Representation

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Representation

  1. 1. RepresentationExam: Section A
  2. 2. A media StudiesKey Concept
  3. 3. A media StudiesKey ConceptRe-presentation
  4. 4. Representation is…
  5. 5. Representation is…The process by which themedia presents the “realworld” to an audience
  6. 6. Media texts constructmeanings about theworld…
  7. 7. • photographs
  8. 8. • photographs• films
  9. 9. • photographs• films• websites
  10. 10. • photographs• films• websites• posters
  11. 11. • photographs• films• websites• posters• television programmes
  12. 12. all texts helping us tomake sense of the world
  13. 13. they construct meaningand re-present the world
  14. 14. stereotypes
  15. 15. stereotypesWhat are they?
  16. 16. stereotypesWhat are they?Why are they important?
  17. 17. stereotypesa form of representation in whichgroups of people are characterisedby attributing to them qualities thatsome individuals possess and whichlater become associated with thewhole group.
  18. 18. a stereotype - punks
  19. 19. a stereotype - punks
  20. 20. a stereotype - punks
  21. 21. a stereotype - punkspunks are associated with safetypins in their clothes, body piercings,Mohican hair cuts and aggressivebehaviour.This is a stereotype of a punk
  22. 22. a stereotype - punkspunks are associated with safetypins in their clothes, body piercings,Mohican hair cuts and aggressivebehaviour.This is a stereotype of a punk
  23. 23. but many punks are not like this and many people whodress and behave this way are not punks.
  24. 24. single mother
  25. 25. single mother
  26. 26. single mother
  27. 27. single mother
  28. 28. stereotypeswidely circulated ideas aboutparticular social groups
  29. 29. stereotypeswidely circulated ideas aboutparticular social groups
  30. 30. stereotypeswidely circulated ideas aboutparticular social groups
  31. 31. stereotypeswidely circulated ideas aboutparticular social groups
  32. 32. stereotypeswidely circulated ideas aboutparticular social groups
  33. 33. ACTIVITY Working in pairs, use Google images to find another typical stereotype and then show that it is not always true
  34. 34. stereotypesWhy are they important?
  35. 35. stereotypesthey are an essentialtool for media producers
  36. 36. stereotypesthey are an essentialtool for media producersthis means that they areessential for you in your practicalcoursework
  37. 37. stereotypesthey are an essentialtool for media producersthey are essential for youin your practical coursework
  38. 38. stereotypesused as a shorthand to condensewhat could be a lot of complexinformation and detail into a characterwho is easily recognised andunderstood
  39. 39. stereotypesused as a shorthand to condensewhat could be a lot of complexinformation and detail into a characterwho is easily recognised andunderstood
  40. 40. stereotypesused as a shorthand to condensewhat could be a lot of complexinformation and detail into a characterwho is easily recognised andunderstood
  41. 41. stereotypesAn essential tool for mediaproducers because theymake it easier for the audience tounderstand the character and his orher role in the text
  42. 42. 4The characteristics of a stereotype
  43. 43. stereotype characteristics categorisation and evaluation1 of the group being stereotyped
  44. 44. stereotype characteristics emphasis on some easily2 grasped features of the group, suggesting that these are the cause of the group’s position
  45. 45. stereotype characteristics A tendency to evaluate the3 group negatively
  46. 46. stereotype characteristics A tendency to evaluate the3 group negatively (not always the case)
  47. 47. stereotype characteristics an insistence on absolute4 distances and boundaries (from other groups) where the idea of a spectrum of difference is more appropriate
  48. 48. representation is…not just about how wesee people, places andobjects but how weinterpret what we see
  49. 49. representation is…not just about how wesee people, places andobjects but how weinterpret what we see
  50. 50. interpretation…depends as much on whowe are as whatwe, see, hear or read.
  51. 51. interpretation…we all see things differently
  52. 52. We all see thingsdifferently, depending on…
  53. 53. We all see thingsdifferently, depending on… • our culture
  54. 54. We all see thingsdifferently, depending on… • our culture • our education
  55. 55. Questions weshould alwaysask…
  56. 56. How accurate arerepresentations?
  57. 57. How accurate arerepresentations?What is the truth?
  58. 58. How accurate arerepresentations?What is the truth?Is it possible to be whollyaccurate?
  59. 59. A film representation ofa character consists 4of at least factors
  60. 60. representation consists of… the character - gender,1 ethnicity, age, sexuality and look
  61. 61. representation consists of… the collective cultural2 background and views of the producer/director and institution
  62. 62. representation consists of… the audience’s reaction3 to the character
  63. 63. representation consists of… the audience’s reaction3 to the character (also depends on cultural background)
  64. 64. representation consists of… When and where the4 representation takes place.
  65. 65. representation consists of… When and where the4 representation takes place. Cinema/home/laptop/ classroom/friend’s house, etc.
  66. 66. representation consists of… When and where the4 representation takes place. (the viewing context)
  67. 67. How far can we trust therepresentation to be anaccurate portrayal?
  68. 68. In whose interest is it thatthe representation ismade in this way?
  69. 69. How do we relate tothe representations?
  70. 70. mediation
  71. 71. mediationThe process by which a media textrepresents an idea, issue orevent to an audience
  72. 72. a real event mediation audience
  73. 73. mediationSeeing something through a lenschanges the perspective, shape andsize of a person and so how theaudience perceives that person.It has been mediated
  74. 74. 3There areto mediation elements
  75. 75. mediation… SELECTION1 Whatever ends up on the screen much more will have been left out
  76. 76. mediation… ORGANISATION2 the various elements will be organised carefully in ways that real life is not
  77. 77. mediation… ORGANISATION2 real life is chaotic and often random – film and TV is not
  78. 78. mediation… ORGANISATION2 real life is chaotic and often random – film and TV is not this leads to…
  79. 79. mediation… FOCUSING3 The audience is encouraged towards concentrating on one aspect of the text in favour of the others.
  80. 80. mediation… FOCUSING3 Panning, zooming, cutting to a close-up, directing the audience’s attention
  81. 81. mediation is … • SELECTION
  82. 82. mediation is … • SELECTION • ORGANISATON
  83. 83. mediation is … • SELECTION • ORGANISATON • FOCUSING
  84. 84. mediation is … • SELECTION
  85. 85. mediation is … • SELECTION • EMPHASIS
  86. 86. mediation is … • SELECTION • EMPHASIS • CONTROL
  87. 87. making any media text is… • SELECTION • EMPHASIS • CONTROL

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