“We talk a lot and talk pretty well about race, but we don’t listen enough. And I’m hoping that if welisten to each other, we can begin to … make this society of ours into less and less of a country of strangers.” - David Shipler
Appreciation of our differences starts with the acknowledgment of our similarities. -Peter Reese
SOCIOLOGY AND ANTHROPOLOGY WITH FAMILY PLANNINGTHE STUDY OF CULTURE 04 December 2012 College of the Holy Spirit Manila Mendiola Street, Malacañang Palace Complex, Manila, Metro Manila
DEFINITION OF CULTURETYPES AND COMPONENTSOF CULTURECHARACTERISTICSOF CULTURE PRESENTATION OUTLINEADAPTATIONS OFCULTUREFUNCTIONS OF CULTURE
The word culture is derived from the Latin word culture which means ‘care’, or cultus, meaning ‘civilization.’WHAT IS CULTURE?
DEFINITION “Culture refers to that complex whole which included knowledge, beliefs, art, morals, law, customs and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society.”SIR EDWARD TAYLOR
As we go from place to place, we will note differences inbehavior and beliefs among people with regard to dressing, foodand cooking, love, courtship, marriage practices, way ofworshipping God, earning a living, leisure time activities and thelike. The Chinese, Japanese, the Indians, the Arabs, the American,the Russian – people, in general – are brought up differently,thus they acquire different ways of behaving. These ways ofbehaving peculiar to a group of people comprise whatsociologists call CULTURE.
12 ASPECTS OF CULTUREHistory-time period and conditions underwhich a group migrated or immigrated.Social Status Factors – education, occupation,incomeSocial Group Interaction Patterns: Intra-group(within group relations) and Inter-group(between-group relations)Value Orientation – standards by whichmembers of a culture judge their personalactions and those of others.Language and Communication: Verbal andNonverbal
12 ASPECTS OF CULTUREFamily Life Processes – gender roles, familydynamicsHealing Beliefs and Practices – attitudes andbeliefs about health.Religion – spiritual beliefs and practicesArt and Expressive Forms – art, music, stories,dance, etc.Diet/Foods – preferred food eaten by groups.Recreation – activities, sports for leisure, etc.Clothing – types, styles, and extent of bodycoverings.
TYPES OF CULTURE MATERIAL Includes physical objects or artifacts – things that human beings create by altering the natural environment. They are easy to observe and are often impressive. Examples of these are dwelling units, tools, weapons and implements, clothing, stone axes, wooden chair, book, jet airplanes, and other concrete elements of culture that can be perceived as an important part or product of any behavior system of man, past, present and future. NON-MATERIAL Consists of words people use, the habits they follow, the ideas, customs, behavior, of any society profess and to which they strive to conform. Laws, techniques, lifestyle, and knowledge are included, too. The non-material aspect of culture is the meaning and substance inherent in culture.
PHILIPPINE OF CULTURE MANANANGGAL/ASWANG/TIKTIK described as being a hideous, scary vampire- like creature , capable of severing its upper torso in order to fly into the night with huge bat-like wings to prey on unsuspecting, pregnant women in their homes; using an elongated proboscis-like tongue, it sucks the hearts of fetuses or the blood of an unsuspecting, sleeping victim.
PHILIPPINE OF CULTURE Penanggalan- A vampire akin to Manananggal from the Malay peninsular Krasue—Floating vampiric female head and entrails that is similar to a manananggal Chonchon-mapuche creature that also detaches its head Nukekubi—Japanese creature that also detaches its head to feed on victims
PHILIPPINE OF CULTURE HALO HALO Ingredients include boiled kidney beans, garbanzos, coconut milk and plantains caramelized in sugar, gulaman, tapioca, nata de coco, sweet potato Ais kacang - a similar dessert from Malaysia and Singapore Cendol - a similar dessert from Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia and Singapore Es campur - a similar dessert from Indonesia Es teler - a similar dessert from Indonesia Sâm bu long - a similar dessert from Vietnam Kakigōri - a similar dessert from Japan Baobing - a similar dessert from China Patbingsu - a similar dessert from Korea
PHILIPPINE OF CULTURE MANGOcultivators include North, South andCentral America, the Caribbean,south, west and central Africa,Australia, China, Pakistan,Bangladesh, and Southeast Asia.
PHILIPPINE OF CULTURE BALUT They are common food in countries in Southeast Asia, such as Laos, Cambodia - pong tia koon and Vietnam - trứng vịt lộn or hột vịt lộn
PHILIPPINE OF CULTURETerraced paddy fields are usedwidely in rice farming in east,south, and southeast Asia, as wellas other places.China, Nepal, Vietnam, Indonesia
COMPONENTS OF CULTURE NORMS VALUES LANGUAGE
COMPONENTS OF CULTURE NORMS Guides or models of behavior which tell us what is proper and which are appropriate or inappropriate, right or wrong. They set limits within which individuals may seek alternatives or ways to achieve their goals. Norms regulate people’s behavior in a given society. -usually in the form of rules, standards, or prescriptions followed by people who follow certain standards or roles. VALUES LANGUAGE
COMPONENTS OF CULTURE NORMS FORMS OF NORMS: FOLKWAYS MORES LAWS VALUES LANGUAGE
COMPONENTS OF CULTURE NORMS FORMS OF NORMS: FOLKWAYS -are customary patterns of everyday life that specify what is socially correct and proper in everyday life. -customary ways. They are the repetitive or the typical habits and patterns of expected behavior followed within a group of community. VALUES LANGUAGE
COMPONENTS OF CULTURE NORMS FORMS OF NORMS: MORES -are seen as extremely important and are considered vital for the group’s welfare and survival. -while folkways specify correct and proper behavior, mores define what is morally right and morally wrong. VALUES LANGUAGE
COMPONENTS OF CULTURE NORMS FORMS OF NORMS: LAWS -are norms that are enforced formally by a special political organization. They are formalized social norms enacted by people who have been vested through the machinery of the state. VALUES LANGUAGE
COMPONENTS OF CULTURE NORMS VALUES MAJOR VALUE ORIENTATIONS: achievement and success activity and work moral orientation humanitarianism efficiency and practicality LANGUAGE
COMPONENTS OF CULTURE NORMS VALUES FILIPINO MAJOR VALUE ORIENTATIONS: Emotional closeness and security in the family. The authority value. Economic and social betterment. Patience, suffering, endurance. LANGUAGE
COMPONENTS OF CULTURE NORMS VALUES LANGUAGE -refers to a system of symbols that have specific and arbitrary meaning in a given society.
COMPONENTS OF CULTURE NORMS VALUES LANGUAGE The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, which is the idea that language structures thought, and that ways of looking at the world are embedded in language, supports this premise.
COMPONENTS OF CULTURE NORMS VALUES LANGUAGE The degree of cultural diversity in finger counting has been grossly underestimated. Europeans, for example, tend to begin counting with the thumb of their left hand. People from the Middle East, however, often begin counting with the little finger of their right hand. If you hail from China, or North America, youre more likely to begin counting on an index finger. The Japanese are the odd ones out; they tend to start from an open- hand position, and count by closing their fingers into a fist, beginning with the little finger.
COMPONENTS OF CULTURE NORMS VALUES LANGUAGE FASHIONS, FAD, CRAZES
COMPONENTS OF CULTURE A taboo is a norm engrained so deeply that even thinking about violating it evokes strong feelings of disgust, horror, or revulsion for most people.
COMPONENTS OF CULTURE Sanctions are positive or negative reactions to the ways that people follow or disobey norms, including rewards for conformity and punishments for norm violators. Sanctions help to establish social control, the formal and informal mechanisms used to increase conformity to values and norms and thus increase social cohesion.
CHARACTERISTICS OF CULTURE •CULTURE IS LEARNED AND ACQUIRED •CULTURE IS ACQUIRED AND TRANSMITTED •CULTURE IS SOCIAL •CULTURE IS IDEATIONAL •CULTURE GRATIFIES HUMAN NEEDS •CULTURE IS ADAPTIVE •CULTURE TENDS TOWARD INTEGRATION •CULTURE IS CUMULATIVE
ADAPTATIONS OF CULTURE •PARALLELISM •DIFFUSION •FISSION •CONVERGENCE
FUNCTIONS OF CULTURE •CULTURE AS A CATEGORY •CULTURE AS A TOOL IN PREDICTION •CULTURE PROVIDES INDIVIDUALS WITH THE MEANING AND DIRECTION OF HIS EXISTENCE
MODES OF ACQUIRING CULTURE •IMITATION •INDOCTRINATION •CONDITIONING
TAKE AWAY POINTSCulture is a lens through which we view the worldaround us.It is also a filter that we are (mostly) unaware modifiesour perception of reality.Culture is given to us from our ancestors and werecreate it through interaction with other people.
CULTURAL DIFFERENCESValues represent personal or socially preferablemodes of conduct or states of existence that areenduring. Why doesn’t McDonald’s sell hamburgers in India?
CULTURAL DIFFERENCESWhen Gerber started selling baby food inAfrica, they used US packaging with thesmiling baby on the label. In Africa, companies routinely putpictures on labels of what’s inside, sincemany people can’t read.
CULTURAL DIFFERENCESPepsi’s “Come Alive With the PepsiGeneration” in Chinese translated into “Pepsi Brings Your Ancestors Back Fromthe Grave”
CULTURAL DIFFERENCESCoca-Cola’s name in China was first readas “Kekoukela”, meaning “Bite the waxtadpole” or “female horse stuffed withwax”, depending on the dialect. Coke then researched 40,000 charactersto find a phonetic equivalent “kokoukole”, translating into “happiness in themouth.”
CULTURAL STEREOTYPES Cultural stereotypes: values andbehaviors considered typical of a culture Are they valuable? Yes, if they reduce uncertaintyabout what expatriate can expect. No, if used to label an individualunlike the stereotype