal 5 The Alkaline Acid diet promotes whole foods and is high in vegetables and fruit. This diet contains many non-starchy vegetables that promote weight loss, normalize blood sugars and insulin levels, and provide day-long energy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alkaline_diet); all beneficial for the diabetic patient. The Alkaline Acid diet promotes consumption of whole food vegetables and fruit and limits proteins, grains, and dairy products. It contains many non-starchy vegetables that promote weight loss, normalize blood sugars and insulin levels, and provide day- long energy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alkaline_diet). Low carbohydrate diets, like the Atkins diet, typically permit an unlimited consumption of fatty, processed,salty meats: bacon, sausage,hotdogs, lunch meats and dairy products: cream, butter,and cheese, while restricting the consumption of fruits and vegetables notes diet author Loren Cordain (2011). Methods I performed a search on information related to The American Diabetes Association low carb, low fat diet; the Paleo Diet, the Atkins Diet, the Alkaline Acid Diet, and food combining practices, and compared their components to the nutritional needs of a Type 2 Diabetic Individual based upon research compiled from Medscape, Pubmed, and the ADA. I utilized publications cited from: Google Scholar, LIRN, PubMed, and compiled terminology, dietary specifics, and diet trends from several popular diet and informational sites to create recommendations for a type 2 Diabetic. I excluded sales sites and blogs. Discussion Type 2 Diabetes “Type 2 diabetes occurs when the pancreas does not make enough insulin, the insulin does not work properly, or both. Being overweight makes type 2 diabetes more likely to occur. It can
  7. 7. New DiabeticDietProposal 6 happen in a person of any age”, reports WebMD (2010). Following a “diabetes diet" is not well understood but is deemed as one where the diabetic chooses foods that will work along with their activities and any medications they take to keep their blood sugar levels as close to normal as possible. The ADA low carb, low fat diet The American Diabetes Association low carb, low fat diet is comprised of complex carbohydrates, dairy, and animal protein; is high in processed fiber and is low in vegetables and fruit; nutritional supplements are often recommended. The ADA’s position is that carbo-hydrates are good for diabetes because they form the foundation the diabetes diet. Persons following this plan must count carbohydrates and correlate them with regular blood glucose readings to determine the daily amount allowed, which will vary from person to person. The consumption of sugary and fatty foods is generally restricted. The ADA diet is low in antioxidants and high in carbohydrates/grains (which can keep blood glucose elevated). Despite ADA endorsement, there is little consensus among medical and health professionals as to the effectiveness or specifics of following this type of diet. The Atkin’s diet The Atkins Diet is the original “low-carb” diet. Consumers can eat as many proteins and fats as they like but carbohydrates are restricted (http://consumerscompare.org/atkins-diet-review/, 2012). This diet is high in animal protein and can put great stress upon the kidneys as well as the heart as it also contains more saturated fat and processed proteins. It is poor in vegetables and fruit servings (which contain vital antioxidants), allows for minimal grain servings but does not advocate for non-processed whole foods.
  8. 8. New DiabeticDietProposal 7 Paleo Diet The Paleo diet is high in protein, vegetables and fruit; however, largely eliminates all grains and dairy servings. Protein consumption is restricted to wild lean meats because those foods lack carbohydrates commonly eaten by domesticated cattle. Non-starchy wild fruits and vegetables are utilized as key carbohydrates and the main fats in this diet are monounsaturated fats, polyunsaturated fats, and omega 3 oils. Diabetics following a Paleo diet should be conservative on the amount, type, and frequency of protein as too much protein leads to an increased risk of heart disease and stresses kidney function (webmd). However, a true Paleo diet advocates for non-processed lean proteins which are low in saturated fats. Alkaline Acid diet The alkaline acid diet (aka alkaline ash diet, alkaline diet, acid ash diet, and the acid alkaline diet) is a diet based on the belief that certain foods, when consumed, leave an alkaline residue, or ash, in the body( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki /Alkaline_diet). An alkaline diet emphasizes to a varying degree, fresh fruit, vegetables, roots and tubers, nuts, and legumes and recommends modest protein, grains and dairy that should only account for to 20% of the combined categories in the daily diet, reports Dr. Cathy Wong (2012). The theory behind the alkaline diet is that the diet should reflect a slightly alkaline pH level in the blood. Proponents of alkaline diets believe that a diet high in acid-producing foods is disrupts this balance and promotes the loss of essential minerals such as potassium, magnesium, calcium, and sodium, as the body tries to restore equilibrium. This imbalance is thought to make people prone to illness. “Signs of an acidic body are bloating, retaining water, cellulite, feelings of nervousness, stress, poor digestion, circles under the eyes, shedding hair, weight gain, low energy, fatigue, colds and flu”, reports Chyrene Pendleton, health writer for ehow.
  9. 9. New DiabeticDietProposal 8 Food Combining The food combining diet is based on the theory that different food groups are digested optimally when eaten in the following combinations: starches are believed to be absorbed best when they are eaten alone or with vegetables, because the pH of the digestive tract is alkaline. The digestion of proteins, requires stomach acid and if proteins and starches are combined, the digestive environment is neither acid nor alkaline enough for either group to be absorbed well. Many proponents of the food combining diet believe that this can lead to health problems such as poor digestion. Proteins: beans, nuts, seeds, meat, fish, poultry, and starches: grains, pasta, breads, cereal, rice, carrots, etc… should be eaten at separate meals. Proteins can be eaten with vegetables and starches can be combined with vegetables and fruits should be eaten alone, counsels Dr. Cathy Wong (2008). Conclusions: New Dietary Recommendations for Type 2 Diabetics Diabetics need a new dietary proposal other than the current ADA low carbohydrates, low fat diet which is high in processed foods, high in grain carbohydrates, and low in vegetables and fruits. Diabetics need a plan that is both palatable and high in antioxidants allowing for optimum immune system function and disease defense. Despite the idea that diabetics do not have to forgo all of the foods they love, they will have to rethink the kinds of food they put into their bodies, limit the amounts, and increase food frequency while expanding their whole foods repertoire. Food choices must reflect nutrient density and be devoid of over-processing, refined sugars, and non-nutrient snacks. There needs to be a return to whole foods consumption to return to close to baseline blood glucose levels. Even whole grain carbohydrates need to be limited due to their influence on sustained blood glucose elevation. Complex carbohydrates are not the only means of acquiring needed essential
  10. 10. New DiabeticDietProposal 9 nutrients like vitamins, minerals, and fiber. A diet rich in vegetables and fruits often can supply much these essential nutrients. A whole foods diet consisting mainly of many varieties of vegetables and fruits and lower in lean protein, grains, and dairy can be enjoyable and satisfying. Because most low carbohydrate diets permit the unlimited consumption of fatty and processed salty meats like bacon, sausage, hotdogs, lunch meats as well as dairy products like cream, butter, cheese; while restricting the consumption of fruits and vegetables; diabetics to be conservative in their use of these foods. A low carbohydrate diet consisting of these things can elevate blood lipids and contribute to heart disease, further leading to poor health. Protein choices should lean toward wild animal protein as the fat contains stearic acid not the palmitic acids found in domesticated proteins that raise blood cholesterol levels. Because, processed meats are high in omega 6, low in omega 3, and high in saturated fats) this should be consumed rarely. Everyone needs the proper balance of omega 3 and omega 6 oils but in moderation. Teaching diabetics to stear clear of marbled muscle from obese feedlot animals is necessary as these animals are typically insulin resistant and ill (Cordain, 2011). The ADA should consider adopting a modified Alkaline Acid type diet because researchers have shown that a diet high in vegetable and fruit servings combats disease due to high levels of antioxidants, phytochemicals, and fiber; which are known to fight heart disease, osteoporosis, and cancer. The belief that starchy vegetables are bad for diabetics is inaccurate. “Non starchy vegetables have been found to promote weight loss, normalize blood sugars and insulin levels, and provide day-long energy (Cordain, 2011) —all important to a Diabetic’s health. Diabetics should avoid processed and canned foods as they are nutrient poor and loaded with sodium. Foods should be fresh and sweet indicating a higher alkalinity. There is value in consuming the lean dietary proteins advocated by Paleo enthusiasts, but meals should not consist
  11. 11. New DiabeticDietProposal 10 largely of them. Avoiding the saturated fats that elevate blood lipids and lead to heart disease and neuropathy are crucial to preventing further advancement of diabetes. Incorporating some of the food combining practices can also benefit the diabetic to reduce blood glucose levels. When protein and fats are combined with starch, the absorption of starches is slowed which helps to maintain steady blood sugar and insulin levels (Wong, 2008). Diabetic educators often counsel their patients about eating starches and carbohydrates with a protein because of this. Finally, the Alkaline Acid and Atkins diets should not be used by people with acute or chronic kidney failure unless under a licensed health provider’s medical supervision (Wong, 2012), nor should the Paleo diet. Current new diet trends like the Atkins, the Paleo, and the Alkaline Acid diet all offer health benefits. Understanding how they work, what they contain, and utilizing variety may provide many more health benefits to diabetics than they currently have on the ADA’s low carbohydrate, low fat diet. Besides keeping blood glucose levels closer to normal; whole unprocessed foods are a key component to a therapeutic diabetic diet and they also offer greater flexibility, taste, and availability worldwide. Further research is needed to assess the significant impact long-term for diabetics and if proven superior, diabetic education and treatment will need to be transformed again for the healthcare provider working with these patients. Concise diet plan differences and specific food influences can be reviewed in the tables following this paper on Glucose stabilizing foods and Comparative DM diets (see table 1).
  12. 12. New DiabeticDietProposal 11 Comparative Diabetic diets table 1. Diets Fruits Veggies Grains Protein Dairy Sugars Fiber Fat Comments ADAlow carb, low fat diet + + ++ ++ ++ Artificia l Whole grains or Artificial Low Cons -restricts carbs -restricts fruits/veggies -low fat causes clients to fall“off-plan” -higher useofnitrate laden proteins -higher useofcommercialized fiber -higher useofdairy, possibly leading toweightgain re: hormones -no emphasis on whole grains -no emphasis on elimination ofrefined carbs/sugars -common reliance onartificial sweetners whichhave been shown to leadto sugar cravings/weight gain Pros -may be more affordable Atkins ++ ++ + +++ +++ Artificia l Whole grains or Artificial Mod - High Cons -tends to restrict healthy carbs -tends fruits/veggies (initially) -high proteincauses bonedemineralization -high proteincan causekidney troubles -higher useofnitrate laden proteins -higher useofdairy, laden w/hormones -higher use ofcheesecauses bone demin. -common reliance onartificial sweetners whichhave been shown to leadto sugar cravings/weight gain Pros -expensive - emphasis onwholegrains -mod fat helps clients stay “on-plan” -more restaurants haveofferings -high in omega 3/omega 6 Paleo +++ +++ - ++ - Natural Natural Mod Cons -eliminates wholegrains -high proteindiet (amounts variable) -eliminates yogurt -expensive -may have timeconsuming foodprep -difficult to eatout -less balanced diet -may increase hypertension -depending on saturatedfats,may keep lipids elevated Pros -attempts tousewholefoods -attempts toeliminate nitrates to a degree -eliminates all dairy -quick and steady weight loss experienced -high in omega 3/omega 6 -helps eliminate bloating -helps stabilizebloodglucose 80/20 Alkaline/ Acid Diet +++ +++ + ++ + Natural Natural + Pros -more balanced -whole foods diet -more bioavailablenutrients -better builder ofimmunesystem -loaded with antioxidants -naturalfibers help feeling of fullness -helps eliminate bloating -can stabilizeblood glucose quicker -can decreaselipid profiles -can decreasehypertension
  13. 13. New DiabeticDietProposal 12 Cons -may be expensive -meat lovers will not likeit -art sweetner lovers won’t likeit -clients will haveto rethink theway they prepare & view food Glucose StabilizingFoods Table 2 Substance Action Foods Reference comments Fruits -Contain more vitamins than minerals -alkalizing -cleansing (eliminatestoxins) All fruits Barimeus,P. (2009). The Top 100 Healing foods. London: Duncan Baird Publishers. Rec: 4-6 daily servings -digestedin 30min -Best eatenon their own Vegetables -higher in minerals All vegetables Barimeus,P. (2009). The Top 100 Healing foods. London: Duncan Baird Publishers. Rec: 4-6 daily servings Dried fruits -higher in mineralcontent Barimeus,P. (2009). The Top 100 Healing foods. London: Duncan Baird Publishers. See above Grains -primary source ofenergy -rich in slowreleasing carbs (unrefined) -rich in fiber -rich in vitamins, minerals,& phytochemicals B-vitamins Calcium Magnesium Trace elements -Unrefined grains -soluable fiber Quinoa (complete protein) Amaranth (complete protein) Barimeus,P. (2009). The Top 100 Healing foods. London: Duncan Baird Publishers. Rec: 2-4 daily servings -fiber aids in digestion Legumes& Beans -Excellent sourceofprotein -soluble fiber -insoluble fiber -ideal energy foods -help balance blood sugar -contain minerals -contain lecithin Beans/peas ofall kinds -lecithinis a brain nutrient Barimeus,P. (2009). The Top 100 Healing foods. London: Duncan Baird Publishers. Rec: 1-2 daily servings Nuts& Seeds -protein -minerals -vitamin E -contain healthy fats -help to lower cholesterol -balancehormones -reduces inflammation Nuts & seeds of all kinds Barimeus,P. (2009). The Top 100 Healing foods. London: Duncan Baird Publishers. Rec: 1-2 daily servings -vitamin Eis important for skin, reproductiveorgans,& circulation -calorieladen Herbs& spices -boost nutrient content ofmeats -good salt substitute -aid digestion Barimeus,P. (2009). The Top 100 Healing foods. London: Duncan Baird Publishers. Rec: use daily -Bay leaves help reducegas & bloating -add spices atbeginning ofcooking process -add herbs at endofcooking process -can be made intomedicinal teas Phytochemicals -Stimulatesimmunesystem -regulates hormones -antibacterial -anti-viral vegetables Barimeus,P. (2009). The Top 100 Healing foods. London: Duncan Baird Publishers. See foods containing Soluble fiber - stabilizes blood sugar -lowers highcholesterol Barimeus,P. (2009). The Top 100 Healing foods. London: Duncan Baird Publishers. See foods containing Insoluble fiber -regulates BMs Barimeus,P. (2009). The Top 100 Healing foods. London: Duncan Baird Publishers. See foods containing
  14. 14. New DiabeticDietProposal 13 Water -necessary for life, cellular processes,metabolic processes, eliminationofbody toxins -relieves headaches,anxiety, muscle pains, extremefatigue -essentialfor breathing as facilitates oxygenintake andCO2 exchange -lubricates the joints -slows aging -improves arthritis, glaucoma, cataracts, diabetes, hypoglycemia, Tap water Bottled water Filteredwater Artesianwater Balch, P. (2002). Prescription for NutritionalHealing: TheA-Z Guide to Supplements, 2nd Ed. New York: Avery Books. Rec: 8-10 (8oz glasses daily) Deficiency leads toexcess body fat, poor muscle tone, constipation, bone, joint & muscle soreness, & water retention
  15. 15. New DiabeticDietProposal 14 References Consumer Compare (2012). The Atkins Diet: Retrieved from http://consumers compare.org/atkins-diet-review/. Consumer Compare (2012). Diet Programs: The Paleo Diet. Retrieved from http://consumerscompare.org/paleo-diet-review/. Energise for Life (2012). Alkaline Diet Starter Guide. Retrieved from http://www.energiseforlife.com/alkaline-diet-guidelines.php Esoftarena ltd (2012). Alkaline Acid Diet. Which Alkaline Acid Diet to Follow? Retrieved from http://www.acidalkalinediet.com/alkaline-foods-list/which-alkaline-diet-food- chart-to-follow. Fitz, J., Sperling, E. and Fein, H. (1983). A Hypocaloric High-Protein Diet as Primary Therapy for Adults with Obesity-related Diabetes: Effective Long-Term Use in a Community Hospital. Diabetes Care. doi: 10.2337/diacare.6.4.328 Diabetes Care July/August 1983 vol. 6 no. 4 328-333. Frassetto, L. A., Schloetter, M., Mietus-Synder, M., Morris, R.C. and Sebastian, A. (2009). Metabolic and physiologic improvements from consuming a paleolithic, hunter-gatherer type dietHealth benefits of a Paleo diet. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 63, 947-955 (August 2009) | doi:10.1038/ejcn.2009.4 Herbtime (2012). Food Theory for Healthy Living. Retrieved from http://www.herbtime. com/15.html
  16. 16. New DiabeticDietProposal 15 Jönsson, T., Granfeldt, Y., Ahrén, B., Branell,U.C., Pålsson, G., Hansson, A, Söderström, M. and Lindeberg, S. (2009). Beneficial effects of a Paleolithic diet on cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes: a randomized cross-over pilot study. Published: 16 July 2009 Cardiovascular Diabetology 2009, 8:35 doi:10.1186/1475-2840-8-35. Khan, A. and Safdar, M. (2003). Role of Diet, Nutrients, Spices and Natural Products in Diabetes Mellitus Pakistan. Journal of Nutrition 2 (1): 1-12, 2003. Marieb, E. and Hoehm, K. (2010). Sweet Revenge, taming the DM monster. Pg 626. Human Anatomy & Physiology, 8th Edition. Pearson. Mayoclinic.com (2012). Type 2 Diabetes Complications. Retrieved from http://www.bing.com/health/article/mayo-MADS00585/Type-2- diabetes?q=type+2+diabetes+complications&qpvt=type+2+diabetes+complications#complicatio ns Paleo 101 (2012). The 15 rules of the Paleo diet. Retrieved from http://paleodietlifestyle.com/paleo-101/. Pendleton, C. (2012). The Best Diet to Increase Alkalinity. Ehow. Retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/way_5602859_diet-increase-alkalinity.html Raw Food Explained (2012). Food Combining Rules. Retrieved from http://www.rawfoodexplained.com/digestive-physiology-and-food-combining/food-combining- rules.html. Shai, I., Schwarzfuchs,D., Henkin, Y., Shahar, Witkow, S., Greenberg, I., Golan, R., Fraser, D., Bolotin, A., Vardi, H., Tangi-Rozental, O., Zuk-Ramot, R., Sarusi, B., Brickner, D.,
  17. 17. New DiabeticDietProposal 16 Schwartz, Z., Sheiner, E., Marko, R., Katorza, E., Thiery, J., Martin Fiedler, G., Blüher, M., Stumvoll, M. and Stampfer, M.J. (2008). Weight Loss with a Low-Carbohydrate, Mediterranean, or Low-Fat Diet. for the Dietary Intervention Randomized Controlled Trial (DIRECT) Group. New England Journal of Medicine 2008; 359:229-241July 17, 2008. Taylor, J. (2012 ). Paleo Eating & Lifestyle: The Rules. Retrieved from http://paleozonenutrition.com/6-week-paleo-trial/paleo-trial-rules/ The Center for Great Plains Studies (1994). Diet and Disease on the Plain: Diabetes Among the Omaha. Published in Great Plains Research 4:2 (August 1994). Tribe, D. (2011). The 80/20 Alkaline-Acid Food Theory for Healthy Living. "Healthy Options" No 42. Retrieved from http://healthnews-nz.com/80-20.html Webmd (2012). 10 Diabetes Diet Myths. Retrieved from http://diabetes.webmd. com/10- diabetes-diet-myths. Wikepedia: Alkaline Diet (2011). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alkaline diet. Wong, C. (2008). Food Combining. About.com Guide. Updated January 31, 2008Retrieved from http://altmedicine.about.com/cs/digestiveproblems/a/Food Combining.htm. Wong, C. (2012). Alkaline Acid Diet. About.com Alternative Medicine. Retrieved from http://altmedicine.about.com/od/popularhealthdiets/a/alkalinediet.htm.

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